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19th century European nationalism

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Title: 19th century European nationalism


1
19th century European nationalism political
reforms
  • Entrance task Think In what way is nationalism
    like a lightbulb?
  • Today Reforms in Britain, the Dreyfus Affair in
    France
  • Homework Per. 3 Essay due Friday
  • All read Ch. 17 in packet

2
Reform in Great Britain
  • 1832 Reform Bill extended suffrage to middle
    class (1/8 of male population)
  • 1867 Reform Bill 1/3 could not vote, including
    most city workers
  • 1884 Reform Bill suffrage extended to rural
    areas (3/4 of all men)
  • 1911 Parliament Act deprived House of Lords of
    veto power
  • 1918 Reform Bill universal male suffrage and
    women over 30

3
Political Parties
  • Conservatives interested in labor, housing, and
    extending suffrage, but criticized liberals for
    moving too far and too fast

Benjamin Disraeli
4
Political Parties
  • Liberals - leaned toward industrial and
    commercial interests

David Lloyd George
William Gladstone
5
The Irish Question
  • Liberal leader David Lloyd George supported home
    rule for Ireland but could not gather enough
    support for it to succeed.
  • 1914 Approved but not implemented due to the
    outbreak of the Great War

6
The Irish Question
  • Protestants in North Ireland opposed self-rule,
    fearing Catholic domination from the rest of the
    country

7
The 2nd Republic and Louis Napoleon
  • Louis Napoleon elected president in 1848 and
    stages a successful
  • coup detat in 1851 to become Emperor Napoleon
    III

8
Napoleon III the 2nd Empire
  • Economic successes include investment banking,
    railroad expansion, public works and the
    rebuilding of Paris
  • Political freedom was more forthcoming after 1860
    when he allowed his Assembly more control

9
Franco-Prussian War1870-1871
  • Napoleon III was edged into war by his apparent
    insult from the Ems telegraph
  • France was soundly defeated by Prussia

10
The Third Republic
  • The Paris Commune revolutionaries in Paris
    refused to admit defeat and refused to surrender
  • The National Assembly was sent in and crushed the
    Commune
  • The Third Republic was established

11
The Third Republic
  • Achievements
  • Legalized trade unions
  • Created schools
  • Built a colonial empire

Leon Gambetta
Jules Ferry
12
The Dreyfus Affair 1898-1899
  • Jewish Captain Alfred Dreyfus falsely accused on
    treason
  • Anti-Semitism in France
  • Led to separation between church (Catholic) and
    state

13
Mid-19c European Nationalism
14
The Crimean War 1854-1856
15
Italian Nationalist Leaders
King Victor Emmanuel II
Giuseppi GaribaldiThe Sword
Giuseppi MazziniThe Soul
Count CavourThe Brains
16
Pope Pius IX
17
Sardinia-Piedmont The Magnet
18
Step 1
19
Step 2
20
Step 3
21
Italian Unification
22
A Unified Peninsula!
  • A contemporary British cartoon, entitled "Right
    Leg in the Boot at Last," shows Garibaldi helping
    Victor Emmanuel put on the Italian boot.

23
The Kingdom of Italy 1871
24
German Unification
25
Zollverein
26
Prussia v. Austria
27
Kaiser Wilhelm I
28
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck
The IronChancellor
Realpolitik
BloodIron
29
Otto von Bismarck . . . .
  • The less people know about how sausages and laws
    are made, the better theyll sleep at night.
  • Never believe in anything until it has been
    officially denied.
  • The great questions of the day will not be
    settled by speeches and majority decisionsthat
    was the mistake of 1848-1849but by blood and
    iron.

30
Otto von Bismarck . . . .
  • I am bored. The great things are done. The
    German Reich is made.
  • A generation that has taken a beating is always
    followed by a generation that deals one.
  • Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will
    provoke the next war.

31
Unification ofGermany
32
Step 1 The Danish War1864
The Peace ofVienna
33
Step 2 Austro-Prussian WarSeven Weeks War,
1866
34
Step 3 Creation of the Northern German
Confederation, 1867
  • Shortly following the victory of Prussia,
    Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German
    Confederation.
  • He then established a new North German
    Confederation which Prussia could control ? Peace
    of Prague

35
Ems Dispatch 1870 A Catalyst for War
  • 1868 revolt in Spain.
  • Spanish leaders wantedPrince Leopold von
    Hohenz.a cousin to the Kaiser aCatholic, as
    their new king.
  • France protested his name was withdrawn.
  • The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to
    apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold.
  • Bismarck doctored the telegram from Wilhelm to
    the French Ambassador to make it seem as though
    the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.

36
Step 4 Franco-Prussian War1870-1871
German soldiers abusing the French.
37
Step 4 Franco-Prussian War1870-1871
38
Bismarck Napoleon III After Sedan
39
Treaty of Frankfurt 1871
  • The Second French Empire collapsed and was
    replaced by the Third French Republic.
  • The Italians took Rome and made it their capital.
  • Russia put warships in the Black Sea in defiance
    of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the
    Crimean War. -------------------
  • France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by
    German troops until it was paid.
  • France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany a region
    rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile
    industry.

40
Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm Ir. 18711888
41
Prussian Junkers Swear Their Allegiance to the
Kaiser
42
German Imperial Flag
43
Bismarck Manipulatingthe Reichstag
44
Bismarcks KulturkampfAnti-Catholic Program
  • Take education and marriage out of the hands of
    the clergy ? civil marriages only recognized.
  • The Jesuits are expelled from Germany.
  • The education of Catholic priests would be under
    the supervision of the German government.

45
Bismarcks ReapproachmentWith the Catholic Church
Bismarck Pope Leo XIII
46
Kaiser Wilhelm II r. 1888-1918
47
DroppingthePilot1890
48
Kaiser Wilhelm II
49
Eastern Europe in the Last Half of the 19c
50
Differing Nationalities in theAustrian Empire
51
Austrian Imperial Flag
52
The Compromise of 1867The Dual Monarchy ?
Austria-Hungary
The Hungarian Flag
53
Russian Expansion
54
Russian Imperial Flag
55
Forced Migration of Russias Jews
56
The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19cThe Sicker Man of
Europe
57
The1905Russian Revolution
58
Nicholas II The Last Romanov Tsarr. 1894-1917
59
The Tsar His Family
60
Hemophilia the Tsarevich
61
Nicholas II His Uncle, George V
62
Causes
63
1. Early 20c Russian Social Hierarchy
64
2. First Stages of Industrialization
An Early Russian Factory
65
3. Weak Economy
1905 Russian Rubles
66
4. Extensive Foreign Investments Influence
Building the Trans-Siberian RREconomic benefits
only in a few regions.
67
5. Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
The Yellow Peril
68
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
69
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
70
Russian Japanese Soldiers
71
Russia Is Humiliated
72
Treaty of Portsmouth NH - 1905
President Theodore Roosevelt Acts as the
Peacemaker He gets the Nobel Peace Prize for
his efforts.
73
6. Unrest Among the Peasants Urban Working Poor
Father Georgi GaponLeader of the People OR
Police Informer?
74
Bloody SundayJanuary 22, 1905
The Czars Winter Palace in St. Petersburg
75
The Revolution Spreads
76
Russian Cossacks Slaughter The People in Odessa
Anti-Jewish Attacks
77
7. The Battleship Potemkin Mutiny June, 1905
78
Results
79
1. The Tsars October Manifesto
October 30, 1905
80
2. The Opening of the DumaPossible Reforms?
1906
  • The first two tries were too radical.
  • The third duma was elected by the richest people
    in Russia in 1907.

81
The Russian Constitution of 1906
  • Known as the Fundamental Laws April 23, 1906.
  • The autocracy of the Russian Tsar was declared.
  • The Tsar was supreme over the law, the church,
    and the Duma.
  • It confirmed the basic human rights granted by
    the October Manifesto, BUT made them subordinate
    to the supremacy of the law.

82
3. Jewish Refugees Come to America in 1906
83
4. The Path to October, 1917
84
Why did the 1905 Revolution Fail?
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