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World War II

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World War II. A World At Conflict. The US and Europe. Isolationism withdraw from affairs ... War Debts and Reparations. Creditor Nation. No canceling debts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • A World At Conflict

2
The US and Europe
  • Isolationism withdraw from affairs
  • Unilateralism independent action
  • No League of Nations World Court
  • Disarmament

3
The US and Peace
  • Treaties - 1921
  • Five Power Agreement
  • Four Power Agreement
  • Nine Power Treaty
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact - 1928
  • Outlawed war
  • Self-defense
  • No enforcement
  • 62 countries

4
War Debts and Reparations
  • Creditor Nation
  • No canceling debts
  • Reduced interest rates
  • Allies get money?
  • Germany
  • Borrows from England
  • Prints money inflation
  • Loans extended reparations

5
Dictatorships and Fascism
  • Italy
  • Mussolini
  • Germany
  • Hitler
  • Spain
  • Franco
  • Japan
  • Hirohito / Tojo

6
Fascism
  • Military dominated government
  • Control everything
  • Oppressive measures
  • Limit civil liberties
  • Arrest political opponents

7
Italy
  • Against Communist party
  • Aligned Nationalists, business people
  • Dictatorial powers
  • 1935 Ethiopia
  • US ban of aid to both, hurt Eth. more
  • African Americans wanted to help, not allowed

8
Germany
  • Nazi Party
  • 1932 Elections
  • 40, Chancellor
  • Jews, Intellectuals Communists
  • Anti-Semitism
  • 1938, Kristallnacht
  • 1936 Rhineland
  • 1938 Austria, Sudetenland
  • US No intervention

9
Spain
  • Conservatives
  • Threatened by liberal reforms
  • Overthrow gov
  • Spanish Civil War
  • Fascists vs. Loyalists
  • Involvement
  • Germany and Italy
  • Soviet Union
  • US no aid
  • Abraham Lincoln Brigade 3,000
  • Ernest Hemingway

10
Japan
  • Separation of military and govt
  • Goals
  • Less foreign influence
  • Less imports
  • Natural resources
  • 1931 Manchuria, Korea
  • US no intervention

11
World Response
  • US Soviet relations
  • US recognizes USSR 1933
  • Germany Italy
  • Axis powers
  • Munich Conference 1938
  • Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, Daladier
  • Sudetenland to GR Peace for our time
  • Appeasement
  • US neutrality laws
  • Goods shipped by warring nations

12
Star Questions
  • What gave rise to dictators in the 1920s and 30s?
    Explain.
  • What impact did the policy of appeasement toward
    Hitler have on Europe?

13
War
  • 1939
  • Claims Czechoslovakia
  • Albania (Italy)
  • Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact 1939 a nonaggression pact
    with Soviet Union
  • Divide Poland (secret)
  • Invades Poland
  • Blitzkrieg
  • Soviets East Baltic States Finland
  • Declare War
  • Lend-Lease Act
  • Britain Allies, 7 billion

14
France Falls
  • May 1940 - Maginot Line
  • France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg,
    Denmark, Norway
  • Vichy France
  • June 1940 Italy declares war on France, Britain

15
Japan
  • Axis
  • By 1941
  • Korea
  • China
  • French Indochina
  • US
  • Embargo
  • Freeze assets
  • Peace mission

16
US Enters the War
  • 12/07/1941
  • Pearl Harbor
  • 20 warships
  • 200 aircraft
  • 2,400 Americans
  • a date which will live in infamy

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17
Axis vs. Allied Powers
  • Control over invaded territories
  • Better prepared
  • Fight 4 Fronts
  • Western Europe
  • The Pacific
  • The Mediterranean
  • Northern Africa
  • Resources

18
Japanese Offensive
  • Attack - 1942
  • Guam, Wake Island
  • Hong Kong,
  • Thailand, Burma
  • Philippines
  • Gen. MacArthur
  • Bataan Death March
  • 10,000 of 70,000 die
  • Treat - prisoners
  • Singapore
  • Battle of Java Sea
  • US, GB, Neth., Aus.

19
Turning the Tide
  • US Pacific Fleet Admiral Nimitz
  • The Battle of Coral Sea May 42
  • N. E. coast of Australia Solomon Isl.
  • US GB stop Japanese advance
  • The Battle of Midway June 42
  • J 2 prong offensive Alaska Hawaii
  • Breaking Code stayed Midway
  • The Battle of Guadalcanal August 42
  • Solomon Islands
  • Toehold around airport 6mo. battle

20
Europe and the Mediterranean
  • Axis Powers
  • Stronghold west, south, Med.
  • Attacking Soviet Union
  • Control Atlantic
  • 1942 6 months- 500 Allied ships off US shore
  • Northern Africa
  • Germany Erwin Rommel Desert Fox
  • El Alamein, Egypt Goal Suez Canal

21
Allied Turning Points
  • Battle of El Alamein Fall 42
  • Rommel supply shortage
  • General Montgomery GB push west
  • Battle of Stalingrad Feb 43
  • Russian winter
  • 1/3 of German force
  • US Resources
  • Cooperative planning
  • War aims, strategic planning (26 Allies)

22
Defeat
  • North Africa
  • Operation Torch
  • West East Afr.
  • Gen. Eisenhower
  • Italy July 43
  • Sicily (1 month)
  • King new P.M. Mussolinis arrest
  • Sept. Armistice
  • Rome June 44

23
Defeat
  • Atlantic
  • U-Boat threat
  • Sonar, escorts, bombs
  • France June 44
  • General Eisenhower
  • False installations
  • Calais v. Normandy
  • D-Day
  • 150,000 soldiers
  • 23,000 airborne
  • 1 week 15 miles
  • Paris August 44

24
Defeat
  • Germany Sep. 44
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Ardennes (Belgium)
  • 200,000 Germans
  • Bulge in front
  • Rush support
  • Yalta Conference
  • GB, USA, USSR 45
  • Divide Germany
  • Post war peace org.
  • Bombing
  • Dresden
  • 30,000 60,000
  • Hitler
  • April 30, 1945
  • Surrender
  • Unconditional
  • May 7, 1945
  • V-E Day (Victory in Europe)

25
Defeat
  • Philippines
  • General MacArthur
  • New Guinea 1st
  • Marianas
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • Heavy losses - Japan
  • Island-hopping
  • Strategic islands
  • Cut Japan off
  • Gilbert, Marshall,
  • Mariana Islands
  • Battle of the Philippine Seas
  • Heavy losses - Japan
  • Saipan, Guam
  • Provided airfields for missions against J

26
Defeat
  • Attack Japan
  • Battle of Iwo Jima
  • Feb 45 - 1 month
  • Battle of Okinawa
  • 49,000 US
  • 100,000 Japanese
  • Kamikaze
  • Atomic Bomb
  • FDR Truman
  • Unconditional surrender
  • Hiroshima Aug. 6
  • Enola Gay
  • 75,000
  • Nagasaki Aug. 9
  • 2nd Bomb
  • Sept. 2, 1945
  • Emperor stays on throne

27
Star Question
  • Answer the following question To what extent
    was the US justified in using the atomic bomb on
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

28
Home Front
  • War mobilization
  • War Production Board
  • War bonds
  • Taxes
  • Rationing
  • Selective Training and Service Act
  • 21 35 (18 37)
  • Promoting the War
  • Movies, radio, music

29
Home Front
  • Japanese American
  • Internment camps
  • 119,000
  • Issei (EE-SAY)
  • Nisei (NEE-SAY) (born)
  • Military duty
  • Patriotism
  • These camps were all barbed wire, guard towers,
    search lights. Norman Mineta
  • Supreme Court upheld
  • 1988 reparations

30
Home Front
  • African Americans
  • 1 million
  • Segregated
  • Combat 43
  • Tuskegee Airmen
  • Elite air unit
  • A. Philip Randolph
  • Protest
  • Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • Lacked enforcement

31
Home Front
  • Women
  • Work pay
  • Rosie the Riveter
  • Mexican Americans
  • Blue-Devils
  • 300,000
  • Zoot-suit riots 43
  • Native Americans
  • Navajo Code Talkers
  • Never broken!

32
Star Activity
  • Based on what we have learned so far, make an
    original propaganda poster to support the
    American home front. Please also include a
    written explanation of your theme/topic and what
    the poster is attempting to say. You will be
    graded on effort, neatness, historical relevance
    and clarity of explanation.

33
The Holocaust
  • Final Solution
  • Genocide
  • Concentration camps Dachau
  • Death camps Auschwitz, Treblinka, Birkenau,
  • 6 Million Jewish
  • Gypsies, Poles, dissidents, opponents,
    Communists, others
  • Gassing, experimentation

34
Japanese Atrocities
  • People in occupied countries and POWs
  • Biological, chemical thermal tests
  • Poison gas
  • Forced sexual slavery
  • Ethnic cleansing
  • Nanjing

35
The Postwar World
  • Germany
  • Potsdam
  • 4 zones
  • Joint admin Berlin
  • Crush Nazi party
  • Reestablish govt
  • Rebuild
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • 11 leaders to death
  • 7 jailed, 3 acquitted
  • More trials
  • Japan
  • US administered
  • 1945-52
  • End militarism
  • Economic reforms
  • Democracy
  • 1947 Constitution
  • Voting rights women
  • War crimes
  • 7 leaders to death
  • More trials

36
United Nations
  • Alliance Peace
  • Charter - April 45
  • 50 nations
  • General Assembly
  • Security Council
  • Econ. social council
  • Intl Court Justice
  • Trusteeship Council
  • Secretariat

37
Demobilization
  • GI Bill of Rights
  • Employment Act
  • Full employment
  • Minorities lost
  • Inflation
  • Labor unrest
  • Strikes 5 million
  • Taft-Hartley Act
  • Anti-union
  • Limited union power
  • corrected advantages given to Unions in 1935

38
Demobilization
  • The Committee on Civil Rights
  • 1946 - Truman
  • Action
  • Poll tax, segregation
  • Discrimination
  • Lynching
  • Report
  • Abuses KKK
  • Action
  • A. Philip Randolph
  • Civil disobedience
  • Truman ban descrim. in Fed. jobs

39
1948 Election
  • Democrats split 3 ways
  • Truman supporters
  • Progressive party
  • Pro-labor, extend New Deal, Communists
  • Southern Democrats against Truman
  • Dixiecrats continued segregation
  • Strom Thurmond (Gov. of S. Carolina)
  • Truman won Fair Deal program
  • Full employment, higher min. wages, health
    insurance, affordable housing, aid to farmers

40
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