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Between the World Wars

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Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible ... As World War II progressed, Hitler began forcing Jews into concentration camps, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Between the World Wars


1
Between the World Wars
2
The Struggle for Change in Latin America
  • Mexican Revolution
  • Porfirio Diaz brought economic growth, but
    peasants suffered. Removed from power in 1911.
  • Pancho Villa Emiliano Zapata Leaders of
    Northern Southern Mexico who fought for power
    after Madero was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza elected President in 1917.

3
The Struggle for Change in Latin America
  • Constitution of 1917
  • It permitted the breakup of large estates.
  • Placed restrictions on foreigners owning land.
  • Nationalization government takeover of natural
    resources.
  • Church land was made property of the nation.
  • Minimum wage set, protected workers right to
    strike.
  • Male suffrage only, but females received some
    protection.
  • Same pay for same work.
  • Married women could draw up contracts, take part
    in legal suits, and have equal authority with men
    in spending family funds.
  • Roosevelt Corollary A political policy of the
    United States by President Theodore Roosevelt
    that states only the United States could
    intervene in the affairs of South America.
  • Good Neighbor Policy Franklin Roosevelts plan
    to ensure allies to the South by removing
    stationed troops and the Platt Amendment.

4
Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle
East
  • Kenya South Africa Nigeria

5
Biography Kemal Ataturk
  • Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible
    for modernizing and westernizing his country
    after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist
    imperialist attempts at takeover by various
    European powers.
  • Westernization To adopt western ideas and
    culture.
  • ModernizationTo change something to make it
    conform to modern standards

(1881-1938)
6
Zionism
  • Definition Jewish nationalist movement to
    establish a homeland in Palestine. This movement
    began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings
    intensified in Europe. The main leader of this
    movement was a journalist by the name of Theodor
    Herzl. Herzl's dream of a homeland for Jewish
    peoples was realized in 1948 with the creation of
    Israel.
  • Impact Balfour Declaration issued by Britain in
    1917 promised a national home for the Jews.
  • Importance Following WWI the Allies had promised
    the Arabs land including Palestine. This set the
    stage for conflict between the Arab and Jewish
    people.

7
Indian Self-Rule
  • Tragedy at Amristar April 3rd of 1919. British
    soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men,
    women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more.
    People had gathered in the center of town to
    protest British occupation of their country, and
    to demand equality. This was a turning point in
    British domination of India. Independence
    movements became very popular and eventually
    forced India's independence.

8
Biography Mohandas Gandhi
  • Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non
    violent revolution to gain his countrys freedom
    from the British Empire.
  • The Salt March (1930) Passive resistance campaign
    where Indians protested the British tax on salt
    by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
  • Results of WWII for India Britain postponed
    independence and brought India into the war
    without consulting them.

(1869-1948)
Pakistan, translates as the land of the
ritually pure. A separate Muslim state devis
ed by Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinna
h who like Gandhi learned Law in England.
9
Problems in China
  • Foreign Imperialism The early 1900s showed
    increased influence by foreign merchants,
    missionaries and soldiers over Chinese ports.
  • 21 Demands
  • Cause Too weak to resist Japan, Yuan gave into
    Japans demands.
  • Effect This move by Japan triggered a
    nationalistic surge in China, which led to
    rebellion.

10
Problems in China
  • May 4th Movement
  • A patriotic outburst of new urban intellectuals
    university students against foreign imperialists
    and warlords.
  • Biographies
  • Jiang Jieshi (1887-1975) After the death of Sun
    Yixian, he became the leader of the Guomindang,
    or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep
    China from becoming communist, and to resist the
    Japanese during World War II. He lost control of
    China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup
    a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai
    Shek.
  • Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist
    Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and
    the Nationalists. Established China as the
    Peoples Republic of China and ruled from 1949
    until 1976.

11
The Long March
  • 6000 mile march that Mao Zedong and his Communist
    Party underwent to avoid being captured and
    killed by Chinas Nationalist Party.
  • Effects
  • Soldiers gained discipline.
  • Communists gained popularity with peasants.
  • Gained a base in Northern China to fight the
    Guomindang.

12
Empire of the Rising Sun
  • Causes
  • The government reduced military spending.
  • In the spirit of world peace, Japan agreed to
    limit size of navy.
  • Economy grew slowly during the 1920s and the
    Great Depression crippled the economy.
  • Ultranationalists emerged, angry at poor economy
    and lack of overseas expansion.
  • Manchurian Incident (1931) Japanese army
    officers took over Manchuria without government
    approval.
  • As a result Japan withdrew from the League of
    Nations and the public sided with the military.

13
Rise of Militarism in Japan
  • Effects
  • Early 1930s ultranationalists were winning
    popular support
  • Politicians and business leaders who opposed
    expansion were assassinated.
  • Military leaders briefly occupied Tokyo in 1936.
  • Traditional values were revived.
  • Most Democratic freedoms ended.
  • Education focused on absolute obedience to the
    emperor and service to the state.
  • While fighting against China, WWII broke out,
    Japan sided with Germany and Italy.

14
Western Democracies Between the Wars
  • League of Nations Locarno Treaties
    Kellogg-Briand Pact

15
Recovery Depression
  • Global Imbalance
  • Increases
  • Industrial workers wages
  • Price of Manufactured Goods
  • Supply of factory goods
  • Decreases
  • Farmers earnings
  • Manufactured goods purchased
  • Demand
  • The Crash
  • The crash of the NY Stock Exchange that triggered
    the Great Depression.

16
The Depression Its Effects
  • Great Depression (1929-1939)
  • The dramatic decline in the worlds economy due
    to the United States stock market crash of 1929,
    the overproduction of goods from World War I, and
    decline in the need for raw materials from non
    industrialized nations.
  • Results in millions of people losing their jobs
    as banks and businesses closed around the world.
    Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had
    to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to
    eat. World trade also declined as many countries
    imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to
    restore their economies.

17
European Countries Struggling Following WWI
  • Great Britain
  • Experienced a general strike in 1926 due to
    unemployment and low wages.
  • Questions over Irish Independence.
  • Loss of Canada, Australia, New Zealand South
    Africa to self-government.
  • Policy of lenience toward Germany angered
    France.
  • France
  • WWI fighting devastated Northern France.
  • France suffered enormous casualties.
  • Not as effected by Great Depression due to
    reparations and territories received from
    Germany.
  • The Maginot Line A line of heavy munitions,
    which France constructed on its border with
    Germany. It was of little use when Germany
    invaded in 1940.
  • Germany
  • Faced the Treaty of Versailles, which stated that
    Germany had to pay reparations for causing the
    war, cut their army, and they also lost land,
    including Alsace-Lorraine to France.
  • It had a huge impact on their economy as well as
    their morale, which is why the German people were
    so keen to believe Hitler and the Nazis when they
    said they would better Germany and make it like
    it was before the Treaty.

18
The Rise of New Governments
  • Fascism is
  • What Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler
    in Germany used to gain power and control over
    their countries.
  • Totalitarian rule that is imperialist
    anti-communist.
  • Limited capitalism
  • Censorship
  • Use of terror violence
  • Strong military
  • State control of economy
  • Extreme nationalism

19
Biography Mussolini
  • (1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the
    Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and
    Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was
    overthrown and assassinated by the Italian
    Resistance.

20
Fascism V. Communism
  • Rule by dictator
  • Limited capitalism
  • Ruled by the Communist Party
  • Command economy

Totalitarian Rule A Single Party Dictatorship St
ate control of the economy Use of police spies an
d terror to enforce the will of the state
Strict censorship and government monopoly of the
media Use of schools and the media to indoctrinat
e and mobilize citizens Unquestioning obedience t
o a single leader
21
Nazi Rise to Power
  • World War I
  • The Treaty of Versailles was extremely unfair to
    Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame
    for the war. It is a major cause of World War
    II.
  • Weak Government
  • Once the Weimar Republic accepted the Treaty of
    Versailles their time was limited.
  • Economic Problems
  • Hyperinflation As a result of paying reparations
    for war guilt, the rate of inflation hit 3.25
    106 percent per month (prices double every 49
    hours).
  • Leadership
  • Anxiously looking for a leader to change the
    fortunes of the country, Germany turned to Adolf
    Hitler.

22
Biography Adolf Hitler
  • (1889-1945) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He
    co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained
    control of the country as chancellor in 1933.
    Hitler started World War II with the invasion of
    Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust.
  • Mein Kampf Hitlers book, which explains the
    Nazis political ideology and goals.
  • The Third Reich - refers to Germany from the
    start of Adolf Hitler's government in 1933 until
    the beginning of denazification in 1945.

23
The Decline of German Culture and Religion
  • Why?
  • As Hitler took control of Germany he silenced
    supposed enemies of the state by persecuting
    Catholics and Jews. Gypsies, homosexuals,
    African-European, and mentally ill people were
    also murdered. Germany became a state of police
    spies and neighbors often turned on each other to
    stay on Hitlers good side.
  • Nazi Treatment of Jews
  • Hitler began his program by first limiting the
    rights of Jews through the Nuremberg Laws. Jews
    were restricted to a separate part of town,
    called a Ghetto, could no longer run businesses,
    nor could they marry outside of their race.
  • Concentration Camps
  • As World War II progressed, Hitler began forcing
    Jews into concentration camps, where they were
    either immediately murdered, usually by poison
    gas, or used as slave labor until they died.
    Their bodies were disposed of through cremation
    in the concentration camp ovens. The Nazis also
    used Jews in horrific pseudo medical
    experiments.
  • As a result the United Nations passed the
    Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948
    stating that all people had certain basic rights
    including life, liberty, equality, justice and
    self determination.

24
Two Nights of Terror
  • Kristalnacht (The Night of Broken Glass)
  • In 1938 on November 9th 10th, Nazi SA
    Stormtroopers were encouraged to begin street
    violence against Jewish shops, synagogues, and
    institutions. In all, 200 synagogues were burned,
    homes were destroyed with axes and sledgehammers,
    people were thrown from windows into the street,
    kicked to death, beaten with fists and
    truncheons, stabbed, and shot.
  • Authoritarian Rule in Eastern Europe
  • Dictators in Spain, Italy, Germany and
    militarists in Japan threatened world peace
    leading to World War II.

25
World War II
  • Causes

26
Aggressive Steps Toward WWII
  • 1931 Japan seizes Manchuria.
  • 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia and conquered them
    a year later.
  • 1936 Germany sends troops to the
    demilitarized zone in the Rhineland.
  • 1937 Japan overruns much of Eastern China.
  • 1938 Anschluss, or union of Austria Germany.
  • 1938 Munich Conference, Germany agrees to stop
    their aggression in exchange for the
    Sudetenland.
  • 1939 Francisco Franco wins the Spanish Civil
    War with support from Germany and Italy. Franco
    himself set-up a fascist state and the War acted
    as a dress rehearsal for WWII.
  • 1939 Germany attacked Poland, an act of
    aggression that started World War II.

27
Road to War
  • Hitlers Challenge
  • Hitler challenged the will of western democracies
    and found them to be weak.
  • Appeasement
  • These western democracies gave in to Hitlers
    demands to keep the peace.
  • Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
  • An agreement by Italy, Germany, and Japan to
    fight Soviet Communism.

28
Road to War cont…
  • German Expansion
  • Reasons
  • Hitler wanted to bring all German-speaking people
    into the Third Reich.
  • He needed Lebensraum or living space for his
    superior Aryan Race.
  • Goals
  • Conquer or remove millions of the inferior
    Slavs.
  • Annexed Austria and conquered Czechoslovakia.
  • Peace in Our Time
  • Meaning Who said it?
  • Neville Chamberlain claimed that the Munich
    Conference had halted Hitler.
  • Winston Churchill would later say They had to
    choose between war and dishonor. They chose
    dishonor they will have war.
  • Navi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
  • Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to peaceful
    relations, such as
  • Not to fight if the other went to war.
  • To divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern
    Europe.

29
The Global Conflict Axis Advances
  • Invasion of Poland
  • One week after the Nazi-Soviet pact, France and
    Britain declared war on Germany when it invaded
    Poland.
  • Attack of France
  • When fight ceased in the winter of 1939 people
    called WWII the Phony War.
  • As German forces poured into France with their
    blitzkrieg (lightning war), retreating forces
    were trapped creating the miracle at Dunkirk.
  • France would surrender in June 1940.
  • The Battle of Britain
  • A stunning air offensive in which Germany bombed
    Britain on and off from September 1940 June
    1941.
  • Instead of destroying Britain the British were
    more determined to fight back. The British were
    saved when Hitler turned his attention to the
    Soviet Union.

30
U.S. Involvement
  • Lend Lease Act
  • Agreement of the U.S. to remain neutral, but
    still supply arms to countries fighting for
    freedom.
  • Pearl Harbor
  • After the U.S. stopped the sale of natural
    resources to Japan and talks broke down General
    Hideki Tojo ordered an attack on Pearl Harbor on
    12/7/1941.

31
Occupied Lands
  • German Occupation
  • The Nazis believed that conquered land was an
    economic resource to be plundered and looted.
  • Treatment of Jews
  • In addition to taking economic resources Hitler
    wanted to kill all people he judged to be
    racially inferior, particularly Jews.

32
Turning Points in the War
  • U.S. Entry following Pearl Harbor.
  • Battle of El Alamein (1942) Allied victory over
    German general Rommel in Egypt.
  • Invasion of Italy (1943) Allied victory that
    forced Mussolini from power and Hitler to fight a
    third front.
  • Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43) Russia pushed
    the Nazis back and Germany lost over 300,000
    troops.
  • Invasion of Normandy (1944) June 6th, D-Day
    when the Allied forces attacked France to push
    back Germany.

33
Toward Victory
  • Island-Hopping Campaign
  • The goal of American forces was to recapture some
    Japanese-held islands while bypassing others.
    Captured islands served as stepping stones for
    movement toward Japan.
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • A month-long battle that was Hitlers last
    success, albeit in defeat as it delayed the
    Allied advance.
  • Yalta Conference
  • Sensing the end was near Churchill, Roosevelt and
    Stalin met on the Crimean peninsula. Each leader
    had an agenda as Roosevelt asked for Soviet
    support in the U.S. Pacific War against Japan
    Churchill pressed for free elections and
    democratic governments in Eastern Europe
    (specifically Poland) and Stalin demanded a
    Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern
    Europe, as essential to the USSR's national
    security.

34
Difficult Decision The Atomic Bomb
  • Reasons For
  • Invasion would cost a million of more
    casualties.
  • Japanese proved that they would fight to the
    death rather than surrender.
  • Impress the Soviets with American power.
  • Reasons Against
  • Incredibly powerful
  • Led to the deaths of 100,000 civilians.
  • Results
  • After dropping bombs on Hiroshima Nagasaki,
    Emperor Hirohito intervened on August 10, 1945
    and surrendered.

35
Impact of World War II
  • Human Losses
  • As many as 75 million people lost their lives as
    a result of World War II.
  • Economic Losses
  • Total War had gutted cities, factories, harbors,
    bridges, railroads, farms, homes and lives.
  • Holocaust War Crimes trials
  • At Auschwitz alone Rudolf Hoess supervised the
    killing of 2 ½ million Jews.
  • Over 142 Germans and Austrians were found guilty
    of crimes against humanity, and a handful of
    top Nazis received death sentences.
  • Occupied Nations
  • Allied troops occupied Germany and Japan to
    strengthen Democracy to ensure tolerance and
    peace.
  • United Nations
  • Security organization that was created in April
    1945. In addition to peacekeeping the UN has
    taken on problems such as diseases, education,
    struggling economies.
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