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Human Wildlife Conflict: Challenges and Management

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Title: Human Wildlife Conflict: Challenges and Management


1
Human Wildlife Conflict Challenges and
Management
  • P.R. Sinha

2
Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • Human-wildlife conflict occurs when wildlife
    requirements encroach on those of human
    populations, with costs both to residents and
    wild animals (IUCN 2005).
  • All continents and countries whether developed or
    developing, are affected by human wildlife
    conflict (Human Wildlife Conflict in Africa, FAO
    Forestry Paper 157).

3
The Global Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • USA
  • Annual Estimate of damage to agriculture
    producers around US 4.5 billion
  • 1.5 million deer vehicle collisions/ year,
    Annual Loss US 1.6 billion
  • (Dr. Tara Teel et al, Colorado State University)
  • In Idaho, Montana and Wyoming wolves killed 728
    animals (sheep, cattle) between 1987-2001
  • (Musiani et al, 2003)

4
The Global Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • Europe
  • In France (2007) damage to crops by wild boar and
    deer amounted to 23 million.
  • In Slovenia compensation for damage by large
    predator in 2000-03 exceeded 706,000.
  • (FAO, F.P. 157)

5
The Global Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • Australia
  • Production losses in 80s were estimated to be US
    20 million/ year for South Australia alone.
  • Losses to wool industry estimated at US 115
    million/year.
  • Kangaroos cause huge damage to crops and compete
    for forage with sheep.
  • Approx. 9 millions kangaroos eliminated each year

6
The Global Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • China
  • Rural inhabitants of the mountain area of Simao
    near the Xishuang Bannar Nature Reserve, claimed
    that elephants damage reduced the communitys
    annual income in 2000 by 28 to 48 percent and the
    total economic losses between 1996 and 1999
    amounted to US 314,600
  • (Zang and Wang 2003)

7
The Global Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
  • Africa
  • Crop damage is the most prevalent form of human
    wildlife conflict across the African continent.
    In some semi arid rural farming areas of Zimbabwe
    and Kenya, elephant damage to food crops accounts
    for 75 to 90 percent of all damage caused by
    large mammals.
  • (Hoare and Mackie 1993)

8
The Indian Scenario in Human-Wildlife Conflict
(HWC)
  • India
  • Almost entire country affected by HWC in varying
    degrees
  • Major species involved are Leopard, Snow
    Leopard, Tiger, Wolf, Elephant, Black Buck, Wild
    Ass, Sloth Bear, Brown Bear, Rhesus and Bonnet
    Macaques, Blue Bull and Wild Pig

9
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Gujarat 97,004)

10
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Haryana 38,774)

11
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Madhya Pradesh 60,677)

12
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Punjab 10,312)

13
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Rajasthan 41,434)

14
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Uttar Pradesh 2,54,449)

15
Management of Human-Nilgai Conflict
  • Estimated population (Uttarakhand 7,728)

16
Response of States to the Problems
  • Gujarat
  • The State Government of Gujarat has appointed
    Sarpanchs of 1545 villages as Honorary Wildlife
    Warden under Section 4(1)(bb) and empowered Chief
    Wildlife Warden under Section 5(2) to delegate
    his powers to Sarpanchs under Section 11(1)(B) to
    allow hunting of Nilgai in their respective areas.

17
Response of States to the Problems
  • Haryana
  • The State Government of Haryana has authorized
    Divisional Forest Officers to issue permits for
    elimination of problem animals on the
    recommendation of concerned panchyats.

18
Response of States to the Problems
  • Uttarakhand
  • Chief Wildlife Warden has authorized all the
    Divisional Forest Officers to allow killing of
    nilgai after due verification of report from
    concerned gram pradhan.

19
Response of States to the Problems
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • The Government/ Chief Wildlife Warden has
    authorized the District Collectors and Block
    Development Officers to allow killing of problem
    nilgai.

20
Outcome of the Orders Issued by the States
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Number of Nilgai Eliminated
  • Mahoba - 1
  • Etah - 250
  • Rai-Bareilly - 15

21
Outcome of the Orders Issued by the States
  • Gujarat
  • Number of Nilgai Eliminated
  • Unofficial reports of elimination of nilgai in
    Sundernagar district by the hiring Dafers (a
    tribe of hunter) by local people

22
Discussion on Legal Options
  • Lack of sustained efforts at local level?
  • Strong religious sentiments against killing?
  • Complicated paper work?
  • High cost of eliminating the animal?
  • Lack of coordination with district authorities?

contd
23
Discussion on Legal Options
  • Will be problem be solved by declaring nilgai a
    vermin?

24
Options for Mitigation
  • Use of Fear provoking stimuli
  • Visual
  • Auditory
  • Olfactory (predator odours)

25
Options for Mitigation
  • Chemical repellents
  • Deer-Away Big Game Repellent (BGR) Predator
    odours (reduced deer damage by 60) in white
    tailed deer in North America (Hain Conover,
    1995)

26
Options for Mitigation
  • Traditional chain link fencing and pulsating
    power fencing
  • Effective world wide
  • Eight strand power fencing effective in
    containing nilgai
  • Cost per km 2.50 lakhs

27
Options for Mitigation
  • Capture and translocation
  • Drop nets
  • Net gun
  • Rocket gun
  • Corrals

28
Options for Mitigation
  • Chemical capture
  • Etorphine hydrochloride
  • Xylazine hydrochloride in combination with
    Ketamine
  • Meditomidine hydrochloride in combination with
    Ketamine

29
Options for Mitigation
  • Fertility control
  • Mechanical and surgical techniques
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Immunocontraception
  • MGA (melengestrol acetate) Implants
  • PZP (Porcine Zona Pellucida)
  • GonaCon (A Ganadotropin releasing hormone GnRH)
    and Spay Vac (PZP Liposome adjuvant) (Single
    shot immunocontraceptive vaccines under trial)

30
Options for Mitigation
  • Reproductive Management

The normal population growth pattern with two
carrying capacity scenario and reproductive
management of adult females at 20 to 80 level
31
Options for Mitigation
  • Sustained Off-take/harvesting

Normal growth pattern with two carrying capacity
scenario and harvesting (removal) of
sub-adults/adults (gt2 yrs age) with harvest
(removal) varying from 20 to 90 level
32
Options for Mitigation
  • Sustained RM/harvesting

The normal population growth pattern with
reproductive management and combination of
reproductive management and harvest
33
Option for Managing Rhesus Macaques
Simulated rhesus population growth and population
management (reproductive management and removal)
scenarios
34
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - INDIA
35
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - INDIA
36
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - INDIA
37
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts Outside India
38
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - Outside India
39
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - Outside India
40
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - Outside India
41
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - Outside India
42
HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICTS (HWC) Possible
management practices so far used in minimizing
such conflicts - Outside India
43
The Way Forward.
  • Community participation?
  • Power fencing?
  • Culling?
  • Sterilization?
  • Translocation?
  • A combination of the above

44
Thank you
45
(No Transcript)
46
Conflicts with Leopards in human dominated
landscapes
  • Leopards being generalist occupy niches of all
    kind ranging from scrub to forested habitats
  • Conflict is mainly due to loss of wild prey
    species by poaching, degradation of habitat
    dependency of forest resources by the local
    people.
  • Conflict is due to loss of livestock or human
    life.

47
Conflicts with Leopards in human dominated
landscapes
Institute has undertaken a research project for
understanding Human-leopard conflicts with
respect to ecological and biological aspects in
Pauri Garhwal, Uttaranchal. A simple brochure has
been prepared for minimizing such conflicts in
Himalayas.
  • Suggestions
  • Immediate intervention and provide relief for
    loss of livestock or human life
  • Most of the suggestions are site specific and
    need has been felt for construction of latrines
    for each house hold especially located in remote
    areas
  • With draw gun licenses in areas of high to medium
    conflict zones
  • Conduct Conservation Education program for the
    ways to reduce the conflict with leopard and
    consequences of poaching of wild prey species
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