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World War II

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Title: World War II


1
World War II
  • -Key Concepts-

2
I. The Pacific Theater
  • The surrender of the Philippine Islands
  • Japanese ran wild for six months
  • Dolittle Raid (April, 1942)
  • Battle of Coral Sea (May, 1942)
  • Battle of Midway Island (June, 1942)
  • Battle of Guadalcanal (Fall, 1942)

3
I. The Pacific Theater (cont.)
  • Reasons for delay in defeating the Japanese
  • --Kamikaze
  • Efforts to recapture the Philippines
  • --Battle of Leyte Gulf (October, 1944)
  • Island hopping
  • --Battle of the Philippine Sea (June, 1944)

4
I. Pacific Theater (cont.)
  • Iwo Jima and Okinawa (1945)
  • Conflict between MacArthur and Nimitz
  • American bombing strategy
  • -- fire storm technique

5
I. Pacific Theater (cont.)
  • Reasons for decision to use the atomic bomb
  • Development and production of the A-bomb
  • Little Boy and Fat Man (August 6 9, 1945)
  • Soviet declaration of war against the Japanese
  • Japanese surrender

6
II. The War in Europe
7
A. Background
  • European war was the focus of American attention
  • Distribution of German firepower
  • Effectiveness of German submarines off the east
    coast in 1942
  • 26 belligerents sign a declaration of United
    nations (January 1, 1942)
  • No US action in this theater until November of
    1942

8
B. Differing Strategies for Fighting the Germans
  • British Strategy
  • -- peripheral campaign
  • US Strategy
  • --Second front in France as soon as possible
  • Soviet Strategy
  • --Second front in France as soon as possible

9
C. Land Operations November, 1942-June, 1944
  • Landing in North Africa Operation Torch
  • --British General Bernard Montgomery
  • --German General Irwin Rommel
  • The Battle of the Atlantic

10
C. Land Operations November, 1942-June, 1944
(cont.)
  • Casablanca Conference (January, 1943)
  • Campaign against Germans in Sicily and then
    Italy
  • No end to the war without unconditional surrender
    of all enemies
  • The Italian campaign (September, 1943-May, 1945)

11
D. D-Day Allied Landing in Northern France
(June, 1944)
  • American Bombing strategy against Germany
  • Operation Overlord
  • George Patton used as a decoy
  • The Breakout at St. Lo (late July)
  • Assassination plot against Hitler by German High
    Officer Command

12
E. From D-Day to the German Surrender
  • Eisenhowers decision-making in the fall of 1944
  • Battle of the Bulge (December, 1944)
  • Hitlers suicide (April 30, 1945)
  • Capture of Berlin and German surrender (May 8,
    1945)
  • News of the Holocaust and the Nuremberg Trials

13
III. Mobilization at Home
14
A. Economic Conversion
  • Mobilization was further along at the time of
    Pearl Harbor than it had been when war was
    declared during World War I
  • Economy partially mobilized as well by lend-lease
    and defense efforts
  • Creation of War Production Board (WPB) in January
    of 1942
  • Use of rationing to conserve war resources
  • Big Inch pipeline laid from Texas to New York
  • Office of Scientific Research and Development
  • Government spending increased dramatically

15
B. Financing the War
  • 45 of World War II paid for with taxes
  • Institution of the automatic payroll deduction
  • 150 billion worth of bonds sold
  • Tremendous increase in the national debtsix
    times the size of the debt at the time of Pearl
    Harbor
  • Finding workers is now the problem, not finding
    jobs for unemployed people

16
C. Economic Controls
  • Specter of inflation haunted the US economy
  • The Office of Price Administration (OPA) created
    by Congress in January of 1942
  • Wages and farm prices were not controlled
  • Farm prices rose 150 over 1914 levels
  • Conflict between management and workers grew
    during the War
  • FDRs Hold the Line Order (April, 1943)

17
D. Social Effects Women
  • Women in the armed forces
  • 6 million women entered the work force
  • Large numbers even in heavy industry
  • Larger proportion of older, married women
    working
  • Still, some vocal opponents to the trend

18
E. Social Effects Blacks
  • The inflammable issue of Black participation in
    the defense effort
  • Segregated units
  • Tuskegee Airmen
  • Threat of the march on Washington (February,
    1941)

19
E. Social Effects Blacks
  • The Double V campaign (1942)
  • Membership in the NAACP grows
  • Smith v. Allwright (1944)
  • Violence on Belle Isle, near Detroit (June 20-21,
    1943)

20
F. Social Effects Japanese-Americans
  • Better record overall regarding American civil
    liberties than during WWI
  • Japanese War Relocation Camps
  • Racial prejudice stirred up by Pearl Harbor
  • Contributions to the war effort by
    Japanese-Americans

21
G. Domestic Politics
  • Growing political conservatism marked the wartime
    period
  • Congress dismantles many of the remaining New
    Deal programs
  • Congress generally cooperated with the
    Administrations war efforts
  • --Senate War Investigating Committee led by
    Missouri Senator Harry S. Truman
  • Roosevelts Election to a Fourth Term

22
The Yalta Conference(February, 1945)
23
A. Background
  • The relationship between FDR, Churchill and
    Stalin
  • Reasons for tension between the US and the USSR
  • United in the goal of defeating the Germans, but
    different war aims beyond that

24
B. War Aims
  • Russian War Aims
  • --Heavy Reparations and sympathetic governments
    in Eastern Europe
  • British War Aims
  • --Balance of Power in Europe
  • American War Aims
  • --Free trade, Free elections and Free governments

25
C. Resolution of the Issues
  • Germany divided into temporary zones of
    occupation
  • Joint occupation of Berlin
  • Reparation payments
  • The status of Eastern European countries
  • --Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania
  • The boundaries and the government of Poland
  • --Lublin government pro-Soviet

26
C. Resolution of the Issues (cont.)
  • The Yalta Formula
  • Soviets demanded friendly governments in
    Eastern Europe
  • FDR needs Soviet assistance with the Japanese
  • The creation of the United Nations with
    guarantees of American membership

27
D. Historical Controversy Surrounding Yalta
  • Was FDR healthy and in his right mind? Did he
    give away too much?
  • Soviet pledge to make war on Japan in exchange
    for certain concessions
  • Reasons for FDRs bargain with Stalin to gain
    Soviet assistance against Japan
  • A defense of the Yalta decisions

28
V. War-Time Changes for American Society and
Politics
  • Casualties and cost of WWII
  • Improvement in Medical Technology
  • Creation of a military bureaucracy
  • --National Security Act (July, 1947)
  • --Defense Department, Joint Chiefs of Staff, CIA

29
V. War-Time Changes (cont.)
  • Creation of the Atomic Energy Commission (August,
    1946)
  • Creation of a military-industrial complex
  • Power of the American presidency continues to
    grow
  • Presidential Succession Act (1947) and the 22nd
    Amendment (1951)

30
VI. Demobilization
  • Not too bad after WWII
  • Rapid demobilization and the problems it creates
  • The G.I. Bill (1944)
  • -- 52/20 Club
  • --low interest home loans
  • --stipend plus tuition to return to or go to
    college
  • Impact of the G.I. Bill on American society and
    college campuses

31
VII. Inflation
  • Inflation was not too big of a problem during
    WWII
  • Trumans unpopular attempt to keep the controls
    on
  • Inflation increased dramatically between
    1945-1948
  • Truman criticized for these woes
  • Return of inflation later

32
VIII. The Changing Economic Role of the National
Government
  • The New Deal and World War II brought greater
    federal intervention in the national economy than
    ever before
  • The Full Employment Act of 1946
  • --Created an Office of Economic Advisors
  • Trumans problems with conservatives in Congress
  • Federal government would stay committed to
    national economic health

33
IX. American Farming During and After the War
  • Farmers did well during WWII
  • Number of farms and farmers steadily decreased
  • Burst in mechanized, large-scale farming and
    agribusiness
  • Centralization of farming was the clear post-war
    trend in agriculture

34
X. The Labor Movement During the War and After
  • During WWII, the American labor movement was
    strong and getting stronger
  • Why did union strength begin to fall off after
    WWII?
  • --traditional union members were already
    organized
  • --unionization did not do well in the post-war
    south
  • --post-war prosperity hurt the strength of
    unions
  • --Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
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