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BODY LANGUAGE: Nonverbal Communication BODY LANGUAGE: Nonverbal Communication

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Title: BODY LANGUAGE: Nonverbal Communication BODY LANGUAGE: Nonverbal Communication


1
BODY LANGUAGE Nonverbal Communication BODY
LANGUAGE Nonverbal Communication
  • Materials Nancy Henley, Body Politics Power,
    Sex Nonverbal Communication and Interpersonal
    Perception Test 15

2
Bodily language is crucial for our performance.
  • Nonverbal communication refers to how we say
    things with our body postures and movements,
    facial expressions, gestures, touching, eye
    contact, use of space and so on.
  • many channels or areas of expressing body
    language.
  • Examples

3
  • verbal and nonverbal communication are combined
    to form a message
  • Lying Ekman 10,000 expressions in The Facial
    Action Coding System combinations of 43
    independent muscles in the face, Clinton infamous
    statement
  • Search for machines Polygraph (William Moulton
    Marston)

4
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6
  • In Most interactions, each of us plays both the
    role of encoder and role of decoder. produce
    communications (verbal and nonverbal) directed at
    others (encode). And we interpret, decode.
  • We use these cues to form impressions and reach
    conclusions about others, a remarkable feat,
    because in any interaction, hundreds or even
    thousands of verbal and nonverbal cues stream by
    us, vanishing in milliseconds.

7
  • discard most cues, seizing on the few e.g. a
    momentary facial expression, a vocal inflection,
    a fleeting gesture, that tell us what the other
    person means or is feeling
  • We can recognize a persons facial expression of
    emotion from as little as l/24th second exposure,
    and it is often possible to interpret other
    peoples behavior, feelings,and relationships from
    something as simple as a photograph.

8
  • Because our culture considers trivial, ignores
    and doesn't educate its members to nonverbal
    behavior, it constitutes a vague stimulus
    situation. Its interpretation is then highly
    susceptible to social influence which further
    maintains the status quo.

9
Henley 9 different areas of bodily expression.
  • Body Language expresses one's social role. They
    are the front stage performance of the role.
    Bodily language reinforces social status, part of
    the decorum part of the performance
  • Goffman's theme is the performance Every social
    situation is a drama. Bodily communication
    amplifies performance,

10
  • More than the arrangement of facts, there is an
    interpretation of facts.
  • Goffman would look for nonverbal communication to
    convey other's belief in the part one is playing.

11
Emersons three themes
  • We look at activity to learn its theme its
    frame what is really going on. Nonverbal
    communication occurs in her three areas

12
  • The Setting,
  • Language,
  • Demeanor

13
setting
  • Goffman emphasizes the context that lets us see
    the meaning of the factual arrangement.
  • Cues are given off that help us develop the
    frame, how people use space or territory and time

14
  • Props are key to a setting, explicitly part of
    the body language, toying with objects, looking
    at them, having them in the background, give off
    cues as to what is going on, how people use them
    toying with an object suggeststs to the DA, who
    done it
  • Goffman refers to them as Sign equipment
  • the props that aid the performance, they are
    appropriate, e.g. Carrying a briefcase for
    professor.

15
  • Space proxemics how close we are to each other
    Reflects Intimacy, solidarity or power
  • Body language is not only individual, it is
    interactive.

16
  • several ways we use space and time, as a
    continuum. different contexts, reflecting
    different uses of space amounts of time
  • 1) public time asking directions, checking out
    library books how space used here?
  • 2) social time, making purchases, inquiring about
    services
  • 3) personal time job interviews, doctors and
    dentists appointments
  • 4) intimate time close family interactions and
    gatherings.

17
  • Proxemics how we use personal space. Intimate
    distance 0-18 inches, nonpublic interactions,
    such as comforting too close for asking
    directions
  • personal distance 1.5- 4 feet people who are
    bonded, discussions with others
  • social distance 4-12 feet, formal business and
    social discourse
  • Public distance 12-25 feet too far for party

18
Demeanor
  • Goffman refers to Expressive Cues. we use
    expressive cues to send and receive thoughts and
    feelings.
  • Ranking, hierarchy, height
  • Touch who can touch whom? We have status ridden
    society
  • Gesture, Posture
  • Eye contact
  • Facial expression

19
  • Facial expression

20
The standards
  • Require individuals to show respect for the
    region and setting one is in, to impress the
    audience or avoid sanctions.
  • There are a number of fronts for our acts,
  • The front stage is where the performance is
    given.
  • The actor's performance in the front region gives
    the appearance that the activity here maintains
    and embodies certain standards

21
  • Activity occurs in the presence of other persons,
    i.e. in the front region, some aspect of the
    activity are expressively accentuated and other
    aspects might discredit the fostered impression
    are suppressed.

22
  • Take the following description of a couple
    having an affair, overseen by a common friend
    that did not know until that moment when he spied
    their back stage behavior that they were surely a
    close couple. Their Body Language revealed that
    they were lovers in secret Last Orders

23
  • From the front of the van I could see them
    clearly, fifty yards, ten o'clock, Ray on the
    side of the bench nearest me. It seemed to me
    that though they made the shapes of two separate
    people, sitting on the same bench, so you might
    have thought it was just a chance encounter, they
    also made a single shape that was the two of them
    together. Ray leant forward and lit a cigarette,
    cupping his hands against the breeze. Then he
    took a puff, took the cigarette from his mouth
    and with the same hand, elbow on knee, stroked
    his bottom lip with his thumb. There was a paper
    bag wedged between them with the remains of
    something, because Amy dipped her hand into it
    and threw crumbs for the birds pecking near their
    feet, sparrows, pigeons. She did this quickly,
    with a jerk of her arm, as if she half wanted to
    shoo the birds away, not fed them, but the crumbs
    kept them coming back. Ray didn't feed the
    birds. He smoked and rubbed his lip and
    scratched his neck. Then he sat back and at that
    exact moment Amy leant forward as if they were a
    machine that worked like that. She stroked her
    leg just below the knee as if she had an ache
    there.

24
  • Vertegaal from Queens U. on eye gaze, a strong
    link between the amount of eye contact people
    receive and their degree of participation in
    group communications.

25
paraLanguage
  • not the meaning of the words we say, but to how
    we say them the rhythm, pitch, intensity,
    nasality, slurring, etc.
  • Who controls the conversational flow?
  • Self disclosure
  • tone

26
Power
  • Why does nonverbal behavior cement power?
  • Power (status, dominance) is a major topic of
    nonverbal communication, and nonverbal behavior
    is a major avenue for social control on a large
    scale, and interpersonal dominance on a smaller
    scale.
  • nonverbal power gestures provide the
    micropolitical structure, the thousands of daily
    acts through which nonverbal influence takes
    place, which underlies and supports the
    macropolitical structure.

27
  • Many nonverbal behaviors have the dual function
    of expressing either dominance or intimacy,
    according to whether they are asymmetrically, Or
    symmetrically used by the partners in the
    relationship.

28
Interpersonal Perception Task 15,
  • WE DID NOT SHOW THIS IN CLASS
  • The scenes were about behavior,
  • look not only to identify the right answer, but
    figure out why you choose it
  • Identify what kinds of cues are found in
    nonverbal communication that are unavailable in
    words alone?

29
Items
  • facial expressions
  • words, tones, hesitations
  • eye movements
  • gestures,
  • personal space
  • posture and touching. occur simultaneous, as in
    real life.

30
5 categories of interaction
  • 3 scenes for each
  • status,
  • kinship
  • intimacy
  • competition
  • deception

31
  • Going to ask you to choose between A and B, or
    sometimes both. you can guess because the issue
    is that we are attuned to cues that we in
    everyday life guess at.
  • Then think about what it was, words or nonverbal
    communication that led to the answer,
  • silent cues are powerful. We remove sound, but
    other cues visible.
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