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OSU Horticulture

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OSU Horticulture – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OSU Horticulture


1
Capture Recycle Technology A Pollution
Prevention Toolfor the Green Industry
  • OSU Horticulture Landscape Architecture
  • Dr. Mike Schnelle
  • OSU Plant Pathology
  • Dr. Sharon Von Broembson
  • OSU Biosystems Agricultural Engineering
  • Dr. Mike Smolen
  • Tim Propst

2
Green Industry Water Dependent
3
Green IndustryPollutants
  • Fertilizer N and P
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Herbicides
  • Fungicides
  • Cleaning Supplies Disinfectants
  • Bacteria
  • Sediment

4
Green Industry Pollutants Fertilizer
  • Algae blooms
  • Reduce water clarity
  • Reduce dissolved oxygen
  • Nitrate in ground water

5
Green Industry PollutantsPesticides
  • Leach into soil, ground water
  • Human and environmental health risk
  • High clean-up costs
  • Insecticides harm aquatic insects
  • Threatens food chain stability

6
Green Industry PollutantsCleaning Supplies
Disinfectants
  • Hazardous to environment
  • Hazardous to water treatment systems

7
Green Industry PollutantsBacteria
8
Green Industry PollutantsSediment
  • Nonpoint Source Public Enemy 1
  • Interrupts aquatic ecosystem processes
  • Clogs drainage flooding
  • Carries other pollutants with it

9
Green Industry Water Quality Concerns
10
Green IndustryWhere does the water go?
  • Percolates through the greenhouse floor
  • Runs off to a storm drain or the sanitary sewer
  • Runs into a creek

11
Water Management
12
Water ManagementKeys
  • Avoid contamination
  • Limit the amount used
  • Recycle and re-use

13
Water ManagementProtect Your Water Source
  • Examine the casing and construction of your well
  • Test your well
  • Close and properly seal abandoned wells

14
Water ManagementIrrigation Water Quality
  • Backflow prevention
  • Backflow prevention
  • Backflow prevention
  • Get the idea???

15
Water ManagementBackflow Prevention
  • Install backflow prevention devices and properly
    train personnel
  • Ensure someone is near the spray tank during all
    filling and mixing operations
  • Fill tanks with water first, then move away from
    water source to add pesticide or fertilizer
  • Test well water regularly for contamination

16
Water ManagementRunoff Storm Water
  • Know all irrigation runoff regulations
  • Determine if a water discharge permit is required
  • Determine quantity of runoff
  • Compare the quality of irrigation water and
    runoff with water quality standards and
    regulations
  • Develop a plan to manage off-site storm water and
    runoff from the nursery

17
Water ManagementLimit Use
  • Over-watering leaches fertilizers and pesticides
    into soil
  • Reduces product effectiveness
  • Increases cost

18
Water ManagementIrrigation Management
  • Irrigation Scheduling
  • Match water use to plant needs
  • Irrigation Efficiency
  • Drip irrigation

19
Water ManagementRecycle and Reuse
  • Sub-irrigation
  • Ebb and flow
  • Capture and Recycle

20
Capture and Recycle System Design
  • Runoff irrigation is captured in a network of
    channels and ditches

21
Capture and Recycle System Design
  • Irrigation runoff is diverted to retention basins
    for storage or back onto production areas

22
Capture and Recycle Operational Basics
  • Allow collected water to settle before re-use
  • If needed, treat to eliminate pathogens/pesticides
    before re-use
  • Mix re-cycled water with freshwater to improve
    water quality
  • Use freshwater on the most sensitive crops

23
Capture and RecycleGoals
  • Conserve water and reduce water and energy costs
  • Increase control over water availability and
    quality while meeting environmental objectives
  • Promote a positive public perception, which is
    important for business

24
Capture and Recycle Advantages
  • Pollution prevention
  • Reduced water and energy costs
  • Steady water supply
  • Storm water control
  • Greater management flexibility

25
Capture and Recycle Disadvantages
  • Implementation can be costly
  • Water-borne pathogens (e.g., Phyto-phthora spp.)
    are recycled onto crops
  • Build-up of salts and pesticides

26
What About Plant Pathogens Recycled in the
Irrigation Water?
27
Disease Management
28
Disease ManagementDetermine a Baseline Level
  • Collect water samples at the source, runoff
    sites, and points of use

29
Disease ManagementDetermine a Baseline Level
  • Float leaf baits (e.g. rhododendron or lemon
    leaves) in retention basin

30
Disease ManagementDetermine a Baseline Level
  • Obtain soil samples to detect pathogens in
    production beds

31
Disease ManagementReduce Infection Risk
  • Store and mix captured runoff to promote settling
    out and dilution of pathogens
  • Draw water from the middle level of retention
    basins to avoid pathogens
  • Decontaminate infected water, as necessary

32
Disease ManagementDisinfection Methods
  • Retention and Dilution

33
Disease ManagementDisinfection Methods
  • Filtration

34
Disease ManagementDisinfection Methods
  • Chlorination

35
Disease ManagementDisinfection Methods
  • Ozonation

36
Disease ManagementDisinfection Methods
  • Ultraviolet radiation

37
Disease ManagementManage Infection Risk
  • Group plant types according to their disease
    susceptibility
  • Know the cleanliness of all water in the
    nursery and plan water use accordingly

38
What about Fertilizers in a Capture and Recycle
System?
39
Nutrient Management
40
Nutrient ManagementAssess Fertility Needs
  • Account for N and P in the water
  • Test field soils annually to account for
    carry-over of N and other nutrients
  • Test irrigation water sources three times a year
    for salt levels, pH levels, and bicarbonates

41
Nutrient ManagementFertilizer Application
  • Apply only as much as needed
  • Calibrate application equipment
  • Utilize controlled-release fertilizers instead of
    soluble forms

42
Nutrient ManagementGood Housekeeping
  • Store chemicals safely (with proper containment
    for spills) at least 100 ft from water sources
  • Handle chemicals safely
  • Dispose of containers properly
  • Re-use rinsates on labeled crop or as makeup
    water for labeled mix
  • Dispose of excess concentrate properly

43
What about Pesticides in a Capture and Recycle
System?
Integrated Pest Management
44
The IPM ApproachPrevention
  • Host Plant Resistance
  • Produce and market well-adapted resistant species
    and/or cultivars
  • Inspect Incoming Plants
  • Detect and Monitor Pests
  • Visual Inspection
  • Detection and Monitoring Devices

45
The IPM ApproachTreatment
  • Establish Thresholds for Action
  • Cosmetic thresholds
  • Action thresholds
  • Economic thresholds
  • Biological Control
  • Water Management
  • Pesticide Management

46
Pesticide Management Before You Apply
  • Discontinue routine spray programs
  • Treat based on action thresholds
  • Know soil type and depth to ground water at site
  • Consider the vulnerability of the site
  • Evaluate the location of water source
  • Develop an emergency action plan to contain
    pesticide spills

47
Pesticide ManagementPesticide Selection
  • Utilize softer pesticides that are less toxic
    to the environment
  • Utilize pesticides with the least potential for
    surface runoff and leaching

48
Pesticide Management Good Housekeeping
  • Store in a facility with an impermeable floor and
    no floor drain at least 100 ft from water sources
  • Make sure containers and application equipment do
    not leak
  • Mix, handle, and store at least 100 ft from spray
    tank
  • Prevent backflow during mixing

49
Pesticide Management Application
  • Calibrate all application equipment
  • Read and follow label instructions
  • Leave buffer zones around areas such as wells,
    irrigation ditches, streams, etc. that lead to
    ground or surface water
  • Do not apply when conditions are likely to
    produce runoff or excessive leaching
  • Do not spray on windy days

50
Pesticide Management After You Apply
  • Apply excess to labeled sites
  • Do not water treated areas immediately after
    application unless indicated on label
    instructions
  • Triple- or pressure-rinse empty containers - pour
    rinsate into spray tank
  • Keep records of soil and water tests for future

51
SummaryGreen Industry
  • Success dependent on water
  • Potential pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides,
    etc.) threaten water quality
  • Attention to water quality now can avoid problems
    later

52
Summary Pollution Prevention
  • Water Management
  • Disease Management
  • Nutrient Management
  • Pesticide Management

53
SummaryCapture and Recycle
  • Reduces water costs
  • Assures constant water supply
  • Effectively controls storm water
  • Enhances overall management flexibility
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