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## Electrical%20Components%20and%20Circuits

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Title: Electrical%20Components%20and%20Circuits

1
Electrical Components and Circuits
• By
• Naaimat Muhammed

2
CURRENT CIRCUITS AND MEASUREMENTS
• The general definition of a circuit is a closed
path that may be followed by an electric current.

3
Galvanometer
• A galvanometer is a device with a rotating
indicator that will rotate from its equilibrium
position when a current passes through it.
• A galvanometer has a negligible resistance.

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5
Ampermeter
• An ampermeter (ammeter) is a galvanometer with a
calibrated current scale for its indicator and a
bypass resistor called a shunt.
• Many ammeters have several selectable shunts
which provide their corresponding current meter
ranges.
• Ammeters can be found with calibrated ranges of 1
micro-A for full scale deflection up to 1000 A
for full scale deflection, and in multiples of 10
between these extremes.

6
Voltmeter
• A voltmeter is a calibrated galvanometer with a
series resistor so that the total resistance of
the path is increased.
• The galvanometer range is calibrated for the
current Ig passing through it.
• Voltmeters may have more than one calibrated
scale which can be selected by changing the
resistance .

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8
Current in Circuit
• Current in a circuit is the flow of the positive
charge from a high potential () to a low
potential (-).
• Meters are labeled to indicate the proper
direction of current flow through them.
• Electrical charge will not move through a
conducting path unless there is a potential
difference between the ends of the conductors
• The source of energy in a circuit which provides
the energy to move the charge through the circuit
can be a battery, photocell, or some other power
supply.

9
Electrical Circuit
• An electrical circuit is a circuitous path of
wire and devices .

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11
An example of a circuit with a DC. power supply
in a series with a resistor, a parallel branch
with a resistor and voltmeter, and an ammeter .
12
Basic Electric Circuit
• The flashlight is an example of a basic electric
circuit.
• It contains a source of electrical energy (the
dry cells in the flashlight), a load (the bulb)
that changes the electrical energy into a more
useful form of energy (light), and a switch to
control the energy delivered to the load.

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14
Laws of Electricity
• Ohms law describes the relationship among
potential, resistance and current in a resistive
series circuit.
• In a series circuit, all circuit elements are
connected in sequence along a unique path, head
to tail, as are the battery and three resistors.
• Ohms Law may be written as
• V IR

15
Diagram for determining resistance and Voltage in
a basic circuit
16
Continued
17
Kirchhoffs Law
• Kirchhoffs current law states that the algebraic
sum of currents around any point in a circuit is
zero.
• Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the algebraic
sum of the voltages around a closed electrical
loop is zero.

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19
Power Law
• The power law states that the power in watts
dissipated in a resistive element is given by the
product of the current in amperes and the
potential difference across the resistance in
volts
• P IV

20
Basic Direct Current Circuits
21
Parallel Circuits
22
References
• Direct Current Circuits. http//pneuma.phys.ua
lberta.ca/gingrich/phys395/notes/node2.html
• Field effect transistors (FETs) as transducers
in electrochemical sensors.
• http//www.ch.pw.edu.pl/dybko/csrg/isfet/chemfet.
html
• Skoog, Holler, and Nieman. Principles of
Instrumental Analysis. 5th ed. Orlando
Harcourt Brace Co., 1998.
• Shulga AA, Koudelka-Hep M, de Rooij NF,
Netchiporouk LI. Glucose sensitive enzyme field
effect transistor using potassium ferricyanide as
an oxidizing substrate. Analytical Chemistry.
15 Jan. 1994.