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An Introduction to Buddhist Thought YBI01

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Form was transformed to become life, and now birth has transformed to become death. ... Ch'an is Chinese adaptation of Sanskrit dhyana, or meditation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: An Introduction to Buddhist Thought YBI01


1
An Introduction to Buddhist Thought (YBI01)
  • Prof Jay L Garfield
  • Department of Philosophy, Smith College
  • Department of Philosophy
  • University of Melbourne
  • Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies
    (Sarnath, India)
  • Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies,
    University of Canterbury (visiting)

2
Introduction to Buddhist Thought
  • Buddhist Fundamentals
  • The Pali tradition
  • Madhyamaka in India and Tibet
  • Yogåcåra
  • Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Buddhism in the West

3
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

4
Taoist Ideas Into Buddhism
  • A Tao is a way, or a guiding discourse.
  • Questions one can ask about a Tao
  • Taos and spontanaiety
  • The Great Tao
  • Tao and Development
  • Tao and emptiness multiplicity and convention

5
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • No Tao that can be spoken is a constant Tao.
  • No name that can be used is a constant name.
  • The nameless is the origin of heaven and earth.
  • The named is the mother of all things.
  • There is always being, and always non-being, and
    we see their result.
  • (Tao Te Ching I)

6
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • When ordinary people know beauty as beauty, they
    recognise ugliness.
  • When they know the good as good, they recognise
    evil....
  • Therefore, the sage manages without action
  • And spreads doctrines without words.
  • All things arise and he does not turn away from
    them.
  • He produces them but does not take possession of
    them.
  • (Tao Te Ching II)

7
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • Thirty spokes are united around the hub to make a
    wheel. But it is on its non-being that the
    function of the carriage depends.
  • Clay is molded to form a pot. But it is on its
    non-being that the function of the pot depends.
  • Doors and windows are cut out to make a room.
    But it is on its non-being that the function of
    the room depends.
  • Therefore, turn being to advantage and turn
    non-being into function. (Tao te ching 11)

8
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • The five colours cause ones eyes to be blind.
  • The five tones cause ones ears to be deaf.
  • The five flavours cause ones palate to be
    spoiled.
  • Racing and hunting cause ones mind to be mad.
  • Goods that are hard to get impede ones
    activities.
  • Therefore the sage is concerned with the belly
    and not the eyes he rejects one but accepts the
    other. (Tao te ching 12)

9
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • The pursuit of learning is to increase day by
    day.
  • The pursuit of the Tao is to decrease day by day.
    (Tao te ching 48)
  • He who knows does not speak.
  • He who speaks does not know. (Tao te ching 56)

10
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • Do not be famous. Do not be full of plans. Do
    not take things over. Do not be a master of
    knowledge. Personally realise the infinite
    perfectly and travel in the signless realm.
    Exercise everything you have received from nature
    without taking any subjective viewpoint. In
    short, be empty.
  • The mind of a perfect man is a mirror. It does
    not lean forward or back in response to things.
    It responds to things, but conceals nothing.
    Therefore, it can deal with things without being
    injured. (Chuang Tzu 7)

11
A Few Remarks from Taoist Literature
  • When she died, how could I help being affected?
    But as I think the matter over, I realize that
    originally she had no life and not only no life,
    she has no form not only no form, she had no
    spirit.... Form was transformed to become life,
    and now birth has transformed to become death.
    This is like the rotation of the four seasons.
    Now she sleeps in the universe. For me to weep
    and wail would be to show my ignorance of
    destiny. Therefore, I do not. (Chuang Tzu 9)

12
Confucian Ideas into Buddhism
  • Social dimension of personhood
  • Cardinal virtue of humaneness
  • Cardinal virtue of ritual propriety
  • Together represent a model of self-cultivation
  • But that self-cultivation is a self-cultivation
    of an essentially relational and not
    self-subsistent self

13
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

14
Tathågatagårbha Doctrine
  • When Buddhism enters China, Madhyamaka and
    Yogåcåra enter together not as rivals but as
    compatible.
  • Taoist ideas made the alåya-vijñåna look real
    interesting, as well as emptiness as an origin
  • The idea that the emptiness and primordial purity
    of the alåya-vijñåna is the potential for
    Buddhahood and the primal nature of mind led to
    the doctrine that our fundamental nature is this
    Buddha-nature and that the project of
    enlightenment is a return or a recovery, not an
    achievement.

15
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

16
The Tien Tai School (Chiih, 6th c)
  • The mind is primordially pure, is reality, is
    Buddha-nature, is the storehouse of all
    potentials.
  • There are three truths
  • the provisional truth in which phenomena are
    discriminated
  • The truth of emptiness in which there are no
    phenomena and no discrimination
  • The truth of the middle, in which the first two
    truths are one. All of these are mind.

17
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

18
The Hua Yen School (Fa-tsang (7-8th C)
  • Four truths
  • Realm of phenomena
  • Realm of emptiness
  • Realm of the harmony of phenomena and emptiness
  • Realm of interpenetration of all things
  • Interpenetration is the key idea on Hua Yen all
    phenomena are found in one another.

19
The Golden Lion
  • Gold has no lion in it craftsmen cause the lion
    to exist
  • The gold is all that is real not the lion
  • The lion exists based on imputation the gold
    does not
  • The gold is identical to the lion
  • The fact that there is only gold does not mean
    that there is no lion
  • The fact that the lion is imputed does not mean
    that it is not real
  • The fact that the gold and lion are identical
    does not mean that they are the same.
  • The fact that they are different does not mean
    that they are not identical!

20
The interpenetration of Being and Non-Being
  • How old is the bell?

21
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

22
Chan/Zen Buddhism
  • Chan is Chinese adaptation of Sanskrit dhyana,
    or meditation.
  • Arises as a back-to-practice movement, but with
    an emphasis on practice as realisation.
  • Brings into foreground Taoist anti-nomianism and
    emphasis on spontaneity.
  • Two schools divide over gradual vs sudden
    enlightenment.

23
Chan Texts The Platform Stra of Hui Neng
  • In response to the fifth patriarchs challenge to
    write the verses that would earn the robe of the
    patriarch, the head monk Shen hsiu composed this
    verse
  • Shen-hsiu
  • The body is the bodhi tree.
  • The mind is the stand of a bright mirror.
  • At all times diligently wipe it.
  • Do not allow it to become dusty.

24
Chan Texts The Platform Stra of Hui Neng
  • Hui Nengs reply
  • Bodhi has no tree.
  • Nor has the mirror any stgand.
  • Buddha nature is forever clear and pure.
  • Where is there any dust?
  • The mind is the bodhi tree.
  • The body is the stand of a bright mirror.
  • The bright mirror is originally clear and pure.
  • Where has it been defiled by any dust?

25
Chan Texts The Platform Stra of Hui Neng
  • What is meant by emptiness of characteristics?
    Emptiness of characteristics means to be free
    from characteristics while in the midst of them.
    Emptiness of thought means not to be carried away
    by thought in the process of thought.
    Nonattachment is mans original nature. Thought
    after thought occurs without remaining. Past,
    present and future thoughts continue without
    end... At no time should a single instant of
    thought be attached to any phenomenon. If one
    single instant of thought is attached to
    anything, then every thought will be attached.
    That is bondage. But if... no thought is
    attached to anything, that is freedom.

26
Chan Texts The Platform Stra of Hui Neng
  • Lao Tzu No speakable Tao is a constant Tao.
  • Hui Neng All truth is uncontainable and
    inexpressible.
  • Lao Tzu Five colors make one blind five tones
    deaf.
  • The pursuit of the Tao is to decrease day by
    day.
  • Hui Neng Bodhisattvas should leave behind all
    phenomenal distinctions and awaken... by not
    allowing the mind to depend on notions evoked
    by sounds, odors, flavors, touch or any
    qualities...

27
Joshus KØan The KØan
  • A monk once asked Joshu, Does a dog have
    Buddha-nature?
  • Joshu said, Mu.
  • (Mu, not K, is important here. It translates
    wu, the Taoist non-being, or ßunyatå (emptiness),
    and rejects both yes and no, rejecting the very
    question and its presuppositions.)

28
Joshus KØan Mumons Commentary
  • The dog! The Buddha-nature!
  • The truth is manifested in full.
  • A moment of yes-and-no.
  • Lost are your body and soul!
  • In studying Zen, one must pass the barriers set
    up by the ancient Zen Masters... Now tell me,
    what is the barrier of the Zen masters? Just
    this Mu. ... Day and night work intently at it.
    Do not attempt nihilistic or dualistic
    interpretations... With all your might work at
    this Mu and be Mu...

29
Joshus KØan Yasutani RØshis commentary
  • The opinions you hold and your worldly knowledge
    are your delusions. Included also are
    philosophical and moral concepts, no matter how
    lofty, as well as religious beliefs and dogmas,
    not to mention innocent, commonplace thoughts.
    In short, all conceivable ideas are embraced
    within the term delusions and as such are a
    hindrance to the realization of your
    essential-nature. So dissolve them with the
    fireball of Mu.

30
Joshus KØan Shibayama Roshis Commentary
  • The experience of the Buddha-nature itself is
    creatively expressed here by Mu. Although
    literally, Mu means no, hin this case it points
    to the incomparable enlightenment which
    transcends both yes and no, to the religious
    experience of truth one can attain when he casts
    away his discriminating mind. It has nothing to
    do with the dualisti interpretation of yes or no,
    being or nonbeing. It is truth itself, the
    absolute itself.

31
Joshus KØan Sasaki Roshi again
  • The human being, believing he belongs to the
    subjective side and standing in the small mind,
    observes absolute being as an object. Actually,
    that absolute being cannot be an object....
    Absolute being works as complete, perfect
    emptiness and embraces subject and object. If
    you want to see God or Buddha, you must manifest
    yourself as emptiness. Zen is the practice of
    manifesting yourself as emptiness.

32
A Zen poem from BashØ
  • Whenever something is said,
  • The lips are cold.
  • The autumn wind.

33
DØgen (1200-1253) Principal Themes
  • Oneness of practice and attainment
  • Primordial enlightenment
  • Impermanence is Buddha-nature
  • Being-time is reality.
  • The great death as realisation
  • Human being is relational being/authentication by
    all things
  • Thinking, not-thinking, without-thinking

34
DØgen Impermanence is Buddha-Nature
  • Whole-being is Buddha-nature
  • Whence do you come?
  • I come from Tung-shan.
  • What is it that comes?
  • Nan-yüeh did not know what to answer. For eight
    long years he pondered the question then one day
    it dawned on him and he exclaimed
  • Even to say it is something does not hit the
    mark!

35
DØgen Impermanence is Buddha-Nature
  • The sixth patriarch taught his disciple
    Hsing-chang, Impermanence is itself
    Buddha-nature. Permanence is the dualistic mind
    that discriminates phenomena.

36
DØgen Impermanence is Buddha-Nature
  • Therefore, the very impermanence of grass and
    tree, thicket and forest, is Buddha-nature. The
    very impermanence of humans and things, body and
    mind, is Buddha-nature. Nations and lands,
    mountains and rivers are impermanent because they
    are Buddha-nature. Supreme and complete
    enlightenment, because it is Buddha-nature is
    impermanent. Great nirvåna, because it is
    impermanent, is the Buddha-nature.

37
DØgen Being-Time
  • Mountains are time and seas are time. If they
    were not, there would not be mountains and seas.
    SO you must not say that there is no time in the
    immediate now of mountains and seas. If time is
    destroyed, mountains and seas are destroyed. If
    time is indestructible, mountains and seas are
    indestructible.

38
DØgen Being-Time
  • You should not think that flying past is the
    inherent nature of time. If time were to give
    itself merely to flying past, it would have gaps.
    You fail to experience the passageless passage
    of being-time and hear the utterances of its
    truth, because you think that time is something
    that goes past. The essential point is every
    entire being in the entire word is, each time, a
    time, even while making a continuous series.
    Inasmuch as they are being-time, they are my
    being-time.

39
DØgen Being-Time
  • Once wood turns to ash, the ash cannot turn back
    to being wood. Still, one should not take the
    view that it is ashes afterward, wood before.
    You should realize that although wood is at the
    dharma-stage of wood, and that this is possessed
    before and after, wood is beyond before and
    after. Just as wood does not revert to wood once
    it has burned to ashes, man does not revert to
    life after his death. ... Life is a stage of time
    and death is a stage of time, like, for example
    winter and spring. We do not suppose that winter
    becomes spring, or say that spring becomes
    summer.

40
DØgen on Being-Time
  • When a man goes off in a boat and looks back to
    see the shoreline, he mistakenly thinks the shore
    is moving. If he keeps his eyes closely on the
    boat, he realizes that it is the boat that is
    advancing. In liker manner, when a person tries
    to discern and affirm the myriad phenomena with a
    confused conception of his own body and mind, he
    mistakenly thinks his own body and mind are
    permanent. If he makes all his daily deeds
    intimately his own and returns within himself,
    the reason that the myriad phenomena are empty
    will become clear to him.

41
DØgens Question
  • As I study both the exoteric and esoteric schools
    of Buddhism, they maintain that man is endowed
    with the Dharma-nature at birth. In this is the
    case, why had the Buddhas of all
    ages--undoubtedly in possession of
    enlightenment--to seek enlightenment and engage
    in spiritual practice?

42
Practice and Attainment/Nonduality Sasaki Roshi
  • It is not Zen to have studied and to say, I am
    empty. I am nothing. That is not Zen at all.
    You manifest yourself as emptiness or nothingness
    and you also have to manifest yourself as a man
    or a woman at the same time. At that moment you
    can say you have mastered Zen.

43
Practice and Attainment/Reducing Day by Day
  • Once a monk made a request of Joshu. I have just
    entered the monastery. Please give me
    instructions, master.
  • Joshu said, have you had your breakfast?
  • Yes I have, replied the monk,
  • Joshu said, Then wash the bowls.
  • The monk had an insight.

44
DØgen on Thinking, Not-thinking, and
Without-Thinking
  • Without-thinking is emptiness. Not-thinking is
    the denial of thinking. In that Mu transcends
    the distinction between subject an object and
    being and nothingness, to say that
    without-thinking is crystal clear is justified.

45
Relational Existence and Self-Authentication
  • To model yourself on the Buddhas is to model
    yourself after yourself. To model yourself after
    yourself is to forget yourself. To forget
    yourself is to be authenticated by all things.
    To be authenticated by all things is to
    accomplish the molting of body-mind, your own and
    others. The signs of enlightenment dissolve and
    this causes the signs of enlightenment to emerge
    continuously.
  • At first, when you seek the truth, you have
    distanced yourself from its domain. Finally,
    when the truth is transmitted to you, you are
    immediately the primordial person.

46
DØgen on Being-in-the-world
  • Being-in-the-world
  • To what might it be compared?
  • Dwelling in the dewdrop
  • Fallen from a waterfowls beak,
  • The image of the moon.

47
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

48
A bit more about Zen
  • Zen and the Tokagawa Shogunate
  • Suppression of Zen in early Meiji
  • Zen and the rise of Japanese nationalism/militaris
    m
  • Zen as an intellectual export to the West
  • The Kyoto School

49
Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Taoist and Confucian background
  • Tathågatagårbha
  • Tien Tai
  • Hua Yen
  • Chan into Zen
  • Zen into the recent past and present

50
Introduction to Buddhist Thought
  • Buddhist Fundamentals
  • The Pali tradition
  • Madhyamaka in India and Tibet
  • Yogåcåra
  • Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Buddhism in the West

51
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

52
Buddhist Missionary Activity in the West
  • Buddhism has always been a missionary religion,
    and transmission to the West must be seen in that
    context.
  • First missionaries were English converts from
    colonial Ceylon.
  • World Parliament of Religions in 1896 brought
    Buddhist missionaries to USA.
  • Japanese Zen teachings spread soon after.
  • Tibetan exile in 1959 sent hundreds of teachers
    to the West.
  • Popularity of Vipassana has brought Theravada
    teachers around the world.

53
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

54
Colonialism and Orientalism
  • Much of the first contact with Buddhism arose
    through British colonial administration and the
    rise of Oriental Studies.
  • Much of the understanding in the West came from
    philologists and orientalist anthropologists.
  • Because Sri Lanka was the first point of contact,
    Theravada Buddhism and a rhetoric or originality
    came to dominate much Buddhist Studies.
  • Much orientalist Western understanding of
    Buddhism was also heavily influenced by
    comparative methodology and colonial objectives.

55
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

56
The Parliament of World Religions
  • The Parliament was held in the context of the
    Chicago worlds fair in 1893.
  • Its agenda was complex, but displaying the exotic
    and demonstrating the superiority of Christianity
    were pretty high on the organisers minds.
  • But the context from the Japanese side was
    different--a desire to get out from under
    imperialist treaties and to be treated as equals.
  • Their mission came to demonstrate the superior
    rationality of Buddhism, and was very effective.

57
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

58
The Legacy of DT Suzuki
  • Arrived in the USA during the Parliament of World
    Religions
  • Encountered Paul Carus of Open Court.
  • Influenced Carus views, but also used Carus as a
    vehicle for propagating Zen.
  • His translations and books on Zen as well as his
    teachings created the first mass non-immigrant
    Buddhist movement in the West.
  • Zen has continued, in terms of practitioners and
    impact on popular culture to be a leading Western
    sect.

59
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

60
Multiple Traditions All at Once
  • Previous intra-Asian transmissions of Buddhism
    involved the movement of a single tradition from
    place to place.
  • Current transmission to the West involves
    side-by-side practice in Theravada, Zen, Chinese,
    Japanese and Tibetan traditions.
  • These traditions are now influencing each other
    through the West, and are melding into a hybrid
    Western Buddhist culture.

61
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

62
Academics and Practitioners
  • Buddhism has come to the West both as a practice
    tradition--as a religion, via missionary activity
    and immigration, AND through the academic study
    of Buddhism.
  • There has been from time to time tension between
    these communities, and confusion about roles, but
    now there is a great deal of cooperation and
    overlap.

63
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

64
Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Pretty early to say, but
  • A Buddhism that is less ritualised, and more
    allied with science
  • Less Sangha-centered than Asian Buddhism
  • More academic than most Asian traditions
  • Hybridised from many Asian traditions.

65
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

66
Buddhism and Popular Culture
  • Major impact in literature and poetry
  • Major impact in visual arts
  • Major impact in music
  • Major impact in advertising and taste.
  • So Buddhism seems to be insinuating not only
    images but ideas into non-Buddhist cultures.
  • People even show up for evening courses on
    Buddhism at universities!

67
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

68
Buddhism and Science
  • Buddhisms emphasis on rational inquiry, on the
    metaphysics of causation, and on psychology has
    natural affinities to science.
  • Buddhism has contributed ideas to microphysics
  • Cognitive Science
  • Medicine and psychiatry.
  • Regular conferences between Buddhist scholars and
    scientists are now commonplace.

69
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

70
Engaged Buddhism
  • Anagarika Dharmapala and the Mahabodhi Society
    (and Col Olcott) and the model of social service
  • Bhimrao Ambedkar and the attack on
    untouchability.
  • Reinterpretation of the 4NT and 8fold path in
    terms of social action
  • Budhhadasa Bhikkhu and the politicisation of
    Dharma
  • Sulak Sivaraksa and Buddhism as social action
  • Dalai Lama XIV and Buddhism as ecumenical social
    and intellectual force
  • Western engaged Buddhism and social ministry
  • Buddhism and the peace movement (Thich Nhat Hahn
    and Nipponzan Nyohoji)

71
Engaged Buddhism Mahabodhi
  • Anagarika Dharmapala and the Mahabodhi Society
    (and Col Olcott) and the model of social service
  • Col Olcott (from USA) brings YMCA model of
    religious social service to Sri Lanka
  • Anagarika Dharmapala joins with him to create a
    Buddhist social service agency
  • Restoration of Indian pilgrimage sites
  • Pan-Buddhist vision and missions to Japan
  • Buddhist lay education

72
Engaged Buddhism Indian Independence
  • Bhimrao Ambedkar and the attack on
    untouchability.
  • Amedkar born untouchable, emigrated to USA for
    medical school
  • Returned to work in Indian independence movement
  • Broke with Gandhi over Hindutva and
    untouchability
  • Left Hinduism and brought first ever mass
    conversion to Buddhism
  • Left millions of Ambdekar Buddhists
  • Reinterpreted 4NT with a socio-political face and
    8fold path as a recipe for social action

73
Engaged Buddhism Thailand I
  • Budhhadasa Bhikkhu and the politicisation of
    Dharma
  • Thai monk influenced by Ambedkar and by Western
    political philosophy
  • Reinvigorated lay Buddhism and Buddhist education
    in Thailand
  • Saw Buddhism as political force and force for
    development
  • Introduced socialism and environmentalism into
    Buddhism
  • Introduced collective model of development and
    integration of practice and social action
    (Buffalo and rice banks, tree ordination, etc)

74
Engaged Buddhism Thailand II
  • Sulak Sivaraksa and Buddhism as social action
  • Continuation of Buddhadasas programme
  • Buddhism and the NGO global engaged Buddhism
  • Integration of Theravada and Mahåyåna ideals
  • Buddhism and human rights
  • Critique of Capitalism
  • Reinterpretation of three poisons, and especially
    pancßila
  • Buddhism and the modernist critique of modernity

75
Engaged Buddhism HHDL XIV
  • Dalai Lama XIV and Buddhism as ecumenical social
    and intellectual force
  • Buddhism and human rights
  • Buddhism and the engagement with Western politics
    and science and a modernist vision
  • The Bodhisattva path as a path of social service
  • Religious ecumenism and practice as upåya

76
Engaged Buddhism Specifically Western movements
  • Western engaged Buddhism and social ministry
  • Bernie Glassman roshi and street Zen
  • Prison Dharma
  • Buddhist Peace fellowship
  • Karuna Institute for Peacebuilding

77
Engaged Buddhism Asian Religious Orders
  • Buddhism and the peace movement (Thich Nhat Han
    and Nipponzan Nyohoji)
  • Both specifically Asian and indeed conservative
    Asian Buddhist movements
  • Both reject most modernist ideas common to other
    engaged Buddhist movements
  • But both see the primary point of religious
    practice as global peacebuilding
  • One through personal and public religious
    practice
  • The other through a publicly representational
    sangha

78
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

79
Transformation and the Trope of Authenticity
  • Is contemporary Buddhism authentic?
  • The trope of authenticity has been essential to
    Buddhism from the beginning.
  • But it cant mean immunity from change, for
    doctrinal and for historical reasons.
  • What is essential to Buddhism? Does that make
    any sense?
  • When does a movement or a change become
    non-Buddhist?
  • How can Buddhism continue as a force and enter
    modernity and post-modernity?

80
Buddhism goes West
  • Missionary history
  • Colonialism and Orientalism
  • The parliament of world religions and Japan
  • DT Suzuki
  • Multiple Traditions
  • Academics and Practitioners
  • Characteristics of Western Buddhism
  • Buddhism and popular culture
  • Buddhism and science
  • Engaged Buddhism
  • Transformation and the trope of authenticity

81
Introduction to Buddhist Thought
  • Buddhist Fundamentals
  • The Pali tradition
  • Madhyamaka in India and Tibet
  • Yogåcåra
  • Chinese and Japanese Buddhism
  • Buddhism in the West

82
An Introduction to Buddhist Thought (YBI01)
  • Prof Jay L Garfield
  • Department of Philosophy, Smith College
  • Department of Philosophy
  • University of Melbourne
  • Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies
    (Sarnath, India)
  • Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, U
    of Canterbury (visiting)
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