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Mid 19th Century Warfare: The American Civil War

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To understand the character of the Civil War. To comprehend. its linkage to past wars and ... Clausewitz and the Civil War. Why did it take so long. For the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mid 19th Century Warfare: The American Civil War


1
Mid 19th Century WarfareThe American Civil War
  • 8801, Lesson 6

2
Educational Objectives
  • To understand the character of the Civil War
  • To comprehend
  • its linkage to past wars and
  • its preview of future wars.

3
Fundamental Questions about War
  • How are armies formed?
  • Why do wars occur?
  • Why do armies fight?
  • How do armies fight?
  • What is the relationship between the armed forces?
  • Who directs their employment?
  • How are armies sustained?
  • How are wars ended?
  • How is their period distinctive?
  • What non-military factors affected the outcome?

4
Characteristics
  • Bloodiest war
  • A national war
  • Improved technology
  • Leadership slow to adapt
  • Large, unwieldy armies
  • Shift to maneuver warfare
  • More total in conduct
  • A transitional conflict
  • Three theaters

5
Theaters
Eastern
Western
Trans-Mississippi
6
Causes of the War
  • The extension of slavery into new lands
  • The rise of the abolition movement
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • The Dred Scott Decision
  • The Election of 1860

7
Politics and Policy
  • For the Union
  • Complete suppression
  • Extinction of the CSA
  • Political Considerations
  • North divided
  • Quick victory needed
  • For the Confederacy
  • Independence
  • Preservation of Old South
  • Political Considerations
  • Territorial integrity
  • Foreign recognition
  • Hold the West

8
Military Tasks
  • Union
  • Reassert authority
  • Create an army
  • Offensive operations
  • Not war
  • CSA
  • Create a country, a government, an army
  • Defend territory
  • Win a victory in North

9
Military theories
  • Dennis Hart Mahan
  • Henry Halleck
  • P.G.T. Beauregard
  • Jomini

10
Strategies
  • Winfield Scott
  • Irwin McDowell
  • George McClellan
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Jefferson Davis
  • Robert E. Lee

11
Strategy and Tactics
  • Changed conditions
  • Battlefield tactics

12
Military Affairs
  • Preparedness
  • Command Arrangements
  • Political generals
  • Rank Structure
  • Battlefield conditions

13
Technology
  • The rifled musket
  • The telegraph
  • The railroad

14
Generalship
  • Grant
  • A fortunate accident
  • Working at task
  • Concerted coordinated plan

15
Interpretations
  • Williams and Donald
  • Archer Jones
  • Joseph L. Harsh

16
Issues for consideration
  • Causes of the Civil War
  • Character of the war
  • Theater(s) of war
  • Clausewitz and the Length of the War
  • Technology

17
Causes of the Civil War
  • Why do wars occur?
  • Why do armies fight?

18
Character of the war
  • Limited or unlimited war?
  • Did its character change?
  • Why and how?
  • Reflection of 19th Century military institutions?
  • Reflection of the American War of War?

19
Theaters of war
  • Eastern
  • Western
  • Trans-Mississippi

20
Clausewitz and the Civil War
  • Why did it take so long
  • For the North to win?
  • For the South to lose?
  • Military problems and
  • The trinity?
  • Policy and politics?

21
Role of Technology
  • The war?
  • In enhancing the Norths ability?
  • In increasing the Norths vulnerability?
  • Grants vulnerability at Vicksburg?
  • Effect of the rifled musket?

22
Issues for consideration
  • Causes of the Civil War
  • Character of the war
  • Theater(s) of war
  • Clausewitz and the Length of the War
  • Technology

23
Next Week
  • Later 19th Century Warfare Prussia

24
Points to remember
  • The Civil War
  • Union Strategy
  • Living off the land
  • Sheridan Sherman
  • As view of future wars

25
RememberTracers work both ways
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