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The%20Biosphere:%20An%20Introduction%20to%20Biomes

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The Biosphere: An Introduction to Biomes Biomes Heavily modified by human activity US grasslands barely exist Overtaken by farming Rainforest destruction Deciduous ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Biosphere:%20An%20Introduction%20to%20Biomes


1
The Biosphere An Introduction to Biomes
2
Earths Biomes
Ecology





Organization
Population

Community

Ecosystem
  • scientific study of the interactions between
    living organisms and their physical environments
  • No organism exists alone
  • - each is part of a linked system of living and
    nonliving elements
  • - all the members of a species living in a given
    location
  • - all the interacting populations in a given
    area
  • -the biotic and abiotic factors functioning
    together in a given area

3
Biosphere

Biomes











- the part of earth where life exists (the
outer surface of earth)
large geographic areas that havesimilar climates
and ecosystems Climate average weather pattern
in an area over a long period of time. Includes
temperature precipitation Vegetation (plant
types) depends on climate -affects which animals
and other organisms the area can support a
biome is defined by its plants Location
relates to latitude on earth and elevation
share similar traits
4
Regional Climate influences distribution of
biological communities
5

Types of
biomes


Limiting
factors







2 broad classifications Terrestrial land
biomes Aquatic water biomes - the supply of
certain abiotic factors will control what types
of species can adapt and survive in the
area These abiotic factors include temperature
precipitation soils wind sunlight
6
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7
Terrestrial Biomes
Aquatic Biomes
  • Marine (salt water)
  • Ocean
  • Estuaries
  • Freshwater
  • Lakes and Ponds
  • Rivers and Streams
  • Tropical rain forest
  • Grassland
  • Desert
  • Deciduous forest
  • Boreal (coniferous forest)
  • Tundra

8
(No Transcript)
9
Tropical Rainforests
http//www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm
10
Tropical Rainforest
  • At or near equator
  • Greatest diversity of living organisms
  • Large number of different animals, adapted to
    diverse niches
  • Lush, diverse plant growth
  • Different ecosystems within tree layers
  • The most rainfall
  • Very warm and wet
  • Good drainage
  • Rapid decomposition poor soil

11
(No Transcript)
12
Grassland
Hagemann, Judy. antelopeislandhillsprairie.jpg.
August 1, 2005. Pics4Learning. 24 Jan 2008
http//pics.tech4learning.com http//www.omega.i
t/p/pa/pampa.html
13
Grasslands
14
Grassland
  • Unbroken sea of grass
  • Plants adapted to grazing by animals
  • Many herbivores
  • and their predators
  • Fires are important
  • Not enough water to support trees
  • Grazing and fire inhibit other trees

15
Deserts
16
Deserts
17
Desert
  • More N S of equator
  • Climate dry (duh)
  • Plants adapted to scarce water
  • Many plants spread seeds (e.g. annual
    wildflowers)
  • Water conservation (cactus)
  • Many types of animals very well adapted
  • Burrowing
  • Nocturnal
  • Small

18
Deciduous Forest
19
Deciduous Forest
20
Temperate deciduous forests
  • Mostly northern regions
  • Deciduous lose leaves each winter
  • Plenty of moisture
  • Cold winters / warm to hot summers
  • Some animals hibernate
  • Diverse animal habitats
  • Foliage to hide in
  • Seed fruit-eaters
  • and their predators

21
http//users.tellurian.com/teach/biomes/informatio
n.html
Kolk, Melinda. taiga1.jpg. September 2002.
Pics4Learning. 24 Jan 2008 http//pics.tech4learn
ing.com
22
Coniferous Forests
  • Also called
  • Taiga
  • Boreal forest

23
Coniferous forests
  • Far north of equator and high latitudes
  • Harsh winters (much snow), short summers, rich
    soil
  • Abundant, open water
  • Plants adapted to cold
  • Animals adapted for cold
  • Fur
  • Hibernate
  • Migrate

24
http//www.bergoiata.org/fe/national-parks-america
n/Denali20Tundra.jpg
25
Tundra
26
Tundra
  • Only in Northern hemisphere
  • Permafrost (frozen soil)
  • Small plants because of limited soil depth
    (treeless)
  • Short growing season
  • Lichens, small herbs, mosses
  • Birds cold-adapted animals
  • Will migrate to avoid coldest part of winter
  • large small herbivores
  • and their predators

27
Aquatic Biomes
-represent the largest ecosystem on earth (over
70 of earth)
  • Marine Biomes
  • Ocean
  • Intertidal Zones
  • Estuaries
  • Freshwater Biomes
  • Lakes and Ponds
  • Rivers and Streams

28
Marine Biomes
Oceans - continuous body of water that provides
stable environment for a diverse group of
organisms - absorbs and holds large quantities
of solar heat that helps to stabilize the earths
atmosphere
29
Marine Mammals
30
Estuaries -found where rivers and streams flow
into the ocean (bays, mud flats, salt
marshes) -organisms must adapt to frequent
changes (nutrient and salt concentration,
temperature)
31
Freshwater Biomes
  • Lakes and Ponds
  • Rivers and Streams

32
  • Lakes and Ponds
  • standing bodies of water that vary in size
  • lakes that are rich in organic matter and
    vegetation tend to be murky
  • lakes that contain little organic matter tend to
    be clear

33
  • Rivers and Streams
  • - bodies of water that move continuously in one
  • direction
  • organisms must adapt to the current
  • slower moving rivers contain more nutrients and
    thus can support a greater diversity of life

34
Biomes
  • Heavily modified by human activity
  • US grasslands barely exist
  • Overtaken by farming
  • Rainforest destruction
  • Deciduous forest destruction for homes
  • Biomes are defined by potential, not actual
    plants and animals
  • Biomes defined by climate of region
  • Limiting factors
  • mostly temperature
  • rainfall
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