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Roman Culture and Achievements Summarize the works of Roman literary figures, historians, and philosophers. Describe the art and architecture developed by the Romans. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roman%20Culture%20and%20Achievements

Roman Culture and Achievements
  • Summarize the works of Roman literary figures,
    historians, and philosophers.
  • Describe the art and architecture developed by
    the Romans.
  • Understand how Romans applied science and
    mathematics for practical use.
  • Explain how Romes legal codes protected everyone
    in the empire.

Terms and People
  • Virgil poet who wrote the epic poem The Aeneid
  • satirize to make fun of
  • mosaic picture made from chips of colored
    stone or glass
  • engineering the application of science and
    mathematics to develop useful structures and

Terms and People (continued)
  • aqueduct stone structure that carried water
    from the hills to the cities
  • Ptolemy astronomer-mathematician who proposed a
    theory that the Earth was at the center of the

How did advances in arts, learning, and the law
show the Romans high regard for cultural and
political achievements?
Through war and conquest, Roman generals carried
the achievements of Roman civilization to distant
lands. Yet the resulting civilization was not
simply Roman.
It blended Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman
The blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman
traditions produced Greco-Roman civilization.
  • The Romans admired and adapted ideas from Greek
  • Travel during the Pax Romana spread this new

Virgils epic poem The Aeneid describes how the
Greek hero Aeneas escaped from Troy to found
  • Virgils goal in writing the poem was to increase
    patriotism and help unite Rome after years of
    civil war.
  • The poem stressed the cultural links between Rome
    and Greece.

Romans were impressed by the Hellenistic
philosophy of Stoicism. Stoicism stressed duty,
acceptance of ones fate, and concern for the
well-being of all people. Emperor Marcus
Aurelius became a noted Stoic philosopher and
Horace used wit to attack human folly.
Martial was so biting he had to use a fictitious
name to protect himself.
Livy recounted tales of heroes such as
Tacitus wrote of the loss of liberty after the
fall of the Republic.
Roman art and architecture were adapted from
Etruscan and Greek roots.
  • Artists and sculptures stressed realism and
    sought to focus on the subjects character and
  • Some sculpture was highly idealistic, portraying
    traits of power, grace, or strength.

Romans used art to beautify their homes. Mosaics
were created from small bits of stone or glass.
In A.D. 79, a volcano, Mt. Vesuvius, erupted,
burying Pompeii in ash and trapping residents,
but preserving their homes and artwork.
Roman architecture stressed grandeur.
  • Immense palaces, temples, and stadiums were
    monuments to Roman power.
  • Architects improved on structural devices such as
    columns and arches.
  • Using concrete enabled them to build strong
    structures with domes.

The dome of the Pantheon in Rome
Romans excelled at engineering, the practical
application of science.
Engineers built roads, bridges, and harbors
throughout the empire. These structures were so
solidly built that many were still in use long
after the empire fell.
Eleven aqueducts brought water from the
surrounding hills into the city of Rome. The
water supplied large public baths. Wealthy Romans
had water piped into their homes.
Roman scientists are generally remembered for
recording rather than creating new advances in
Galen Ptolemy Pliny the Elder
Compiled an encyclopedia of all known medical knowledge that was used for centuries. Looked at the work of earlier astronomers. He suggested the Earth was the center of the universe, an error accepted for 1,500 years. Compiled volumes on geography, zoology, and botany.
Romes greatest legacy was itscommitment to
justice and the rule of law.
A single, written legal code covered citizens and
noncitizens alike. However, penalties varied
according to social class. Lower-class defendants
often received harsher treatment.
Romes commitment to law is a legacy still
followed in the modern United States.
  • An accused person is presumed innocent until
    proven guilty.
  • A defendant has a right to face his accuser and
    offer a defense.
  • Clear evidence must be offered to prove guilt.
  • Judges are required to interpret laws fairly.