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CMNS%20230%20Film

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Title: CMNS%20230%20Film


1
CMNS 230Film
  • Lecture Nov. 20 2006,
  • David Newman

2
In the beginning
  • First Lumiere Brothers film screening in Paris,
    December 1895
  • However, there were screenings prior to this
  • Demonstrated very rapid diffusion of new
    technology

3
Diffusion of motion pictures

Dec. 1895
4
Diffusion of motion pictures




Dec. 1895
May 1895
5
Diffusion of motion pictures

May 1896


June 1896



August 1896

Dec. 1895


May 1895

Feb. 1897
Jan. 1896
Oct. 1896



August 1896
Sept. 1896
6
Todays lecture
  • First half - historical overview
  • Hollywood and non-Hollywood movies
  • Canada, with New Zealand as a comparison
  • Institutional structure and policy environment
    for the film industry
  • Discussion of Assignment 3

7
Origins of Hollywood
  • Film industry in the USA began in New Jersey and
    around New York
  • Motion Picture Patents Trust - 1908
  • Edison
  • Biograph
  • Vitagraph

8
Origins of Hollywood
  • Problems for companies outside the Trust -
    harassment, legal threats
  • Needed an alternative environment
  • California came into the picture
  • The first runaway productions and establishment
    of Hollywood as a production venue

9
Origins of Hollywood
  • Why California and Hollywood?
  • Various theories
  • Escape Motion Picture Patents Company
  • Proximity to the Mexican border
  • Physical environment / climate
  • Later - distance from head office and the
    financiers

10
Origins of Hollywood
  • Development of 3 main sectors
  • Production - manufacturing
  • Distribution - wholesaling
  • Exhibition - retailing
  • Industrial terminology used initially along with
    attempts to make the process and studios as
    similar as possible to manufacturing in a factory

11
Early Hollywood
  • Post WWI
  • The war had created a vacuum in European
    production
  • Dominance of Hollywood globally
  • Aided by US government
  • Trade follows film
  • Star system in place to provide branding

12
Early Hollywood
  • Scandals in early Hollywood
  • Fear of government regulation at both Federal and
    State levels
  • Politically, industry self-regulation preferred
    approach
  • Will Hays and MPPDA (Motion Picture Producers
    and Distributors Association)

13
Hollywood studio era
  • Fordist approach to production
  • Introduction of sound
  • Decrease in importance of international markets

14
Hollywood studio era
  • The majors1926
  • Paramount
  • Warner Bros
  • Fox
  • Loews/MGM
  • RKO
  • Universal
  • Columbia
  • United Artists

15
Hollywood studio era
  • The majors1926 2006
  • Paramount
  • Warner Bros
  • Fox
  • Loews/MGM
  • RKO
  • Universal
  • Columbia
  • United Artists
  • Paramount
  • Warner Bros
  • 20th Century Fox
  • Universal
  • Disney
  • Columbia/Sony Pictures
  • MGM/United Artists

16
Hollywood studio era
  • Source of Hollywoods strength?
  • Finance capital v. industrial capital
  • New York-based bankers

17
Hollywood studio era
  • 1948 Paramount case
  • Television

18
Rise of the independents
  • Change in production style
  • Move to post-Fordist approach
  • Studios adapted - focused on distribution
  • Runaway productions in Europe

19
Rise of the blockbuster
  • Jaws 1975 Steven Spielberg
  • Star Wars 1977 George Lucas

20
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21
Blockbuster revenues
  • Theatrical releases
  • DVD / video releases
  • Cable and broadcast TV rights
  • Product placements
  • Ancillary merchandise
  • Musicals / theme park rides

22
Directors of top-10 grossing filmsWorldwide
  • James Cameron Canada
  • Peter Jackson (2) New Zealand
  • Gore Verbinski USA
  • Chris Columbus (2) USA
  • George Lucas USA
  • Steven Spielberg USA
  • Mike Newell England
  • Andrew Adamson New Zealand

Source www.imdb.com
23
Situation today
  • Hollywood movies - continuing to dominate
  • Independents and films from other countries
    obtaining about 10-15 of the North American box
    office

24
Centre-Periphery model for Hollywood /
non-Hollywood industries
25
Peter Jackson
26
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27
Canada New Zealand
  • Both former British Dominions
  • Both dominated by Hollywood productions
  • Both with relatively small populations making it
    difficult for a domestic production industry to
    be commercially viable
  • Population
  • Canada 32 million
  • New Zealand 4.1 million (excluding sheep)

28
Canada
  • Essentially two cinemas
  • Quebec non-Quebec, or
  • English-language French
  • Quebec interesting exception
  • An example of a regional, ethnic or sub-national
    cinema
  • Success in recent years very different

29
Canada institutions
  • TeleFilm Canada
  • National Film Board
  • Provincial level agencies

30
Telefilm mandate
  • cultural investor supporting Canadas
    audiovisual industry to create cultural works
    that reflect and celebrate the diversity of
    Canada and are widely appreciated in Canada and
    abroad.

31
Canada - policy tools
  • Policy institutions
  • Direct investment (Telefilm, NFB)
  • Tax credits
  • Co-production treaties
  • Location support (at local/provincial level)

32
New Zealand institutions
  • New Zealand Film Commission (NZFC)
  • Feature Film Fund
  • New Zealand Screen Council
  • New Zealand On Air
  • Film New Zealand

33
NZFC mandate
  • To contribute to New Zealands cultural capital
    through the development, production, financing
    and marketing of audience-focused feature films
    and to grow the film sector within the larger
    screen production industry.

Source NZFC Fact Sheet 2005
34
New Zealand - policy tools
  • Policy institutions
  • Investment (NZFC, FFF)
  • State sales agency (NZFC)
  • Co-productions
  • Accelerated tax write-offs
  • Large Budget Screen Production Grant
  • Location support

35
Culture v. economic
  • Different policy goals
  • Culture - national or ethnic identity
  • Economic - economic activity and jobs

36
Results
37
New Zealand feature production
Excluding Peter Jackson productions
4.5m
Average budget excluding Peter Jackson
2.1m
1.5m
1.1m
1.3m
2.1m
38
Canada feature production
39
Feature production by million population
40
Feature production expenditure per capita
41
of local box office
7.9
2006 projection
4.8
42
Telefilm budget for feature production by language
43
Development expenditure per capita (US)
44
Number of projects receiving development (per
capita)
45
Avg. US development per project
46
Box office for select top local films since 1999
(US)
  • New Zealand
  • Worlds Fastest Indian 4.74m
  • Whale Rider 4.61m
  • Siones Wedding 2.73m
  • What Becomes of the Broken Hearted
    2.14m
  • In My Fathers Den 1.20m
  • Scarfies 840,000
  • River Queen 670,000
  • Canada - English
  • Bon Cop/Bad Cop 1 10.4m
  • Resident Evil Apocalypse 3.75m
  • Mambo Italiano 3.69m
  • Trailer Park Boys 1 3.2m
  • White Noise 2.8m
  • Men with Brooms 2.44m
  • Bollywood/Hollywood 950,000

co-production 1 as of November 2, 2006
47
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48
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49
New Telefilm policy -2007/08
  • Asymmetrical model
  • Instead of 5 overall target
  • 2 for English language
  • 20 for Quebec (significant that they are using
    the term Quebec rather than French-language
  • Different policies for funding with lower box
    office targets for English-language films
  • Still reviewing French-language funding problems
    as they have insufficient resources for the
    demand

50
Service productions
  • Also known as runaway productions
  • Productions filmed in a different geographic
    location from the control and funding
  • Worth C821m to British Columbia last year
    (feature films only)

51
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52
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53
Coming to a nearby theatre soon (hopefully)
54
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55
References further reading
  • Gomery, Douglas (2005), The Hollywood Studio
    System A History, BFI Publishing, London
  • Miller, Toby, Nitin Govil, et. al., (2005),
    Global Hollywood 2, BFI Publishing, London
  • Wasko, Janet (2003), How Hollywood Works, Sage
    Publications, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi
  • Wexman, Virginia Wright (2006), A History of
    Film, 6th ed., Pearson Allyn Bacon, Boston
  • www.imdb.com
  • New Zealand Film Commission Annual Reports
    website
  • TeleFilm Canada Annual Reports website
  • Movie posters from Wikipedia, www.imdb.com and
    NZFC

56
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57
Assignment 3
  • Outline is (or will be) on the class website
  • Due 3pm, December 8 at the main School of
    Communications office
  • Will be graded by Professor Murray

58
Assignment 3
  • Select an existing cultural product or text,
    preferably Canadian in origin
  • This might be a television series, film, book,
    magazine, CD or videogame
  • Make sure you are familiar with it
  • Talk to us if you want to do something outside of
    what is listed above

59
Assignment 3
  • Product pitch
  • Create a brief description of the text in the
    form of a pitch or outline
  • Maximum of 100 words
  • Provide the essence of the story or format with
    something to grab or interest the audience
  • This isnt as easy as it sounds. Give yourself
    plenty of time to develop this

60
Assignment 3
  • Target audience
  • 1 paragraph outlining the specific audience or
    audiences along with their demographics that this
    text is targeted towards
  • Be specific maybe compare with other cultural
    texts

61
Assignment 3
  • Funding
  • Identify the sources of funding for the creation
    of the product and possible constraints
  • Try to identify the likely cashflow (use Backend
    Money and The Movie Business (on Reserve) to help
    you
  • What impact do funding constraints have on the
    creation of the product?

62
Assignment 3
  • Audience reception
  • Evaluate the aesthetic and popular success of the
    text/product
  • Do you think it is good?
  • Do others think it is good?
  • How has the audiences received it?
  • What could be changed to enhance its market
    success nationally and internationally?

63
Assignment 3
  • Relationship to policy
  • How has cultural policy made a difference to the
    production of the text?
  • Has it impacted the content or meaning at all?

64
Assignment 3
  • Prose format using the headings listed as section
    headings
  • This is intended to be a synthesis and
    application of what you have learned from this
    course. Think about the lessons learned and
    apply them.
  • Be creative be original
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