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Visualization and mental maps


... who go about exploring and who see signs, can tell me toward which of these ... preceding enlightenment of psychologically giving birth to the phenomenal world ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Visualization and mental maps

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Visualization and mental maps
  • Visualization is foremost an act of cognition, a
    human ability to develop mental representations
    that allow geographers to identify patterns and
    to create or impose order ... Concrete visual
    representations ... make spatial contexts ...
    visible, so as to engage the most powerful human
    information-processing abilities, those
    associated with vision. --MacEachren
  • Every map is a cultural construction that
    geographers, scientists, and artists alike create
    to make and convey meaning. --Bender
  • Maps serve as visualization devices that allow
    geographers to see relationships revealed as
    patterns in a spatial format. Spatial
  • Maps are surrogates of space. --Wilford

Calvino Invisible cities
  • Calvinos Invisible Cities is a collection of
    surreal short stories about cities visited by the
    traveller Marco Polo, places where people act,
    depict and consider things that make no sense or
    are impossible.It is written as of a succession
    of dialogues - meditative conversations between
    Kublai Khan, the emperor and Marco Polo, the
    traveller and visitor to Khans Empire. Marco
    Polo is describing to Kublai Khan various
    fantastic cities he saw on his travels in order
    for the Emperor to comprehend the sheer size of
    his own empire.The issues covered in this
    collection of stories are - visitor versus
    inhabitant, - home vs. non-home, - outsider vs.
    insider, - foreign languages vs. mother tongue.
    Take away maps and coexistence What makes up a
    city is not so much its physical structure but
    the impression it imparts upon its visitors, the
    way its inhabitants move within, something unseen
    that hums between the cracks.

Invisible cities (chess 1)
  • From the foot of the Great Khan's throne a
    majolica pavement extended. Marco Polo, mute
    informant, spread out on it the samples of the
    wares he had brought back from his journeys to
    the ends of the empire a helmet, a seashell, a
    coconut, a fan. Arranging the objects in a
    certain order on the black and white tiles, and
    occasionally shifting them with studied moves,
    the ambassador tried to depict for the monarch's
    eyes the vicissitudes of his travels, the
    conditions of the empire, the prerogatives of the
    distant provincial seats.     Kublai was a keen
    chess player following Marco's movements, he
    observed that certain pieces implied or excluded
    the vicinity of other pieces and were shifted
    along certain lines. Ignoring the objects'
    variety of form, he could grasp the system of
    arranging one with respect to the others on the
    majolica floor. He thought "If each city is like
    a game of chess, the day when I have learned the
    rules, I shall finally possess my empire, even if
    I shall never succeed in knowing all the cities
    it contains."     Actually, it was useless for
    Marco's speeches to employ all this bric-a-brac
    a chessboard would have sufficed, with its
    specific pieces. To each piece, in turn, they
    could give an appropriate meaning a knight could
    stand for a real horseman, or for a procession of
    coaches, an army on the march, an equestrian
    monument a queen could be a lady looking down
    from her balcony, a fountain, a church with a
    pointed dome, a quince tree.     Returning from
    his last mission, Marco Polo found the Khan
    awaiting him, seated at a chessboard. With a
    gesture he invited the Venetian to sit opposite
    him and describe, with the help only of the
    chessmen, the cities he had visited. Marco did
    not lose heart. The Great Khan's chessmen were
    huge pieces of polished ivory arranging on the
    board looming rooks and sulky knights, assembling
    swarms of pawns, drawing straight or oblique
    avenues like a queen's progress, Marco recreated
    the perspectives and the spaces of black and
    white cities on moonlit nights.

Invisible cities (chess 2)
  • Contemplating these essential landscapes, Kublai
    reflected on the invisible order that sustains
    cities, on the rules that decreed how they rise,
    take shape and prosper, adapting themselves to
    the seasons, and then how they sadden and fall in
    ruins. At times he thought he was on the verge of
    discovering a coherent, harmonious system
    underlying the infinite deformities and discords,
    but no model could stand up to comparison with
    the game of chess. Perhaps, instead of racking
    one's brain to suggest with the ivory pieces'
    scant help visions which were anyway destined to
    oblivion, it would suffice to play a game
    according to the rules, and to consider each
    successive state of the board as one of the
    countless forms that the system of forms
    assembles and destroys.     Now Kublai Khan no
    longer had to send Marco Polo on distant
    expeditions he kept him playing endless games of
    chess. Knowledge of the empire was hidden in the
    pattern drawn by the angular shifts of the
    knight, by the diagonal passages opened by the
    bishop's incursions, by the lumbering, cautious
    tread of the king and the humble pawn, by the
    inexorable ups and downs of every game.     The
    Great Khan tried to concentrate on the game but
    now it was the game's purpose that eluded him.
    Each game ends in a gain or a loss but of what?
    What were the true stakes? At checkmate, beneath
    the foot of the king, knocked aside by the
    winner's hand, a black or a white square remains.
    By disembodying his conquests to reduce them to
    the essential, Kublai had arrived at the extreme
    operation the definitive conquest, of which the
    empire's multiform treasures were only illusory
    envelopes. It was reduced to a square of planed
    wood nothingness . . . . . . The Great Khan
    tried to concentrate on the game but now it was
    the game's reason that eluded him. The end of
    every game is a gain or a loss but of what? What
    were the real stakes? At checkmate, beneath the
    foot of the king, knocked aside by the winner's
    hand, nothingness remains a black square, or a
    white one. By disembodying his conquests to
    reduce them to the essential, Kublai had arrived
    at the extreme operation the definitive
    conquest, of which the empire's multiform
    treasures were only illusory envelopes it was
    reduced to a square of planed wood.

Invisible cities (chess 3)
  • Then Marco Polo spoke "Your chessboard, sire, is
    inlaid with two woods ebony and maple. The
    square on which your enlightened gaze is fixed
    was cut from the ring of a trunk that grew in a
    year of drought you see how its fibers are
    arranged? Here a barely hinted knot can be made
    out a bud tried to burgeon on a premature spring
    day, but the night's frost forced it to
    desist."     Until then the Great Khan had not
    realized that the foreigner knew how to express
    himself fluently in his language, but it was not
    this fluency that amazed him.     "Here is a
    thicker pore perhaps it was a larvum's nest not
    a woodworm, because, once born, it would have
    begun to dig, but a caterpillar that gnawed the
    leaves and was the cause of the tree's being
    chosen for chopping down . . . This edge was
    scored by the wood carver with his gouge so that
    it would adhere to the next square, more
    protruding . . . "     The quantity of things
    that could be read in a little piece of smooth
    and empty wood overwhelmed Kublai Polo was
    already talking about ebony forests, about rafts
    laden with logs that come down the rivers, of
    docks, of women at the windows . . .

Invisible cities (infernal city)
  • The Great Khan's atlas contains also the maps of
    the promised lands visited in thought but not yet
    discovered or founded New Atlantis, Utopia, the
    City of the Sun, Oceana, Tamoé, New Harmony, New
    Lanark, Icaria.    Kublai asked Marco "You, who
    go about exploring and who see signs, can tell me
    toward which of these futures the favoring winds
    are driving us."    "For these ports I could not
    draw a route on the map or set a date for the
    landing. At times all I need is a brief glimpse,
    an opening in the midst of an incongruous
    landscape, a glint of light in the fog, the
    dialogue of two passersby meeting in the crowd,
    and I think that, setting out from there, I will
    put together, piece by piece, the perfect city,
    made of fragments mixed with the rest, of
    instants separated by intervals, of signals one
    sends out, not knowing who receives them. If I
    tell you that the city toward which my journey
    tends is discontinuous in space and time, now
    scattered, now more condensed, you must not
    believe the search for it can stop. Perhaps while
    we speak, it is rising, scattered, within the
    confines of your empire you can hunt for it, but
    only in the way I have said."    Already the
    Great Khan was leafing through his atlas, over
    the maps of the cities that menace in nightmares
    and maledictions Enoch, Babylong, Yahooland,
    Butua, Brave New World    He said "It is all
    useless, if the last landing place can only be
    the infernal city, and it is there that, in
    ever-narrowing circles, the current is drawing
    us."     And Polo said "The inferno of the
    living is not something that will be if there is
    one, it is what is already here, the inferno
    where we live every day, that we form by being
    together. There are two ways to escape suffering
    it. The first is easy for many accept the
    inferno and become such a part of it that you can
    no longer see it. The second is risky and demands
    constant vigilance and apprehension seek and
    learn to recognize who and what, in the midst of
    the inferno, are not inferno, then make them
    endure, give them space."

Invisible cities (norm and exceptions)
  • "From now on, I'll describe the cities to you,"
    the Khan had said, "in your journeys you will see
    if they exist."    But the cities visited by
    Marco Polo were always different from those
    thought of by the emperor.    "And yet I have
    constructed in my mind a model city from which
    all possible cities can be deduced," Kublai said.
    "It contains everything corresponding to the
    norm. Since the cities that exist diverge in
    varying degree from the norm, I need only foresee
    the exceptions to the norm and calculate the most
    probable combinations."    I have also thought
    of a model city from which I deduce all others,"
    Marco answered. "It is a city made only of
    exceptions, exclusions, incongruities,
    contradictions. If such a city is the most
    improbable, by reducing the number of abnormal
    elements, we increase the probability that the
    city really exists. So I have only to subtract
    exceptions from my model, and in whatever
    direction I proceed, I will arrive at one of the
    cities which, always as an exception, exists. But
    I cannot force my operation beyond a certain
    limit I would achieve cities too probable to be

Invisible cities
  • - Kublai Maybe when I will know all the emblems
    of the cities, I will finally possess all my
  • Marco No, that day you will turn yourself into
    an emblem.
  • 'I speak and speak,' Marco says, 'but the
    listener retains only the words he is expecting.
    The description of the world to which you lend a
    benevolent ear is one thing the description that
    will go the rounds of stevedores and gondoliers
    on the street outside my house the day of my
    return is another and yet another, that which I
    might dictate late in life, if I were taken
    prisoner by Genoese pirates and put in irons in
    the same cell with a writer of adventure stories.
    It is not the voice that commands the story it
    is the ear.'

Lynch image of the city
  • Mental model of space
  • Spatial visualization serves as a key
    cartographic device for relaying representative
    information about that part of space portrayed,
    creating an ordered presentation of patterns that
    instruct the observer. How do you achieve
    appropriate navigation with no map?
  • Appropriate navigation is relative to the
    aesthetic, rational and behavioural goals
    embodied by the personas selected
  • Maps as mental terrain
  • Place legibility the ease with which people can
    understand the layout of a place.
  • To understand the layout of a city, people first
    and foremost create a mental map. Mental maps of
    a city are mental representations of what the
    city contains, and its layout according to the
  • These mental representations, along with the
    actual city, contain many unique elements-
    paths, - edges, - districts, - nodes, -

Lynch image of the city
  • Paths are channels by which people move along in
    their travels, familiar routes followed. Examples
    of paths are roads, trails, and sidewalks.
  • Edges, are all other lines not included in the
    path group, dividing lines between districts,
    they are boundaries between two phases, linear
    breaks in continuity . Examples of edges are
    walls and seashores.
  • Districts are sections of the city, usually
    relatively substantial in size, which have an
    identifying character about them, areas with
    perceived internal homogeneity. Examples of
    district is a wealthy neighborhood such as
    Beverly Hills, suburbs, trainyards, college
  • Nodes, are points or strategic spots where there
    is an extra focus, or added concentration of city
    features, centres of attraction, hubs of
    activity. Examples of nodes are a busy
    intersection or a popular city center, Piccadilly
  • Landmarks are external physical objects that act
    as reference points, points of reference. Example
    of landmarks are a store, mountain, school, or
    any other object that aids in orientation when
  • All of this can be used to streamline (or
    reinforce) functionality with regard to-
    general orientation (rational) - fulfillment of
    game goals (rational/behavioural)- fulfillment
    of aesthetic goals (emotional)- fulfillment of
    performative goals, acting out a part

Lynch image of the city
  • Activity mental maps
  • A person's perception of the world is known as a
    mental map. A mental map is an individual's own
    map of their known world. Mental maps of
    individuals can be investigated- by asking for
    directions to a landmark or other location, - by
    asking someone to draw a sketch map of an area or
    describe that area, - by asking a person to name
    as many places as possible in a short period of
  • Describe Kongens Nytorv along with Nyhavn by
    drawing a sketch map of it. (individual)
  • Learn how people construct their own realities of
    place and space.

Lynch image of the city
  • Imageability, is the quality of a physical
    object, which gives an observer a strong, vivid
  • Connected to Bachelards resonance-reverberation
  • Resonances are dispersed on the different planes
    of our life in the world" and they are linked to
    "the outpourings of the mind" toward broad
    contexts. Like beacons. Resonance suggests the
    possibility of understanding and making
    connections with other feelings and echoes.
  • Reverberations bring about a change in being"
    that is effected through a transformation of
    consciousness and of the deepest aspects of our
    being. A beacon that vibrates exactely and only
    for you
  • The end result of resonance and reverberation is
    that together they produce an identification with
    the image and thus are the means by which a
    subversion of the subject-object duality occurs.
    As Bachelard puts it "At the level of the poetic
    image, the duality of subject and object is
    iridescent, shimmering, unceasingly active in its
    inversions, the identity of the play persona
    becomes defined by the environment itself.

Lynch image of the city
Spatial Archetypes(Mimi Lobell)
  • The seven primary Archetypes of Psyche and
    Civilisation - the sensitive chaos world of
    the Great Spirit- the great round world of the
    Goddess- the four quarters world of the
    Hero- the pyramid world of the God-King- the
    radiant axes world of the Emperor- the grid
    wolrd of the Technocrat- the network world of
    the Infonaut

Meandering Spiral
  • Psyche
  • Cosmos as a unity within the Great Spirit, in
    which all states of being are mutable
  • Uroboric oneness suppression of ego so as not to
    separate Self from others and from surroundings
  • The state of mind of the child in the womb and in
    infancy where there is no individual ego or
    psychological separation from the mother
  • Anirnism, shamanism, sympathetic magic,
    veneration of nature spirits and totems
    perceiving the world as a Sensitive Chaos
    animated by spirits, lines and nodes of energy,
    syncitronistic linkages, and magical events
    transcending our laws of space and tirne oneness
    with nature, identification with animals and
    other life forms
  • Non-linear tirne, synchronicity, feeling of
    eternity or timelessness
  • Mythic images and rites concerning the Great
    Spirit, spirit places, totems and taboos, mimicry
    of animals, sympathetic magic, the making of
    ritual paraphenalia, transmuting to another life
    form (e.g., shamanically becoming a bird or
    animal), attaining psychoerotic perception
  • Emphasis on psychoerotic activities such as
    music, dance, transformative arts and rituals,
    holistic thinking, altered states of
    consciousness, clairvoyance, ecstatic trance
    states, dreams, natural healing greatest
    psychoerotic orientation of all the archetypes
  • Concern with one's responsibility for maintaining
    the harmony of the living
  • Psychological stagnation in the Sensitive Chaos
    can produce a desire to regress to uroboric
    unconsciousness in the womb
  • Psychological liberation in the Sensitive Chaos
    can lead to erlightenment through transcending
    ego and healing the primal split between self and
  • Space
  • Space as an immediate flowing topological
    continuum with little geometric order
  • The landscape as an alive organism with lines and
    nodes of energy depending on human care for
    vitality (a belief that often gives rise to
    elaborate tribal myths and ceremonial cydes, as
    in the Australian Aborigines' myths and rites
    concerning the Dreamfime), a network of spirit
    places in nature as the most important spatial
    "structure" and view of the landscape itself as
  • Impermanent huts and shelters made of locally
    available natural materials (mud, thatch, vines,
    hides, ice), which readily disintegrate back into
    the earth
  • Undifferentiated architecture (no distinctly
    different building types for different
    institutions and activities such as residence,
    burial, government, commerce, manufacture, and
  • Dwellings as spiritual "doubles" of their
    inhabitants, not bought and sold as commodities,
    and frequently serving as burial places which are
    burned or abandoned when the inhabitant dies
  • Little sense of private property (beyond personal
    tools and huts) territorial rangeAand defined
    and maintained through myths and rituals rather
    than laws and walls

  • Psyche
  • Cosmos as a unity within the Womb-Cavern of the
    Great Goddess
  • In childhood, the separation from the mother in
    which the child consciously perceives the mother
    as the center and source of life, but also as the
    first "other" with whom it has a relationship
  • At any age, identifying with the feminine
  • Perceiving the world as a "Great Round," cyclical
    in its rhythms, embracing nature and culture as
    one, encircling one's being in a nurturing
    matrix, and centered in the Great Mother
  • Religions, rites, and initiations offering
    direct, personal participation in the Goddess and
    her mysteries
  • Emphasis on integrating opposites to achieve
    holistic vision
  • Psychological stagnation in the Great Round can
    produce excessive passivity and vegetative states
  • Psychological liberation in the Great Round can
    generate the perception of the Self as Mother,
    which fosters, on the one hand, a nurturing sense
    of responsibility for the health and vitality of
    all life, and, on the other, an experience
    preceding enlightenment of psychologically giving
    birth to the phenomenal world
  • Space
  • Space centered in the Womb-Cavern, a still
    center which extends to encompass the "Great
    Round" of the cosmos
  • Emerging centrality and permanence in
    architecture growing out of the settled
    agricultural way of life-appearance of granaries
    and food storage facilities, permanent homesteads
    and villages, amd the beginning of cities
    Megalithic construction frequently used for the
    most sacred structures (tombs, temples, geomantic
    and astronomical structures)
  • Tendency to shift over time from undifferentiated
    round structures (thobi, beehive houses, and
    semi-subterranean pithouses) to more
    differentiated rectilinear structures, with
    sacred buildings sometimes remaining round
  • Abundance of single, double, and triple spirals
    in art, especially on pottery
  • Reverence for sacred places in nature such as
    springs and rivers, caves, grottos, groves,
    trees, forests, hillocks, mountains, and any
    natural sanctuary associated with healing,
    fertility, revelatory visions, and spiritual
  • Evidence in myth and folklore of the divination
    (geomancy) and manipulation of subtle energies in
    nature (Telluric currents), which are later
    personified as serpents, dragons, nymphs,
    faeries, elves, goblins, and the like
  • Territoriality expressed as the right to occupy
    farmlands, defined not by property laws but by
    the accumulation of generations of ancestors
    (ancestor worship) in collective, usually
    megalithic grave/shrines, which display the
    clans' long-standing occupation of and investment
    in the land
  • The Womb-Cavern as the most important structure,
    whether natural cave, passage grave, beehive
    tomb, tholos/kiva, labyrinth, or temple sanctury

Cross within a Square
  • Psyche
  • Cosmos as a quartered universe organized around
    the Lord of the Four Quarters at the center
  • The emergence of the ego in the psyche as a
    central reference point (similar to the Lord of
    the Four Quarters in mythology and the chieftain
    or king in society) separation of self versus
    other generates dualistic, territorial thinking
    in general In childhood, the symbolic "Slaying of
    the Mother" to allow the emergence of the ego, At
    any age, identifying with the Hero archetype
  • Mythic images and rites concerning the Lord of
    the Four Quarters male roles (warrior, hunter,
    father, smith, hero, protector)
  • Rise of dualistic thought and increasing emphasis
    on warring dualities light versus darkness, gods
    against demons, order versus chaos, the
    Separation of the World Parents, competition
    between fathers (titans) and sons (heros, gods),
    Hero versus Dragon, etc.
  • Mythic theme's concerning the appropriation of
    female powers by males, such as goddesses being
    killed and torn apart, made into the wives of
    gods (Isis, Hera) the theft of women's magical
    instruments by men the second (spifitual) birth
    through the father (through doctrine, baptism,
  • Territorial preoccupations concern with
    protecting one's gene pool, enlarging the
    territorial boundaries of one's tribe, and
    displaying personal strength and heroism (often
    in a manner intimidating to competing males, as
    in contemporary machoism and street gang warfare)
  • Techne-logos begins to dominate psyche-eros
  • Time is linear within a cyclical segment
    (recurring age of "Great Year"), and the past is
    seen as a time of semi-legendary heroic deeds
  • Psychological stagnation can generate excessive
    violence, aggrescontempt for women and the
    feminine principle, and a fixation on the role of
  • Psychological liberation can foster individual
    will, which, when the ego is integrated with the
    Self (the crossed mandala), permits enlightened
    action in the world
  • Space
  • Space is organized around the Lord of the Four
    Quarters (ego) as the central reference point,
    from whom the cardinal axes quarter the cosmos
    and all its phenomena castes, colors, elements,
    seasons, eras, heavens, deities, animal into four
  • Territoriality is symbolized by the wall
    surrounding the realm of the Lord of the Four
    Quarters, which divides sacred from profane,
    friend from enemy, "mine" from "thine"
  • The omphalos or "Navel of the World" as a central
    reference point in the landscape mirroring the
    ego in the psyche, chieftain in society, father
    in the family, and Lord of the Four Quarters in
  • The crossroads or "urban mark" as another common
  • Architecture mirrors the archetype square or
    rectilinear fortified camps and cities, with the
    residence or temple of the Lord in the center and
    avenues to the north, south, east, and west
    forts, castles, and fortified towns are the most
    common structures of the period

  • Psyche
  • Cosmos as the World Mountain, the creation and
    kingdom of the Father-God
  • In childhood, solidification of the ego,
    identification with the father to complete the
    sep aration from the mother, establishment of
    individual identity, and assumption of adult re
    sponsibilities in the world
  • At any age, identification with the logos
  • Perceiving the world as a Pyramid (e.g., the
    chronological stratification of time, pyrami dal
    ranks of social power and classes) concern with
    moving up the Pyramid, with the goal of reaching
    the apex of power and wisdom
  • Linear sense of time, preoccupation with
    immortality and the transcendence of temporal
    reality, use of a solar calendar
  • Mythic images and rites concerning the World
    Mountain, the Mountain arising from the Sea of
    Chaos the Separation of the World Parents and
    their reuniting immortality, mortuary rituals,
    embalming the second birth through the Father
    ritualized tests of the king's fitness to rule
    (e.g., the Heb Sed Festival in Egypt)
  • Increasing dominance of techne-logos emphasis on
    the functions of the logos principle, such as
    creation through the Word, order and
    enlightenment through the Law, belief in the
    sacredness of rational forms numbers, geometry,
    names, mathematics, standards of measurement,
    canonical proportions interest in the sky and
    the mind as opposed to the earth and the body
  • Continuation of dualistic thought, as in the Four
    Quarters, symbolized by the upward and downward
    pointing pyramids
  • Psychological stagnation in the Pyramid can
    produce a rigid adherence to conventional codes
    of behavior and dogmatic religious doctrines, and
    an excessive identification with the mascuhne
    principle as highly authoritarian father figure
  • Psychological liberation in the Pyramid generates
    the perception of Self as the incarna tion of
    transcendent being, which, having negotiated the
    axis mundi to comprehend the three planes of
    existence (heaven, earth, and underworld or pure
    consciousness, ordinary waking consciousness, and
    the unconscious), sees the order of the universe
  • Space
  • Space as the World Mountain, whose layers and
    faces symbolize the realms of existence, the
    heavens and hells, and the social structure
  • Great emphasis on the axis mundi the vertical
    axis between heaven and earth mediated by the
    God-King (seen as the Son of Heaven, as in China,
    or the son, agent, or incarnation of the Father
    God, as in Egypt and the pre-Columbian
  • Social pyramid reflected in class-differentiated
    residences and burials
  • Architectural representations of the World
    Mountain-pyramids, ziggurats, stupas as the most
    important structures, which may serve as temples,
    royal tombs, reliquaries, or astronomical

Rays emanating from Central Point
  • Psyche
  • Cosmos centered on the sun
  • The inflated ego (symbolized by Icarus's attempt
    to fly to the sun and consequent drowning)
    feeling that one is God, that one's power is
    infinite, that one is all-knowing, etc.
  • Very rarely, enlightenment (as the complete
    transcendence of ego)
  • Worship of the sun and identification with the
    solar principle
  • Perceiving the world as extending to infinity and
    eternity from one's own being, place, and time
    infatuation with one's destiny to bring about the
    apotheosis of human civilization
  • Linear time, sometimes with a sense of imminent
    realization, through the empire (or the Self) of
    the full glory and expression of human will
    also, calendars using an event in the life of an
    enlightened being as year zero (as in the
    Christian and Muslim calenders)
  • Increasing techne-logos orientation, onset of
    spiritual decadence
  • In adolescence, the symbolic Slaying of the
    Father to permit the liberation of power and will
    (paralleled in society by the secularized state
    religion supporting themonarchy)
  • Mythic images and rites concerning the sun, Sun
    God or Goddess, sacnfices to perpetuate the sun's
    cycles themes of enlightenment and radiance
    elaborate ceremonies (celebrating the King's
    birthday, the payment of tribute, processions
    through the capital) passive entertainments
    (theatrical performances, dancers, musicians)
    debasement of the hieros gamos into the practice
    of keeping "temple prostitutes" for the
    convenience and pleasure of the emperor
  • Psychological stagnation in the Radiant Axes can
    produce the inflated ego described above
  • Psychological liberation in the Radiant Axes can
    transmute the inflated ego's unbounded
    territoriality into a state of transcendent
    spaciousness in which the ego is dissolved in
  • Space
  • Space as an infinite field of energy radiating
    from a central source (sun, monarch, capital,
    empire), unbounded by territorial limits
  • An imperial cornmunications system, consisting
    (in pre-electronic empires) Of vast networks of
    roads equipped with post-houses at regular
    intervals for 24-hour relays of messengers as
    well as for the convenience of government
    representatives and the military imitation of
    the sun's rays in town planning through roads or
    avenues radiating from the palace throughout the
    capital and empire
  • Obelisks as a vertical component of the Radiant
    Axes, sometimes serving as the focal point of a
    svstem of radiating roads, or symbolizing a ray
    of the sun
  • Colossal statues and murals pompously proclaiming
    the mightiness of the emperor and the
    invincibility of the empire
  • The palace as the most important structure,
    complete with the zoo, parks, gardens, and harems
    mentioned above spectacular summer palaces and
    royal villas

Orthogonal Grid
  • Psyche
  • Cosmos as a great machine knowable by the human
    intellect through science
  • In adulthood, confrontation of the realities of
    the world and finding one's place as an ordinary
    person, concern with survival of oneself and
    one's family
  • Perceiving the world as 'a Grid of conceptually
    uniform measureable units, or as a machine, or as
    inert matter giving off certain appearances
    because of chemical and electrical interactions
  • Prevalence of relativism in education,
    eclecticism in religion, nihilism and materialism
    in philosophy
  • Strongest techne-logos orientation of all the
    archetypes emphasis on enumeration and
    measurement as in census-taking, statistical
    surveys, empirical sciences, the "objective"
    documentation of events, mathematics, reading and
    writing, information storage and data processing
  • Time is linear and uniform, extending infinitely
    into the past and future
  • Progressive view of history (in some cultures)
  • Sense of liberation/alienation from spirit,
    matter, nature, the inner Self, history, and
  • Mythic images and rites concerning human
    intelligence and the rational mind mastery of
    ranked disciplines (graduations, promotions,
    investitures) demonstrations of human skill and
    character (e.g., sports, after they became
    entertainment rather than a spiritual activity
    closed system logics (art-for-art's-sake, the job
    well done), pure essences of abstract forms
    existentialism conquest of the natural world
    mastery of technelogos functions faith in
    progress, statistical uniformity, and
  • Psychological stagnation in the Grid can produce
    the deflated ego overwhelmed by a sense of
    anonymity, purposelessness, existential malaise,
    and loss of contact with the inner spiritual Self
  • Psychological liberation in the Grid can present
    great freedom of choice, releasing one from
    centralized authority and tradition. Space
  • Space is a uniform, three-dimensional Grid, which
    distributes everything into isolated uniform
    units and has no center
  • Rectilinear spatial division, such as the
    Cartesian coordinates, the nomes of ancient
    Egypt, the padas in Vedic mandalas, squares in
    Chinese town planning (as in Kublai Khan's plan
    for Peking), the tatami mat system of Japan
  • Architecture and town planning reflect the Grid
    in orthogonal street layouts, rectilinear rooms,
    modular building facades (as on modern office
    buildings) repetitions of uniform units
    (suburban tract houses, workers' housing, army
    barracks, the office pool of desks) and grids of
    land divisions (agricultural fields, political
    provinces, counties, townships, etc.)
  • The most dominant architectural structure is the
    marketplace (e.g., the agora, the 19th century
    factory, the World Trade Center, the shopping

Network Diagram
  • Psyche
  • Cosmos is a great network of information, where
    the interactions are more important than the
  • Everything might be known, but everything might
    not be worth knowing.
  • The self is something that can be deconstructed
    and reconstructed.
  • Identity can be changed or multiple.
  • The aeon of the child no need to grow up,
    curiosity and playfulness are rewarded. Instant
    gratification demanded.
  • Postmodern and transmodern philosophy, but
    multiple philosophies can coexist in different
    parts of the network.
  • Information, complexity and evolution becomes the
    paradigm for science, economics and the
  • Time is divergent there are multiple possible
  • Mythic images deal with exploration, creation,
    accessing. The Hacker-trickester, the
    programmer-creator, the software Guru, the dumb
    but powerful Spirit in the Machine which may deny
    access, The Conspiracy, the Global Brain evoked
    by the Net.
  • Psychological stagnation in the Network can
    produce a sense of confusion, information
    overload and rootlessness. Identity and concepts
    just dissolve into parts.
  • Psychological liberation in the Network can
    produce the understanding that we can both be
    individuals and parts of the Network, which can
    encompass the other archetypes locally. We can
    become the creators of our own realities,
    ourselves and our own abilities.
  • Space
  • Space becomes random separations may shift from
    time to time, context to context. Physical space
    less important than social space, logical space
    and mental space.
  • Complex spatial divisions, fluid and irrgular.
    Geographic Information Systems, cellular phone
    base stations, network architectures, hypertext
  • Architecture and town planning becomes based on
    the infrastructure, forming a network.
  • The most dominant architecural feature is the
    antenna tower.

  • 1955 Guy Debord, situationist movement
  • the study of the precise laws and specific
    effects of the geographical environment,
    consciously organized or not, on the emotions and
    behaviour of individuals
  • Example If the desert is monotheistic, the
    district in Paris between Place de la
    Contrescarpe and Rue de l'Arbal conduces to
    atheism, to oblivion and to the disorientation of
    habitual reflexes.
  • Introduction to a Critique of Urban Geography

  • The tool La Derive (drift)
  • an aspect of the situationists wider drive to
    achieve a revolutionary transformation of
    everyday life.
  • insisting on pedestrianism to experience
    encrypted events of the city

  • possible topics
  • - heritage buildings
  • - traffic
  • - urban squares
  • - connectivity
  • - mixed usage spaces
  • - mixed living
  • - urban art
  • - potential for tourism
  • - neighbourhood identity

  • Nhe subjective analysis of neighbourhood
    behaviours related to geographic location. A
    chronological process based on the order of
    appearance of observed topics, with the time
    delayed inclusion of other relevant instances.
  • Once you have the basic structure of your space,
    navigate it roleplaying all the different
    personas and note things you like and things you
    dont. (see Bowman pdf)
  • Understand the player as a process in time-space

  • Psychogeographic approach
  • presence in the here-and-now moment
  • containment, the creation of a space for
    contemplative work
  • psychological "holding"
  • engagement and conversation
  • mirroring, doubling
  • noticing and naming meaning

Environmental storytelling Lessons from Theme
Park Design
  • http//
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Environmental storytelling Lessons from Theme
Park Design
  • If your desired goal is Fantasyland, you have up
    to five different ways to get there. You can take
    the alpha/photo opportunity path, up Main Street,
    across the draw bridge and through the castle
    gate. You could enter through Frontierland or
    Tomorrowland, or you could sneak through either
    side of the castle by way of two narrow paths. On
    one of these paths you will stumble upon Snow
    White's interactive wishing well. Multiply this
    "multiple paths" concept to each and every land,
    and you can see what a web Disneyland actually
    is. At the end of the day, each visitor will
    create his or her own linear visit to the park,
    one that is completely different from any other
    guest's day. Even within a group of visitors,
    each member may have an experience unique to
    them. An experience they can share, but that is
    still distinctively theirs.

V. S. Ramachandran(Phantoms in the Brain)
  • Professor Ramachandran's 10 universal laws of
  • 1. Peak shift
  • 2. Grouping
  • 3. Contrast
  • 4. Isolation
  • 5. Perception problem solving
  • 6. Symmetry
  • 7. Abhorrence of coincidence/generic viewpoint
  • 8. Repetition, rhythm and orderliness
  • 9. Balance
  • 10. Metaphor

10 universal laws of art
  • 1 - Peak Shift
  • Imagine you're training a rat to discriminate a
    square from a rectangle. So every time it sees a
    particular rectangle you give it a piece of
    cheese. When it sees a square you don't give it
    anything. Very soon it learns that the rectangle
    means food, it starts liking the rectangle -
    although you're not supposed to say that if
    you're a behaviourist. And it starts going
    towards the rectangle because it prefers the
    rectangle to the square. But now the amazing
    thing is if you take a longer skinnier rectangle
    and show it to the rat, it actually prefers the
    longer skinnier rectangle to the original
    rectangle that you taught it.
  • Human artists through trial and error, through
    intuition, through genius have discovered the
    figural primitives of our perceptual grammar. The
    uber-version of the real thing that make neurons
    fire up.

10 universal laws of art
  • 2 - Grouping

10 universal laws of art
  • 2 - Grouping
  • Imagine your primate ancestors scurrying up in
    the treetops trying to detect a lion seen behind
    fluttering green foliage. What you get inside the
    eyeball on the retina is just a bunch of yellow
    lion fragments obscured by all the leaves. What's
    the likelihood that all these different yellow
    fragments are exactly the same yellow simply by
    chance? Zero. They must all belong to one object,
    so let me link them together. Oh my God, it's a
    lion - let me out of here!" And as soon as you
    glue them together, a signal gets sent to the
    limbic system saying "AHA, there's something
    object-like, pay attention here". So there's an
    arousal, and an attention which then titillates
    the limbic system, and you pay attention and you
    dodge the lion.
  • And such "AHAs" are created, I maintain, at
    every stage in the visual hierarchy as partial
    object-like entities are discovered that draw
    your interest and attention. What the artist
    tries to do is to generate as many of these "AHA"
    signals in as many visual areas as possible by
    more optimally exciting these areas with his
    paintings or sculptures than you could achieve
    with natural visual scenes or realistic images.

10 universal laws of art
  • 4 Isolation

10 universal laws of art
  • 4 Isolation
  • Refers to "the need to isolate a single visual
    modality before you amplify the signal in that
    modality". Example an outline drawing, it is
    more aesthetically pleasing than a photograph,
    because it isolates one visual modality, in this
    case form, which allows for the allocation of
    more attention to that modality.
  • There are obvious constraints on the allocation
    of attentional resources to different visual
    modules. Isolating a single area (such as form
    or depth in the case of caricature or Indian
    art) allows one to direct attention more
    effectively to this one source of information,
    thereby allowing you to notice the enhancements
    introduced by the artist. (And that in turn would
    amplify the limbic activation and reinforcement
    produced by those enhancements).
  • Presumably any visual modality (e.g., color,
    depth, luminance, etc.) could be isolated to
    produce a stronger aesthetic experience. A single
    work of art need not highlight only one modality,
    but the more attention we can allocate to any
    given modality, the more pleasurable the
    experience should be.

10 universal laws of art
  • 5 Perceptual Problem Solving
  • As anyone knows a nude seen behind a diaphanous
    veil is much more alluring and tantalizing than a
    full-colour Playboy photo or a Chippendale pinup
    - or a Page Three girl, is that what you call it?
    Why? As I said our brains evolved in highly
    camouflaged environments. Imagine you are chasing
    your mate through dense fog. Then you want every
    stage in the process - every partial glimpse of
    her - to be pleasing enough to prompt further
    visual search - so you don't give up the search
    prematurely in frustration. In other words, the
    wiring of your visual centres to your emotional
    centres ensures that the very act of searching
    for the solution is pleasing, just as struggling
    with a jigsaw puzzle is pleasing long before the
    final "AHA". Once again it's about generating as
    many "AHAs" as possible in your brain.

10 universal laws of art
  • 6 Symmetry

10 universal laws of art
  • 6 Symmetry
  • It's well known that both facial and body
    symmetry are generally considered attractive,
    though the role of symmetry in attractiveness may
    not be as large as previously thought.In fact,
    symmetry can give us a great deal of information
    about the environment, such as the presence of
    biological forms (which are usually symmetrical)
    and human-created artifacts. It's not surprising,
    then, that we find symmetry appealing in art.
  • Since most biologically important objects such
    as predator, prey or mate are symmetrical, it may
    serve as an early-warning system to grab our
    attention to facilitate further processing of the
    symmetrical entity until it is fully recognised.
    As such, this principle complements the other
    laws described in this essay it is geared
    towards discovering interesting object-like
    entities in the world.
  • Thus, much as with grouping, contrast, and
    perceptual problem solving, art that uses
    symmetry (like the Escher drawing below) takes
    advantage of the fact that symmetry itself is
    rewarding in order to motivate us to allocate
    more resources to objects that exhibit it.

10 universal laws of art
  • 7 Abhorrence of Coincidence/Generic Viewpoint

10 universal laws of art
  • 7 Abhorrence of Coincidence/Generic Viewpoint
  • The human visual system is a Bayesian deduction
    machine. This means, among other things, that out
    of all of the possible interpretations of a
    particular visual input, the visual system will
    pick the most likely. This has two implications,
    which Ramachandran uses to formulate another
    principle of art we prefer generic viewpoints,
    and we abhorr coincidence.
  • We automatically intepret Figure A as depicting
    one figure partially occluding another, instead
    of the two objects in B. This is because, while
    there are multiple viewpoints from which the
    image in A might be produced through occlusion,
    the objects in B could only produce it from one
  • In A, the palm tree's placement is suspiciously
    coincidental with the positioning of the
    pyramids, while B seems much more natural, with
    the palm and pyramids offset. Suspicious
    coincidences are suspicious because they are
    highly unlikely, and therefore our visual system
    tends not to like them. Thus, they and unique
    viewpoints are less rewarding.

10 universal laws of art
  • 10 Methaphor
  • Whether metaphor is purely a device for
    effective communication, or a basic cognitive
    mechanism for encoding the world more
    economically, remains to be seen. The latter
    hypothesis may well be correct. There are many
    paintings that instantly evoke an emotional
    response long before the metaphor is made
    explicit by an art critic. This suggests that the
    metaphor is effective even before one is
    conscious of it, implying that it might be a
    basic principle for achieving economy of coding
    rather than a rhetorical device.
  • Much like the visual system is designed to notice
    groupings, contrasts, and to be excited by
    exaggeration, our cognitive system is designed,
    at all levels (including the perceptual) to
    notice connections between inputs. You might say
    that we have "analogical minds." It's likely that
    in order to facilitate the search for such
    connections, finding them is itself rewarding,
    and thus may contribute to the pleasureable
    experience that many visual metaphors elicit.
    However, metaphor and analogy (of which metaphor
    is likely a special case) also allow the artist
    to activate a wide range of images, concepts, and
    experiences, sometimes vivid ones, which carry
    with them their own affective appeal. There is
    evidence, for instance, that poetry using vivid
    perceptual metaphors is more appealing than
    poetry using less vivid metaphors.

Grammar of Visual Composition(Peter Stebbing)
  • The basic syntax in a visual composition
    consists primarily of four types of
    relationship- contrast, - rhythm (visual
    pattern), - balance (visual symmetry),-
    proportion (CRBP) they enable us to create
    harmony or unity within a work.

Grammar of Visual Composition(Peter Stebbing)
  • Contrast a difference which makes a difference
    and which can be identified by any of our senses.
    (Gradation, Variation)
  • Rhythm or pattern is a repetition of a contrast
    which may also occur in one or a combination of
    the four basic symmetry operations. (Repetition,
  • Balance and symmetry Two or more visual elements
    or forces are set against (oppose) each other so
    that they equalise or neutralise their tensions
    often resulting in a symmetry of form.
    (Equilibrium, Symmetry)
  • Proportion is a ratio composed of two or more
    contrasting quantities used repeatedly in either
    the same and/or different measures in a design.
    (Golden Mean/Section)
  • Harmony or unity or the form of an aesthetic
    object is the total web of relations among its
    parts. CRBP are all relationships and so the
    definition of form is synonomous with aesthetic
    harmony. (Harmony, Movement, Expression, Motion)

Grammar of Visual Composition(Peter Stebbing)
Ergonomic human scaling
  • Decorations fonts, symbols,
  • Tools objects to be held, clothing
  • Objects to hold the body, furniture
  • Rooms
  • House
  • Block
  • District
  • City
  • Region
  • World

A Prison one environment, two ideas, one game
  • Piranesi and Bentham (pictures)
  • Sanitarium pictures (combining the
    2)coexhistence of opposing ways to understand
    prison, bad for control freaks and for

Game Examples
  • Alice
  • Undying
  • Bioshock

Assorted Principia
  • We notice animals more than we notice objects
    (Nature magazine).
  • Hidden skeleton of objects (Peter Stebbing)
  • Perceiving the world as a solipsist where
    everything has possibly a hidden message for each
    persona (airplane analogy)

Assorted Principia
  • Alien vs predator (exploring same space in
    different paths as different characters)
  • Behave mentally navigate the spaces about to be
    created with the attitude of each persona and
    list elements you want to have included.
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