Caricatures are probably the oldest form of pictorial humor where caricare in Latin means to overload or exaggerate.
The main stylistic devices here are distortion and exaggeration and the main subject famous people.
(Hempelmann and Samson 2008 613)
3 The Word Cartoon
The term Cartoon originally comes from the Italian word cartone and means a strong heavy paper or pasteboard. It denotes a full-size drawing made on paper as a study for further drawings such as a painting or tapestry.
Punch applied the term to satirical drawings by publishing some parody drafts for frescoes (also called cartoons) and making the terms new meaning permanent.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 613-614)
4 Jokes and Cartoons
Cartoons are jokes told in a picture (drawing painting etc.) comprising one or only a few panels.
Cartoons by Gary Larson for example show his typical rounded shapes round people with small heads and white glasses.
These can be contrasted with the more realistic and detailed drawing style of Robert Crumb.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 614)
5 Jokes vs. Cartoons
Jokes are told in a linear way.
In the picture part of a cartoon on the other hand usually no clear order of processing is forced in the way text does but there are tendencies to follow a general order which can crucially be directed by the artist creating entry points and paths in their pictures.
Another enormous formal difference is iconicity as can be seen in visual puns.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 617)
6 Cartoon Charactersand the Expression of Emotion
Characters in cartoons have faces so their emotions can be depicted unobtrusively by giving them expressions while characters in jokes would have to be explicitly described as having certain emotions or words used that reflect emotional states.
Conversational cartooning is theoretically possible but we should assume its rare occurrence.
Conversational joking on the other hand is common.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 618)
8 Comics vs. Cartoons
Comicsin contrast to cartoonsare orientated towards stories their artwork is more detailed more often anatomically correct and the drawing more often closely resembles reality.
(Hempelmann Samson 614)
9 Verbal vs. Visual HumorJokes vs. Cartoons
In an article entitled Cartoons Drawn Jokes Christian Hempelmann and Andrea Samson point out that jokes usually have no authors are folkloristic products while cartoons usually do have an author with a distinct drawing style and topical preferences who also signs his or her work.
This entails that we should not expect to find spontaneous cartooning in analogy to conversational joking.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 610-611)
There are two main differences between verbal linguistic jokes and pictorial visual cartoons The aesthetic (formal) difference and the different loci (and probably modi) of cognitive processing both surfacing as formal differences.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 611-612)
11 Six Categories of Cartoon Research
1. Studies of reactions to cartoonshow good they are the extent to which they produce laughter or smiling how funny they are. These studies investigate the effect of incongruity and complexity on the perception of humor. (Shultz Suls Hirt and Genshaft)
2. Studies that focus on the content of cartoons such as gender stereotypes (Herzog Love Deckers Thompson Zerbinos) social stereotypes (Bogardus Anderson Jolly) political and social aspects (Abe) or sexual themes in cartoons (Brodzinsky Rubien Felker Hunter Derks Herzog Hager Giarelli Tulman).
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 611-612)
3. Studies that use cartoons to address memory issues (Schmidt Williams) neuronal activation processes (Schmidt Williams) or neuronal activation patterns (Gallagher Marjoram) or Theory of Mind and schizophrenia (Corcoran Cahill Frith Marjoram)
4. Research about cartoonists such as their childhoods (Fisher Fisher) their personalities and their Psychoticism and Neuroticism scores (Pearson) and gender differences (Samson Huber).
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 612)
5. Studies investigating the influence of formal features on humor appreciation such as the degree of abstraction vs. realism (Sheppard) or the effects of the number of panels (Huber Leder).
6. Studies relating cartoons to their own professional fields. Paolillo applied the General Theory of Verbal Humor Scale to cartoons Watson Matthews and Allman investigated differences between language-dependent and picture-dependent cartoons in cognitive processing.
(Hempelmann Samson 2008 612)
A cartoonists craft may force them to limit their originality because they have fewer than 10 seconds to grab the attention of viewers and in fact to tell whole stories.
We will start with two classic cartoons by David Levine for the New York Review of Books. No words are needed but readers had to have cultural knowledge in order to Catch on.
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After President Lyndon Johnson had gallbladder surgery he lifted his shirt to show his scar to reporters at a news conference. Levines drawing shows that his real scar was in the shape of Vietnam.
President Reagan who was famous for cutting welfare is compared to Marie Antoinette who after being told that the people had no bread famously said Let them eat cake.
Cultural Icons can be either
recognized visual symbols
or familiar words that can be parodied.
Cartoonists first have to help the viewers into the mindset of the original
Then take them in a new direction.
As with Mike Peterss 1984 criticism of President Reagans military support of El Salvador
I pledge a billion to the flag
of the right wing government of El Salvador
And to the death squads for which it stands
One nation underfed
With M-16s and Howitzers for all.
20 These words have come into English from various cartoons POW! ZAP! WHAM! ZIP! ZOWIE! Teddy Bear Gerrymander Yellow Journalism McCarthyism (from Senator Simple J. Malarkey in the Pogo Comic Strip) 21 ARACHNOPHOBIA IRAQNAPHOBIA
The term Iraqnaphobia was first used in the caption of an editorial cartoon by Clay Bennett that appeared in the August 3 1990 edition of the St. Petersburg Times. The cartoon shows a spider labeled Iraq menacing Kuwait and the caption reads Saddam Hussein Presents Iraqnophobia.
Under the heading Famous Quotes Throughout History Rodewalt drew these interpretations
Just a cold snap (a couple of dinosaurs)
Another of your stupid inventions (a cavewoman looking at her husbands newly carved wheel)
What an Idiot--Youll be sorry when you fall off the edge of the world. (Italians waving goodbye to Christopher Columbus)
No problem white man say just passing through! (Indians pointing to a ship in the bay)
Maybe if you get a haircut people will take you seriously (Einsteins wife)
We will succeed in Iraq (President Bush holding his arms in a victory salute!)
(CWS Cartoon Arts International )
24 Obituary Cartoons
Cartoonists hate doing them because they have to be respectful no matter what.
But their audiences love them because they capture the essence of the person who has died.
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For efficiency cartoonists make use of common visual symbols
Pointing fingers or arrows
The Trojan Horse
Tombstones and the initials R.I.P.
Skulls/The Grim Reaper
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The three monkeys
The Ghost of Christmas Past
Railroad tracks not matching up
A 1973 Boston Globe Cartoon by Paul Szep showed Vietnam as a maze.
Reprinted in 1975 with added symbolism.
32 Other Common Symbols include
Baby buggies (because they hide information)
And new interpretations of familiar sayings about big sticks (which a person should carry as he speaks softly) and where the buck stops.
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Variations on the Statue of Liberty show how symbols can change over time while still retaining some of the original meaning.
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Statue of Liberty cartoons while making many different political points still rely on images that in most peoples minds are feminine.
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1960 Doug MacPherson drew Fidel Castro and Nikita Krushev having a picnic on her head.
1971 Daniel Aguila drew her with shortened robes under the cutline Lib and let lib!
1980 Doug Marlett showed her sweeping dirt under a rug designed as a flag.
1984 Signe Wilkinson showed her going through a sewing factory shouting OK you huddled masses I know youre in here!
2001 After 9/11 a tear falling from one eye
And two sad eyes reflecting the burning Twin Towers
2003 Expressing womanly impatience as she says Geez two years and still no capture of Osameor Saddamor Al Qaidaor WMDor the Taliban or Justice or A side note read In a city accustomed to the New York Minute.
2005 Nick Adams won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for showing President Bush sitting on top of her crown wearing earphones hooked to a satellite dish which had replaced the flame in her extended arm.
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The simplified shape of a fish is even more a part of what Carl Jung refers to as the Collective Unconscious.
In the early days of Christianity it was marked in the sand.
Today we see it on churches cars and religious messages sometimes with a stylized cross serving as an eye
Or with the Greek initials inside that stand for Jesus Christ King of the Jews.
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Weve also seen DARWIN placed inside the fish
And a bigger Christian fish eating a smaller Darwin fish with legs
Once the surprise was gone the humor disappeared but the symbol is still there.
One of our students observed that the O and X at the end of the Jack in the Box signs make basically the same design.
Also note the shape of the popular metallic ribbons that are twisted to form a rounded top like a head with crossed pieces to look like the split tail of a fish.
These first became popular in the 1970s when they were sold as lapel pins to be worn in memory of someone who died from AIDS or in support of AIDS research. Following 9-11 the design was co-opted to show patriotism and support for the war on terrorism.
They are made from magnetized metal and are about the size of a paperback book.
They come in all colors and mostly express some kind of support for the war on terrorism.
But we recently saw one proclaiming Pets are good for people. Separate pieces of metal in the shape of paw prints were placed around it.
More and more people put them sideways on their cars
They resemble the old fish pattern except with a rounded head.
Some drivers sport two three or more so their vehicles resemble traveling aquariums.
People respond to particular shapes without necessarily thinking of how or why.
They feel the fish shape is appropriate to a controversial issue that touches all of us deeply whether it is viewing the end of life as associated with terrorism or the beginning of life as associated with creation and evolution.
61 Iraq and the American Flag 62 (No Transcript) 63
Coffins have a similar impact. At first the Bush administration forbade photographs but the drawings were even more heart-rending because cartoonists added their own touches.
Walt Handelsman drew coffins each covered with a funeral bouquet His cutline Theyll be Greeted with Flowers.
Another cartoonist stood coffins on end as an eerie reminder of the domino theory that guided American policies in Vietnam.
The Abu Ghraib prison scandal again shows shape as a hidden persuader.
The most heart-wrenching photos were of Private Lynddie England holding a naked man on a dog leash a pyramid of naked Iraquis and a hooded prisoner silhouetted in a ragged black blanket.
Out of 40 Abu Ghraib cartoons reprinted in Best of the Year collections more than half featured this man on the box.
65 ! 66 (No Transcript) 67
!It was the most dramatic of the images.
The simplicity of design made it easy to highlight.
It inspired viewers to pull related images from their own minds as in comparing it to the Ku Klux Klan.
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