Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris Draw-A-Man Test - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris Draw-A-Man Test

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Listed in the Watson Directory of Outstanding Contributors to Psychology ... child, drawing is a form of expression rather than a representation of beauty. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris Draw-A-Man Test


1
Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris
Draw-A-Man Test
  • by Mallory Jaryga

2
Florence Laura Goodenough
  • Born August 6, 1886 in Honesdale, PA
  • Youngest of nine children
  • Parents were farmers

3
Florence Laura Goodenough
  • She never married
  • Forced to retire early because of a degenerative
    physical illness
  • Died of a stroke at her sisters home in Florida
    on April 4, 1959

4
Goodenoughs Education
  • 1908 Bachelor of Pedagogy Millersville,
    Pennsylvania Normal School
  • 1920 Bachelor of Science Columbia University
  • 1921 Master of Arts with Leta Hollingworth
    Columbia University
  • 1924 Doctor of Psychology Stanford University

5
Landmarks in Her Career
  • 1921 Worked with Lewis Terman at Stanford while
    he developed the Stanford-Binet intelligence test
  • 1925 Assistant Professor at the University of
    Minnesota
  • 1931 Professor at the University of Minnesota
  • 1947 Professor Emeritus at the University of
    Minnesota

6
Honors
  • 1942 President of the National Counsel of Women
    Psychologists
  • 1946-1947 President of the Society for Research
    in Child Development
  • Listed in the Watson Directory of Outstanding
    Contributors to Psychology

7
Contributions
  • Minnesota Preschool Scale
  • Developed time sampling
  • Studying a participants behavior for a set
    period of time
  • Developed event sampling
  • Studying a participants particular behavior and
    counting its occurrence
  • First psychologist to critique ratio I.Q.
  • Instructed Ruth Howard, who was the first
    African-American female to receive a Ph.D. in
    psychology
  • Draw-a-Man/Draw-a-Woman Test

8
Draw-a-Man Test
  • The nature and content of childrens drawings
    are dependent primarily upon intellectual
    development. Florence L. Goodenough

9
Draw-a-Man Test Findings of Others
  • In the drawings of young children, a close
    relationship exists between concept development
    and general intelligence.
  • To the child, drawing is a form of expression
    rather than a representation of beauty.
  • A child draws what he knows, not what he sees.
  • The child exaggerates the size of objects which
    seem interesting or important.
  • Marked sex differences, usually in favor of the
    girls, are frequently observed.

10
Development of the Goodenough Scale
  • Chronological age and school grade were used in
    establishing norms.
  • Every effort was made to reduce the problem of
    subjectivity.
  • Standard subject matter and instruction were
    developed.

11
Why a Man?
  • Familiarity
  • Consistency
  • Simple and Complicated
  • Universal Interest

12
Dale B. Harris
  • Of the many tests of intelligence, the
    Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test is perhaps the most
    unusual in basic conception, brevity, and general
    convenience.
  • - Harris

13
Dale B. Harris
  • Harris worked with Goodenough on the completion
    of his book Childrens Drawings as Measures of
    Intellectual Maturity.
  • His purpose was to revise, not change,
    Goodenoughs scale, put certain uncompleted
    aspects of Goodenoughs research in order, and
    extend the knowledge of the psychology of
    childrens drawings.

14
Harris Extension of Goodenoughs Scale
  • Adolescents
  • New items
  • Extended scale forms
  • Projective uses

15
Drawing Tests Uses
  • Personality
  • Sensory Deviates
  • Intellectual Development
  • Learning Differences

16
Universal Positives of the Test
  • Versatility
  • Simplicity
  • Age
  • Artistic Ability
  • Time

17
Personal Limitations
  • Unequal number of students
  • Racial differences
  • Time
  • Copying, Talking, Distractions

18

Key Terms
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • A number arrived at by means of intelligence
    tests, intended to express the degree of
    intelligence of an individual in relation to the
    average for the age-group
  • Mental age
  • A childs level of mental maturity, different
    from their chronological age and behavioral
    maturity
  • Cognitive Development
  • The process that includes perception,
    conceptualizing, knowing, judging, and reasoning
  • Intellectual Maturity
  • Intellectual state of maturity as separate from
    behavioral maturity
  • Raw score
  • The number of points each child receives for
    their drawing
  • Standard score
  • Attempts to represent the measurement theory
    that intelligence is a mosaic of abilities

19
Hypothesis
  • In comparing the two groups of drawings, the
    children at The Shelton School will display a
    higher level of cognitive development due to
    their school situation and social standing.
    Although the children at Townsell Elementary
    presumably have not been diagnosed with any
    learning differences and are the same age as the
    children tested at Shelton, their level of
    development will be lower due to their school and
    social situation. Furthermore, the drawings will
    possibly lead to questions regarding undiagnosed
    learning differences in the children at Townsell.

20
Websites
  • The Shelton School
  • Irving Independent School District
  • Florence Goodenough
  • Human Intelligence

21
Scoring
  • Excel Spreadsheet

22
Discussion of Results
23
Cayley
Age 5 years, 2 months Raw Score 27 Standard
Score127 Percentile 96 Highest score at Shelton
24
Ruthie
Age 6 years, 5 months Raw Score 27 Standard
Score 116 Percentile 86 Second highest score at
Shelton
25
Jake
Age 7 years, 2 months Raw Score 14 Standard
Score 81 Percentile 10 Lowest score at Shelton
26
Joshalyn
Age 6 years Raw Score 7 Standard Score
67 Percentile 1 Lowest score of all the children
I tested
27
Menal
Age 6 years Raw Score 32 Standard Score
130 Percentile 98 Second highest at Townsell,
highest of Townsell girls
28
Mark
Age 7 years Raw Score 41 Standard Score
141 Percentile 99 Highest score of all the
children I tested
29
What does it all mean??
  • Averages
  • Excel Spreadsheet

30
Conclusion
I was wrong!
31
Inspiration Top Down Tree
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