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Credit valuation adjustment (CVA) is the market price of counterparty credit risk while Funding Valuation Adjustment (FVA) is the funding cost of transacting OTC derivatives. This presentation provides methodology and implementation details at portfolio level. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html

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Financial sensitivities, also referred as Greeks, are the quantities to measure the value change of a financial instrument with respect to changes in underlying factors. It is vital for risk management. Greeks can help financial market participants isolating risk, hedging risk and explaining profit & loss. This presentation gives certain practical insights onto this topic. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html

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Credit value adjustment (CVA) is the market price of counterparty credit risk that has become a central part of counterparty credit risk management. This presentation answers several fundamental questions: what is CVA? Why does CVA become important? How can one compute CVA? You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html

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Market risk economic capital is an internal capital reserve to cover unexpected loss due to market movement. This presentation is intended to answer several fundamental economic capital questions: what is economic capital? What is the difference between economic capital and regulatory capital? How to compute economic capital? You can find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html

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A financial market is a market where people trade financial products. Typical financial markets are the fixed income and interest rate market, the currency market, the equity market, the commodity market and the credit market. This presentation gives an overview of financial market basics. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html.

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Counterparty credit risk (CCR) is the risk that a counterparty defaults prior to the expiration of a contract. The risk measure is credit exposure. As credit exposures in future are stochastic, one needs to simulate market evolution in order to quantify CCR. This presentation provides some details about CCR simulation. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html.

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Counterparty credit risk (CCR) is the risk of loss that will be incurred in the event of default by a counterparty. OTC derivatives and financial security transactions (FSTs) are subject to counterparty risk. . This presentation is intended to answer several fundamental questions: what is CCR? How to measure CCR? What are the provisions governing counterparty risk? You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html

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An interest rate floor is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate floor on the floating rate payments. It consists of a series of European put options (floorlets) on interest rates. The buyer receives payments at the end of each period when the interest rate falls below the strike. In return, the buyer needs to pay an up-front premium to the seller. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate floor products and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrFloor.html

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An interest rate cap is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate ceiling or cap on the floating rate payments. It actually consists of a series of European call options (caplets) on interest rates. The buyer receives payments at the end of each period when the interest rate exceeds the strike. In return, the buyer needs to pay an up-front premium to the seller. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate cap products and valuation model. You can find more financial product presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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An interest rate cap is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate ceiling or cap on the floating rate payments. It consists of a series of European call options (caplets) on interest rates. An amortizing cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract whereas an accreting cap is an interest rate cap whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract. . This presentation gives an overview of interest rate amortizing or accreting cap products and valuation model. You can find more financial product presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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An interest rate future is a futures contract between the buyer and seller to deliver an interest bearing asset, that allows the buyer and seller to lock in the price of the interest bearing asset for a future date. Interest rate futures are used to hedge against interest rate risk. Investors can use Eurodollar futures to secure an interest rate for money it plans to borrow or lend in the future. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate future product and pricing model. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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An interest rate Bermudan swaption gives the holder the right but not the obligation to enter an interest rate swap at predefined dates. It is one of the fundamental ways for an investor to enter a swap. Comparing to regular swaptions, Bermudan swaptions provide market participants more flexibility and control over the exercising of an option and less restriction. Given those flexibilities, a Bermudan swaption is more expensive than a regular European swaption. In terms of valuation, it is also much more complex. This presentation provides practical details for pricing cancelable swaps. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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A compounding swap is an interest rate swap in which interest, instead of being paid, compounds forward until the next payment date. Compounding swaps can be valued by assuming that the forward rates are realized. Normally the calculation period of a compounding swap is smaller than the payment period. For example, a swap has 6-month payment period and 1-month calculation period (or 1-month index tenor). An overnight index swap (OIS) is a typical compounding swap.This presentation gives an overview of compounding swap product and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrCompoundingSwap.html

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Collateral is a property or an asset that a borrower offers as a way for a lender to secure the loan. In the derivatives world, collateral posting is a risk reduction tool that mitigates risk by reducing credit exposure. The Bankruptcy code affords special treatment to financial derivative contracts that allows counterparties to terminate derivative contracts with a debtor in bankruptcy and seize the underlying collaterals. This presentation gives an overview of collateral arrangement in the derivatives market. It also illustrates how collateral management impact valuation and counterparty credit risk. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/paperList.html.

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A capped swap is an interest rate swap with an interest rate cap option where the floating rate of the swap is capped at a certain level while a floored swap is an interest rate swap with a floor option where the floating rate of the swap is floored at a certain level. Capped swaps or floored swaps limit the risk of the floating rate payer or receiver to adverse movements in interest rates. A capped swap can be decomposed into a swap and a cap whereas a floored swap can be decomposed into a swap and a floor. This presentation gives an overview of capped/floored swap product and valuation. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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A cancelable swap provides the right but not the obligation to cancel the interest rate swap at predefined dates. Most commonly traded cancelable swaps have multiple exercise dates. Given its Bermudan style optionality, a cancelable swap can be represented as a vanilla swap embedded with a Bermudan swaption. Therefore, it can be decomposed into a swap and a Bermudan swaption. Most Bermudan swaptions in a bank book actually come from cancelable swaps. Cancelable swaps provide market participants flexibility to exit a swap. This additional feature makes the valuation complex. This presentation provides practical details for pricing cancelable swaps. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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An interest rate floor is a financial contract between two parties that provides an interest rate floor on the floating rate payments. It consists of a series of European put options (floorlets) on interest rates. An amortizing floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract whereas an accreting floor is an interest rate floor whose notional principal amount increases during the life of the contract. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate amortizing or accreting floor products and valuation model. You can find more financial product presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

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An amortizing swap is an interest rate swap whose notional principal amount declines during the life of the contract whereas an accreting swap is an interest rate swap whose notional principal amount increases instead. The notional amount changes could be one leg or two legs, but typically on a fixed schedule. The notional principal is tied to an underlying financial instrument with a declining principal, such as a mortgage or an increasing principal, such as a construction fund. This presentation gives an overview of amortizing or accreting swap product and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrAmortizingSwap.html

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An interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange future interest rate payments over a set period of time. It consists of a series of payment periods, called swaplets. The most popular form of interest rate swaps is the vanilla swaps that involve the exchange of a fixed interest rate for a floating rate, or vice versa. There are two legs associated with each party: a fixed leg and a floating leg. Swaps are OTC derivatives that bear counterparty credit risk beside interest rate risk. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate swap product and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrSwap.html

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A callable bond is a bond in which the issuer has the right to call the bond at specified times from the investor for a specified price. At each callable date prior to the bond maturity, the issuer may recall the bond from its investor by returning the investor’s money. The underlying bonds can be fixed rate bonds or floating rate bonds. A callable bond can therefore be considered a vanilla underlying bond with an embedded Bermudan style option. Callable bonds protect issuers. Therefore, a callable bond normally pays the investor a higher coupon than a non-callable bond. This presentation gives an overview of callable bond and valuation model. You can find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html.

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A basis swaps is an interest rate swap that involves the exchange of two floating rates, where the floating rate payments are referenced to different bases. Both legs of a basis swap are floating but derived from different index rates (e.g. LIBOR 1 month vs 3 month). Basis swaps are settled in the form of periodic floating interest rate payments. They are quoted as a spread over the reference index. For example, 3-month LIBOR is frequently used as a reference. Spreads are quoted over it. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate basis swap product and valuation model. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrBasisSwap.html

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A puttable bond is a bond in which the investor has the right to sell the bond back to the issuer at specified times for a specified price. At each puttable date prior to the bond maturity, the investor may get the investment money back by selling the bond back to the issuer. The underlying bonds can be fixed rate bonds or floating rate bonds. A puttable bond can therefore be considered a vanilla underlying bond with an embedded Bermudan style option. Puttable bonds protect investors. Therefore, a puttable bond normally pays investors a lower coupon than a non-callable bond. This presentation gives an overview of puttable bond and valuation model. You can find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html.

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An amortizing bond is a bond whose principal (face value) decreases due to repaying part of the principal along with the coupon payments. Each payment to the amortizing bond holder consists of a portion of interest and a portion of principal. While an accreting bond is a bond whose principal increases during the life of the deal. Each payment to the accreting bond holder is just a part of interest. The other part of coupon is added to the principal of the bond. . This presentation gives an overview of amortizing bonds and accreting bonds. You can more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiAmortizingBond.html

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An interest rate swaption or interest rate European swaption is an OTC option that grants its owner the right but not the obligation to enter an underlying interest rate swap. There are two types of swaptions: a payer swaption and a receiver swaption. An payer swaption is also called a right-to-pay swaption that allows its holder to exercise into a swap where the holder pays fixed rates and receives floating rates, while a receiver swaption is also called right-to-receive swaption that allows its holders to exercise into a swap where the holder receives fixed rates and pays floating rates. Swaptions provide clients with a guarantee that the fixed rate of interest they will pay at some of future time will not exceed certain level. This presentation gives an overview of swaption product and valuation. You can find more details at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrSwaption.html

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A bond future is a future contract in which the asset for delivery is a government bond. Any government bonds that meet the maturity specification of a future contract are eligible for delivery. All eligible delivery bonds construct the delivery basket where each bond has its own conversion factor. Conversion factors are used to equalise the coupon and accrued interest differences of all the deliverable bonds. The seller usually picks up the cheapest bond in the basket to deliver, called the cheapest-to-deliver (CTD). The CTD bond is normally delivered on the last delivery day of the month. This presentation provides an overview of bond future product and valuation. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiBondFuture.html

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A forward rate agreement, or FRA, is a forward contract between two parties in which one party will pay a fixed rate while the other party will pay a reference interest rate for a set future period. The party paying the fixed rate is usually referred to as the borrower, while the party receiving the floating rate is referred to as the lender. Some people believe that a FRA is equivalent to a one-period vanilla swap. That is not completely true from valuation perspective. A FRA is usually settled and paid at the end of a forwarding period, called settle in arrear, while a regular swaplet is settled at the beginning of the forward period and paid at the end. Strictly speaking, FRAs need convexity adjustment. However, given FRA is such a simple product, the adjustment is very simple as well. This presentation provides an introduction to FRA product and valuation. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/IrFra.html

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A bond is a debt instrument in which an investor loans money to the issuer for a defined period of time and receives coupons paid by the issuer at fixed interest rate. The bond principal will be returned at maturity date. Bonds are usually issued by companies, municipalities, states/provinces and countries to finance a variety of projects and activities. There are two types of bond valuation models in the market: yield-to-maturity model and credit spread model. This presentation gives an overview of fixed rate bonds and also elaborates two valuation models. You can more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiBond.html

A company can raise capital in financial markets either by issuing equities or bonds. A zero coupon bond is a bond that doesn’t pay interest/coupon but instead pays one lump sum face value at maturity. Investors buy zero coupon bonds at a deep discount from their face value. A zero coupon bond generates gains from the difference between the purchase price and the face value while a coupon bond produces gains from the regular distribution of coupon/interest. This presentation gives an overview of zero coupon bond product and valuation. You can more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiZeroBond.html

A floating rate note has variable coupons, depending on a money market reference rate, such as LIBOR, plus a floating spread. When interest rate raises, the coupons of a FRN increases in line with the increase of the forward rates, which means its price remains relatively constant. Therefore, FRNs bear small interest rate risk. On the other hand, FRNs carry lower yields than fixed rate bonds of the same maturity. They also have unpredictable coupon payments. This presentation gives an overview of FRNs valuation. You can more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiFloatingBond.html

An inflation indexed bond is designed to hedge the inflation risk of the bond. Since inflation indexed bonds offer investors a very high level of safety, their coupons are typically lower than high-yield bonds. It is an important vehicle for investors whose liabilities indexed to changes in inflation or wages. This presentation provides an overview of inflation indexed bond product and valuation. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiInflationBond.html

An interest rate future option gives the holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell an interest rate future at a specified price on a specified date. It is usually traded in an exchange. The buyer normally can exercise the option on any business day (American style) prior to expiration by giving notice to the exchange. Option sellers (writer) receive a fixed premium upfront and in return are obligated to buy or sell the underlying asset at a specified price. Interest rate future options can be used to hedge against adverse changes in interest rates. In general futures markets tend to be more liquid than underlying cash markets. This presentation gives an overview of interest rate future option product and pricing model. You find more presentations at http://www.finpricing.com/productList.html

A bond future option is an option contract that gives the holder the right but not the obligation to buy or sell a bond future at a predetermined price. The writer/seller receives a premium from the buyer for undertaking this obligation. Options are leveraged instruments that allow the owner to control a large amount of the underlying asset with a smaller amount of money. Bond future options offer significant advantages for reducing costs, enhancing returns and managing risk. They could be European style or American style. This presentation provides an overview of bond future option product and valuation. You can find more information at http://www.finpricing.com/lib/FiBondFutureOption.html