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Electrical%20Components%20and%20Circuits

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Electrical charge will not move through a conducting path unless there is a ... It contains a source of electrical energy (the dry cells in the flashlight), a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electrical%20Components%20and%20Circuits


1
Electrical Components and Circuits
  • By
  • Naaimat Muhammed

2
CURRENT CIRCUITS AND MEASUREMENTS
  • The general definition of a circuit is a closed
    path that may be followed by an electric current.

3
Galvanometer
  • A galvanometer is a device with a rotating
    indicator that will rotate from its equilibrium
    position when a current passes through it.
  • A galvanometer has a negligible resistance.

4
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5
Ampermeter
  • An ampermeter (ammeter) is a galvanometer with a
    calibrated current scale for its indicator and a
    bypass resistor called a shunt.
  • Many ammeters have several selectable shunts
    which provide their corresponding current meter
    ranges.
  • Ammeters can be found with calibrated ranges of 1
    micro-A for full scale deflection up to 1000 A
    for full scale deflection, and in multiples of 10
    between these extremes.

6
Voltmeter
  • A voltmeter is a calibrated galvanometer with a
    series resistor so that the total resistance of
    the path is increased.
  • The galvanometer range is calibrated for the
    current Ig passing through it.
  • Voltmeters may have more than one calibrated
    scale which can be selected by changing the
    resistance .

7
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8
Current in Circuit
  • Current in a circuit is the flow of the positive
    charge from a high potential () to a low
    potential (-).
  • Meters are labeled to indicate the proper
    direction of current flow through them.
  • Electrical charge will not move through a
    conducting path unless there is a potential
    difference between the ends of the conductors
  • The source of energy in a circuit which provides
    the energy to move the charge through the circuit
    can be a battery, photocell, or some other power
    supply.

9
Electrical Circuit
  • An electrical circuit is a circuitous path of
    wire and devices .

10
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11
An example of a circuit with a DC. power supply
in a series with a resistor, a parallel branch
with a resistor and voltmeter, and an ammeter .
12
Basic Electric Circuit
  • The flashlight is an example of a basic electric
    circuit.
  • It contains a source of electrical energy (the
    dry cells in the flashlight), a load (the bulb)
    that changes the electrical energy into a more
    useful form of energy (light), and a switch to
    control the energy delivered to the load.

13
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14
Laws of Electricity
  • Ohms law describes the relationship among
    potential, resistance and current in a resistive
    series circuit.
  • In a series circuit, all circuit elements are
    connected in sequence along a unique path, head
    to tail, as are the battery and three resistors.
  • Ohms Law may be written as
  • V IR

15
Diagram for determining resistance and Voltage in
a basic circuit
16
Continued
17
Kirchhoffs Law
  • Kirchhoffs current law states that the algebraic
    sum of currents around any point in a circuit is
    zero.
  • Kirchhoffs voltage law states that the algebraic
    sum of the voltages around a closed electrical
    loop is zero.

18
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19
Power Law
  • The power law states that the power in watts
    dissipated in a resistive element is given by the
    product of the current in amperes and the
    potential difference across the resistance in
    volts
  • P IV

20
Basic Direct Current Circuits
21
Parallel Circuits
22
References
  • Direct Current Circuits. http//pneuma.phys.ua
    lberta.ca/gingrich/phys395/notes/node2.html
  • Field effect transistors (FETs) as transducers
    in electrochemical sensors.
  • http//www.ch.pw.edu.pl/dybko/csrg/isfet/chemfet.
    html
  • Skoog, Holler, and Nieman. Principles of
    Instrumental Analysis. 5th ed. Orlando
    Harcourt Brace Co., 1998.
  • Shulga AA, Koudelka-Hep M, de Rooij NF,
    Netchiporouk LI. Glucose sensitive enzyme field
    effect transistor using potassium ferricyanide as
    an oxidizing substrate. Analytical Chemistry.
    15 Jan. 1994.
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