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The European Reformation


The European Reformation & it s impact on the Americas 1. What was the Protestant Reformation & Counter-reformation? 2. When and what role did the key reformers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Reformation

The European Reformation its impact on the
  • 1. What was the Protestant Reformation
  • 2. When and what role did the key reformers play
    in the reformation in Continental Europe?
  • 3. What was the resulting conflict impact in
    the Americas?

Journal Write
  • Have you ever disagreed with a belief or practice
    commonly used or held within your community,
    family, religion etc... How have you expressed
    your dissatisfaction with that belief or
    practice? Explain. To what lengths would you go
    to express your feelings? What would you do if
    you found your community, family, religion
    etc.... practicing a belief you did not agree
    with? Explain.

The Reformers Setting the Stage
  • During the Middle Ages (400-1400 AD) the single
    most important power, politically, socially and
    culturally was the church- The Catholic Church.
  • At almost the exact time that the New World was
    discovered, the Old World was changing. The men
    most responsible for this change are known as the
    Reformers- here are their stories.

The Reformers Johannes Gutenberg 1410 (?)-
1466 AD Germany
Contribution Invented a printing press capable
of mass producing the printed word (books,
leaflets, etc....).
Significant Contributions Printed 300 Gutenberg
Bibles in both Latin and German. Increased
literacy gave the common man access to the bible.
The Reformers Martin Luther Born 1483-1546
AD, Germany
In 1506, he became a Catholic monk. In 1510, he
visited Rome and was shocked by the spiritual
laziness and the widespread sell of indulgences.
Indulgences could be purchased for one's own
salvation or to release a loved one from
The Reformers Martin Luther
All his life, he felt a tremendous burden of
guilt. Through prayer and bible study he came to
believe men were saved by "grace" "faith" not
ordinances (baptism, marriage etc...). He argued
against Papal authority.
In 1517, he posted 95 problems with the church on
the door of the Wittenberg castle church.
In 1521, he was excommunicated by the Pope.
His stand against the church made him the leader
of the Protestant movement in Germany.
The Door upon which Luther Posted his thesis
Think about it
  • Watch the short film clip The Calm Before the
    Storm following the film clip write a short
    paragraph answering the question below
  • What was one concern written by Martin Luther on
    the 95 Thesis? Why do you think this concerned
    him? Be prepared to share your answer.

The Reformers John Calvin Born 1509-1564 AD,
He studied both theology law he grew to
appreciate humanistic reforming movements.
The Reformers John Calvin
He underwent a personal religious experience and
came to believe that the Bible, not the Pope, was
in charge and people were saved by faith not
He reformed the church in Geneva, Switzerland.
As a city/church official, he supported the
development of public schools, hospitals, proper
sewage system, and help for the poor and sick.
Papal Authority Not necessary For salvation
His Protestant faith spread throughout Europe.
The Reformers Erasmus Born 1469(?)-1536 AD,
Contribution Catholic Scholar. He fought for a
kinder and more humane approach towards religion.
He worked to reform the Catholic Church.
He criticized the leading classes and church
dignitaries for their unchristian behavior.
  • A reform movement within the Roman Catholic
    Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in
    response to the Protestant Reformation. It had
    two primary goals
  • 1. Reform theology
  • Council of Trent
  • 2. Stop the spread of the Protestant faith
  • -Hapsburg Emperors (Charles I Phillip II
    took military action to stop spread of
  • -Inquisitions, primarily in Spanish held lands

1st Council 1545 2nd Council 1551 - Clarify
Catholic Doctrine - Dealt with issues -
Reconfirmed the Nicene Creed raised by
English - Canonize the Old and New Church
(Henry VIII) Testaments by French -
Set the number of sacraments Calvinists
at seven (Huguenots) - Defined original
sin i.e. the Mass - Ruled against Martin
Luther transubstantiation.
The Habsburg (Spanish Empire)
Charles I Phillip II The heirs of Ferdinand
United States Juan Ponce de Leon 1513-1521
Cornado15401542) Juan de Onate 1598-1608
Hernando De Soto 15391542 Pedro Menéndez de
Avilés Florida, 15651567
Hernán Cortés (Baja California, 15321536)
Juan Ponce de León ( Puerto Rico, 1508
Hernán Cortés (Mexico, 15181522)
(Honduras, 1524)
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (Panamá, 15101519)
Francisco Pizarro (Peru 15091535)
Juan Pizarro (Perú, 15321536
Pedro de Valdivia (Chile, 15401552)
  • A reform movement within the Roman Catholic
    Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in
    response to the Protestant Reformation.
  • 3. Education and missionary work aimed at
    conversion reconversion
  • -Jesuits (often lay members mobility and

Think about it
  • What have we studied that shows the impact of the
    Counter-Reformation in the Americas? Did the
    church, through the Spanish, meet their goals?
    Explain your answer.

Consequences of Protestant Reformation in Germany
  • The Thirty Year War

The Thirty Year War 1618-1648
  • Cause Fought in the Germanic territories of
    the Holy Roman Empire. It was a religious
    conflict between Lutheran Protestants, some
    Calvinist Protestants and Catholics.

The Habsburg monarchs, the heirs of Ferdinand
Isabel from Spain, were Catholic. The German
Nobles were Protestant.
The war was fought both to determine which
religion would have power in Germany- Catholic or
Protestant, and to determine who would reign the
Catholic Kings or the Protestant Nobles.
The Thirty Year War
  • What Happened?

20 to 30 percent of the population died due to
battle, famine and disease.
The Thirty Year War
  • Consequences

1. Germany divided into many different States.
2. Broke the power of the Hapsburg Empire
(Catholics) in Northern Europe.
3. Gave the State power over the church.
4. Many Germans fled war torn Germany for the
Americas.... The New Netherlands (New York).
Think about it
  • Watch the short film clip The Thirty Year War
    following the film clip write a short paragraph
    answering the question below
  • What might it have been like to live in Germany,
    or even Rothenburg, during the 30 year war?

War in France
  • The Huguenots were French Calvinists.
  • Huguenots became known for their criticisms of
    the form of worship found in the Mass

War in France
  • Religious wars, followed by brief periods of
    peace, continued for nearly fifty years.
  • In 1598 the Edict of Nantes established
    Catholicism as the state religion of France, but
    granted the Protestants equality with Catholics
    and some religious and political freedom in
    France their colonies

An eyewitness depiction of St. Barthelemy in
1572, in which up to 70,000 Huguenots were
War in France
  • In 1685, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes and
    declared Protestantism to be illegal
  • Some two million Huguenots fled to surrounding
    Protestant countries (including those countries
    ravaged by the Thirty year war), and eventually
    throughout the world
  • Thousands of French Protestants eventually fled
    to the Americas.

Nova Scotia 1628
All 13 colonies
Florida 1562
Brazil 1555
War in France
  • A group of Huguenots under the leadership of Jean
    Ribault in 1562 established the small colony of
    Fort Caroline in 1564, on the banks of the St.
    Johns River, in what is today Jacksonville,
  • The colony was the first attempt at any permanent
    European settlement in the present-day
    continental United States, the group survived
    only a short time. In 1565 they were slaughterd
    by the Spanish.
  • The Spanish remained in Florida until 1819

Note the strategic location of Fort Carolina in
the West Indies near the Spanish treasure fleet.
Mapping Activity
  • Use the map provided in your workbook identify
    regions within the North and South America
    impacted by the French Huguenots and German
  • On the map provided in your workbook, label those
    Western European countries impacted most by the
    Protestant Reformation. In the summary on the
    next page, be sure to write down who was involved
    in the reformations and where did the
    reformations take place.

The Reformation Counter-Reformation
Who were the reformers that impacted the Catholic Church in Europe? When did they reform? Where did they live and complete their work? 1. 2 3. 4.
What were the primary beliefs of the primary European reformers? 1. 2 3. 4.
What were the causes of the Counter-Reformation in both Europe and the Americas? 1. 2 3. 4.
What were the long term results of the reformation counter-reformation in Europe and the Americas? 1. 2 3. 4.
The English Reformation its impact on the
  • 1. How did the English Reformation differ from
    the European Reformation?
  • 2. What happened and why with Englands first
    failed attempts at colonization?
  • 3. How did English Religious Conflict and the
    resulting political philosophies impact the
    developing political ideas of the Americas?

Henry VII flirts with America
  • Or Englands first voyages to America

Who did Henry hire to sail in search of
Asia? Where was the sailor from? Where did he
arrive? What did he think he had found? What
happened on his second voyage? What was the
John Cabot, 1497
Newfoundland, Canada
Four ships disappeared Cabots fate is still a
Henry VII stopped further voyages
Henry VII flirts with America
  • Or Englands first voyages to America

Newfoundland Canada
Marriage as a Political Tool
  • Catherine (daughter of The Catholic Monarchs-
    Ferdinand Isabel)

Arthur (son of Henry VII Elizabeth of York)
Marriage I
Henry VIII was crowned King in 1509, at the age
of 19.
Henry VIII jousting while Catherine of Aragon
looks on
Henry VIII allied England with Spain and as part
of the Counter-Reformation declared war on France
to ensure the victory of Catholicism over
Protestants (during the French Religious wars)
The Pope gave him the title, Defender of the
Marriage II
Additionally he was in love with Anne Boleyn, a
lady in waiting (or secretary) to his wife.
Catherine Henry VIII were married 24 years.
After a number of miscarriages and several dead
infants, Henry came to believe that he was being
punished for marrying his dead brothers wife.
Henry Catherines only living heir Mary Tudor
Anne Boleyn
The mistress that changed the course of history
Anne studied the writing of Calvin evidence
suggests she may have met him personally. She
owned and studied the Calvinist Bible.
All this for an Heir!?!
  • It pays to be the King!

Henry appealed to the Pope for a divorce.
The Pope was dependent on Charles V. Charles
would not allow the divorce of Catherine (his
aunt) from Henry VIII.
During the course of Henrys marriage to
Catherine, Spains power over the Pope had
increased. By now the most powerful person in
Europe was Catharines nephew, Charles V -the
Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles V was the son of Juana the Loca (the
grandson of Ferdinand Isabel)
A New Church
  • Political Reformation

When the Pope refused to grant Henry a divorce,
(drawing on the title the Pope had earlier given
him of Defender of the Faith), he named himself
the head of the church in England and granted
himself a divorce.
Marriage II
  • A New World

Henry married Anne.
Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth I.
The Church of England
  • So... forget about Anne what about this new

An Act was written which proclaimed the King had
total authority in England. The king was head of
the church in England and the Pope could not pass
judgments or excommunications that were valid in
They passed An Act of Submission of the Clergy
which forced all church leaders to swear
allegiance to the King over the Pope.
The King took over the Monasteries and
Cathedrals. Crown revenues doubled for a few
The breach between the king and the Pope forced
believers to choose their allegiance - the most
famous being Sir Thomas More, who was executed
for treason in 1535.
They passed an Act of Succession which gave
Annes Protestant children the right to inherit
the throne over Catherines.
The end of Queen Anne
  • Out with the old - in with the new...

King Henry and Anne had been together seven
years- four as sweethearts, three as spouses.
And the romance... at least for the King.... was
beginning to die.
The King's fancy for one of Annes
ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour, began to grow.
Anne's enemies at court began to plot against
her. They persuaded the King to sign a document
calling for an investigation of Anne, that would
possibly result in charges of treason.
On May 2, Queen Anne was arrested at Greenwich
and was informed of the charges against her
adultery, incest and plotting to murder the King
(witchcraft). She was imprisoned in the Tower of
Queen Jane
  • Blink and you will miss her

Within two days of Annes death, Henry married
Jane Seymore.
In October, a prince was born. Jane died from
complications during the birth
The heirs are in place
  • But just for the fun of it.... Lets finish the
    story of Henrys wives.

Anne of Cleves Married1540 Jan.
-July Divorced Why Too ugly She outlived them
all. The arranged marriage led to Cromwells end
Kathryn Howard Married1540 - 1542 Executed Why
Adultery-Really! She was Annes cousin, and 20
years younger than the King.
Katherine Parr Married 1543 - 1547 Widowed She
outlived Henry. Raised Elizabeth I
Summary English Reformation
  • List 5-10 key individuals/ events/ ideas
  • Summarize the English Reformation in 35-50 words.

The Heirs of King Henry VIII
  • Mary (Daughter of Catherine) Edward (Son of
    Jane) Elizabeth (Daughter of Anne)

Mary (Catholic) Edward
(Protestant) Elizabeth (Protestant)
Each of Henry VIII children eventually came to
the throne. Each brought Religious changes to
England. None had any heirs (children)
The English Come to America Comes to America
America was born during a period of great
revolutionary change in England.
These changes drastically altered the social,
religious and political perspective of the new
American people.
and why the Reformation changed America.
Plymouth,Pilgrims 1620 King Charles
Jamestown 1607 King James
Roanoke 1584 Queen Elizabeth I
St. Augustine 1564 Founded by the French in
1564, Taken over by the Spanish in 1565
Henrys heirs the next generation
  • Read pages 115-118
  • 1. Complete the Main Idea summary on pg 118.
  • 2. Complete the readings and textbook questions
    on page 116
  • 3. Complete the mapping activity on page 115
  • 4. Skip the film clip on the bottom of page 117
  • These are exit cards and must be completed prior
    to leaving class.

Elizabeth Roanoke
Raleigh returned to England, to get supplies
colonists. While in England the Spanish Armada
sailed, he was forced to stay and fight the
Spaniards. On his return he found the colonists
had disappeared
Sir Walter Raleigh