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J. Allan Hobson Counterpoint. Hobson is a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. ... Hobson Counterpoint. Anxiety and anger are not 'wishes' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Freud%20Returns?%20%20Like%20a%20Bad%20Dream

Freud Returns? Like a Bad Dream
  • By J. Allan Hobson (2004)
  • Presented by Amanda Garner Patrick Utz

Mark Solms validates Freud
  • Solms holds the chair in neuropsychology at the
    University of Cape Town he is the author of the
    article Freud Returns (2004).
  • Neuroscientists are finding data that they feel
    fit together with Freuds psychological theories.
  • This data includes brain imaging and lesion
    studies, which Solms feels support Freuds
    conception of the mind.

Freuds views
  • The ego allows the id to fulfill its desires
    while sleeping, which leads to strange dreams.
  • Bizarre dreams are caused by the minds effort to
    conceal the unacceptable instinctual wishes
    welling up in the unconscious.
  • The concealment of the unacceptable causes dreams
    to be filled with symbolic disguise and

J. Allan Hobson Counterpoint
  • Hobson is a professor of psychiatry at Harvard
    Medical School.
  • Neurobiological evidence supports the idea that
    dream bizarreness stems from normal changes in
    brain state.
  • These normal changes occur when chemical
    mechanisms in the brain stem activate different
    regions of the cortex.

  • Several studies have found that the chemical
    changes can determine the quality and quantity of
    dream visions, emotions, and thoughts.
  • The ego-id disagreement cannot control brain
    chemistry, therefore the disguise-censorship
    theory must not be valid.
  • Without Freuds disguise-censorship theory we
    are left with only a few remains of Freuds dream

Remains of Freuds Dream Theory
  • Instinctual drives or unconscious wishes could
    cause dream formation.
  • Parts of the limbic system are responsible for
    producing anxiety, anger, and elation, which
    Freud would consider instinctual drives.
  • Evidence reveals that activating those parts of
    the limbic system will lead to the shaping of
    ones dreams.

Hobson Counterpoint
  • Anxiety and anger are not wishes.
  • People dream about negative emotions just as
    often as they dream about positive emotions.
  • Half of our wishes for ourselves are negative.
  • Emotions in dreams are not disguised, they enter
    clearly and can lead to nightmares.
  • Freud could never explain why so many dreams are

Freuds view of Free Association
  • Free association is when a person says everything
    and anything that comes to their mind in relation
    to their dream as it is interpreted by a
  • The true meaning of dreams are hidden.
  • The real emotions of dreams can only be recovered
    by the method of free association.

Hobson Counterpoint
  • Free association is not necessary to interpret
  • There is no concealment of meaning or emotion
    what you see is what you get.
  • The actual dream content is what is most
    important for interpreting.
  • With close attention of the dreamer and their
    therapist, the feelings that dreams represent
    will be revealed.

Final Point Solms and Freudians
  • Saying dreams are created by brain chemistry is
    saying that dreams hold zero emotional messages.
  • Recent lesion and brain imaging research is
    revealing that the forebrains instinctual-motivat
    ional circuitry is linked to dreaming, which
    supports Freuds explanation of dreams regarding
    wish fulfillment.

Final point Hobson
  • The chemical activation-synthesis theory has
    always supported the fact that dreams are full of
    emotion and meaning it is only in disagreement
    with Freuds explanation of dream bizarreness as
    concealed meaning.
  • No amount of neurobiological tinkering can fix
    the fact the psychoanalysis is terribly in error.