THE ROMAN EMPIRE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW (CH 6) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE ROMAN EMPIRE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW (CH 6)

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THE ROMAN EMPIRE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW (CH 6) OBJECTIVE: Analyze the decline of the Roman Empire and the legacy it left for the world. THE ROMAN EMPIRE At its height, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE ROMAN EMPIRE: A BRIEF OVERVIEW (CH 6)


1
THE ROMAN EMPIRE A BRIEF OVERVIEW (CH 6)
  • OBJECTIVE Analyze the decline of the Roman
    Empire and the legacy it left for the world.

2
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • At its height, the Roman Empire touched three
    different continentsEurope, Asia, and Africa.
    Romes strong army allowed for its rise to
    greatness. For several centuries, Rome brought
    peace and prosperity to its empire (treated
    conquered people justly) before its eventual
    collapse.

3
THE BEGINNINGS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • Latins, Greeks, Etruscans battled for control
    of the region that would become Rome from about
    1000 to 500 BC.
  • Region chosen for fertile soil strategic
  • location on Italian Peninsula in center of
    Mediterranean Sea

4
Government
  • Rome began as a republic, a government in which
    elected officials represent the people.
  • Twelve Tables 451 B.C. officials carved Roman
    laws on 12 tablets they became basis for later
    Roman law (citizenship adult male landowners)
  • Government elect 2 consuls, one to lead army
    one to direct government.
  • Roman upper class chose Senate to make foreign
    domestic policy.
  • Tribunes make laws for common people.
  • Eventually, absolute rulers called emperors
    seized power expanded the empire.

5
REPUBLIC ? EMPIRE
  • The Republic collapses due to economic turmoil
    military upheaval
  • ? Julius Caesar takes control
  • There was a growing gap between rich poor ?
    soldiers were recruited by generals offering land
    (replaced citizen-soldiers loyal to republic)
  • Julius Caesar (military leader) Crassus
    (wealthy Roman) Pompey (popular general)
    triumvirate, group of three rulers, rule Rome
    59 BC ? Caesar absolute ruler
  • Caesars reforms granted Roman citizenship to
    provinces, public works projects/buildings to
    help create jobs for poor
  • Caesar was assassinated b/c senators were
    concerned over growing power ? Octavian takes
    over, titled Augustus, the Roman empire was
    ruled by one man.

6
THE ROMAN WORLD
  • Valued discipline, strength, loyalty.
  • Most lived in the countryside/worked farmers
  • Slavery significant part of Roman life
    widespread important to economy (property of
    owners)
  • Government religion were linked. Gods
    goddesses were honored in public worship
    ceremonies.
  • Classes had little in common rich lived
    extravagantly, but most people struggled
    (unemployment, lacked basic necessities)
  • Government provided free games, races, mock
    battles, and gladiator contests to
    distract/control the masses (Colosseum huge
    arena).
  • Christianity emerged and spread in Roman Empire
  • Accepted by Emperor Constantine, who ended the
    persecutions of Christians 313 AD ? later becomes
    empires official religion

7
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8
THE COLLAPSE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
  • Romes economy weakens inflation was high
  • Military political turmoil mercenaries were
    used instead of loyal soldiers
  • Emperors attempt reform Diocletian divides the
    empire because too large Constantine moves the
    capital from Rome to Byzantium
  • Rome splits into Greek-speaking East (Greece,
    Anatolia, Syria, Egypt) Latin-speaking West
    (Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain)
  • Constantine reunifies empire under single ruler
    moves capital from western Rome to eastern Greek
    city of Byzantium for strategic trade defense
    purposes
  • Byzantium ? Constantinople (after Constantine)
    and becomes protected by massive walls
  • After Constantine, empire divides again the East
    would survive the West would fall.

9
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10
FALL OF WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
  • Germanic invasions end Western Roman Empire
  • Germanic peoples gathered along empires borders,
    coexist peacefully until Mongol nomads (Huns
    led by Attila) invade from central Asia which
    pushed the Germanic people (barbarians
    non-Romans) into Roman lands.
  • Attila and the Huns fail at scaling the high
    walls of Constantinople and head West. Famine
    disease push Huns back, but Germanic invasions
    continue.

11
FALL OF WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
  • Eastern half of the Roman empire survives?
    Byzantine empire
  • Preserves Greek and Roman cultureRomes cultural
    influence (ideas, customs, institutions) continue
    to influence the development of Western
    civilization
  • Lasts until 1453 when it fell to the Ottoman Turks
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