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Complete Blood Count

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Complete Blood Count Hematology Hematology testing represents an important role of the veterinary technician: to provide accurate and reliable clinical laboratory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Complete Blood Count


1
Complete Blood Count
2
Hematology
  • Hematology testing represents an important role
    of the veterinary technician to provide accurate
    and reliable clinical laboratory test results to
    the veterinarian
  • A complete hematology profile is indicated for
    diagnostic evaluation of disease state, well
    animal screening, (e.g. geriatric) and screening
    tool before surgery

3
CBC Include
  • White and red blood cell counts
  • Hemoglobin concentrations
  • Packed cell volume (PCV)
  • Differential white blood film examination
  • Calculation of absolute values/erythrocyte
    indices

4
Types of Cellular Elements
  • Red blood cells Erythrocytes
  • White blood cells Leukocytes
  • Neutrophils
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Platelets Thrombocytes (not true cells)

5
CBC
  • Total RBC count
  • PCV
  • Plasma protein concentration (TP)
  • Total WBC
  • Blood film examination differential WBC count,
    erythrocyte and leukocyte morphology, platelets
    estimation.
  • Reticulocyte count when the patient is anemic
  • Hemoglobin concentration
  • Erythrocyte indices

6
Quality control
  • Automated analyzers can provide accurate and
    cost-effective results. However, care should be
    taken in choosing the most appropriate instrument
    a clinic
  • Page 32

7
Cell counts
  • Counting of erythrocytes and leukocytes is a
    routine part of the CBC. Cells counts can be
    performed by manual and automated methods.
  • The total WBC (leukocyte) count is one of the
    most useful values determined in a CBC
  • Total RBC (erythrocyte) and platelet
    (thrombocyte) counts, although are more difficult
    and less accurate, may also be performed
    manually with a hemocytometer or by automated
    methods

8
Hemocytometer - Unopette
  • The Unopette system is a standardized method
    for enumerating leukocytes using fresh whole
    blood via a capillary puncture. This system is
    made up of the following components

9
  • 1    A reservoir that contains a premeasured
    volume (1.98mL) of a 3 glacial acetic acid
    solution.
  • 2 Self-filling, color coded 20 µL pipet.
    This pipet is constructed with one end that fits
    into the reservoir. This end is designated as the
    overflow chamber.
  • 3    Pipet shield that covers and protects the
    pipet. The end of the shield is pointed for the
    purpose of puncturing the reservoir diaphragm
    before use.
  • 4     See Figure 1 for an illustration of the
    Unopette system

10
  • The Hemacytometer has counting chambers used to
    determinate the number of cells per microliter
    (µl, sometimes referred to as cubic centimeters)
    of blood.
  • Several models are available, but the most common
    type used has two identical sets of fine grids of
    parallel and perpendicular etched lines called
    Neubauer rulings

11
Neubaur system
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  • Page 34

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v89SB1tAa6kgfeature
related
12
Hematocrit - PCV
  • In the CBC, we determine the number of RBCs in
    several different ways. The quickest and easiest
    is called the hematocrit, also referred to as the
    packed cell volume (PCV)
  • PCV / 6 est RBC count / µL

13
Plasma Protein Concentration
  • Plasma Protein (TP) concentrations estimation by
    refractometry is an important component of the
    CBC in all species
  • The plasma used to determinate the PCV is
    collected by breaking the hematocrit tube just
    above the Buffy coat- plasma interface

14
Hemoglobin (Hgb)
  • Hemoglobin counts are usually done with an
    automated analyzer. The analyzer will mix a
    small amount blood with a solution to lyse the
    cells. It will then compare the color of the
    lysed cells to the normal

15
Hematology values
16
Erythrocyte Indices
  • Determination of erythrocyte indices is helpful
    in the classification of certain types of anemia
  • The erythrocyte indices include the mean
    corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular
    hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH concentration mean
    corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
  • The indices can provide an objective measure of
    the size of the RBCs and their average hemoglobin
    concentartion.

17
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
  • The MCV expresses the average volume (or size) of
    the individual erythrocyte. Using the total
    erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and packed
    cell volume, it is possible to calculate the
    volume of an average erythrocyte and its
    hemoglobin concentration. Dividing the packed
    cell volume by the RBC concentration and
    multiplying by 10 determines the MCV.

18
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
  • The MCHC is the concentration of hemoglobin in
    the average erythrocyte, or the ratio of weight
    of hemoglobin to the volume in which it is
    contained.
  • The MCHC is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin
    concentration by the PCV () and multiplying by
    100.

19
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
  • MCH is the weight of hemoglobin contained in the
    average erythrocyte. The MCH is calculated by
    dividing the hemoglobin concentration by the RBC
    concentration and multiplying by 10.

20
Blood films
  • Remember ! The blood film is used to perform the
    differential WBC count estimate platelet
    numbers and evaluate the morphological features
    of WBCs, RBCs and platelets.

21
Performing the Differential Cell Count
  • This is where the different white blood cells are
    tallied separately. This can be done by a blood
    counting machine, or by hand.
  • To manually count the different cells, first you
    must make a perfect slide. Stain the slide once
    it is dry.
  • Using a cell counter you will tally a total of
    100 cells (this will make it easy to turn the
    numbers into a )

22
  • The percentages will aid in initial diagnoses,
    interpretation should be based on the absolute
    numbers of the various cells.
  • Absolute numbers are obtained by multiplying the
    percentage by the total leukocyte count

23
  • Because 100 WBC are counted , the number of each
    WBC type observed is recorded as a percentage.
  • This is called the relative WBC count
  • Various counting devices are available to help
    perform the differential WBC
  • Page 44
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