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Title: June%202013

SOUTH-EAST MYANMAR II. Planning for Integrated
Regional Development of Southeast Myanmar
  • June 2013
  • RECS International Inc.
  • Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
  • Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd. (Comments in red
    added by Steve Thompson)

1. Economic Corridors Development
  • 1) East-west economic development corridors
    original alignment designated by ABD and its
    alternatives for Southeast Myanmar
  • 2) Southern economic development corridors
    original alignment designated by ABD and its
    alternative linking Payathonezu and Thanbyuzayat
  • 3) Economic corridor in northern part
  • 4) North-south economic corridor (National
  • 5) New east-west economic corridor Walley-
    Sukali- Kyaikdon- Kyainsekkyi- Mudon
  • New north-south economic corridor Hpapun- Hpaan-
    Kyainsekkyi- Payathonezu

Why does this integrated survey for ethnic
minorities start with promoting big development
projects that take and pollute their land, when
it should be addressing issues of conflict
resolution, land, resettlement and
rehabilitation? This reflects a remarkable
blindness on the part of the Japanese consultant
engineers and JICA.
2. Artery Road Network for Southeast Myanmar
  • These roads are a continuing security threat to
    ethnic nationality peoples, their cultures and
    their environment.
  • While the Burmese military continues to hold and
    reinforce bases in Karen lands and remains
    unanswerable to its government, road-making
    provides it unacceptable strategic advantage.
  • Indigenous land tenure is even less certain
    under the 2 Burmese land laws passed after the
    2012 ceasefire. Land confiscations are widespread
    throughout the country. Road-making further
    threatens the land and livelihood security for
    the Karen people in their path. Why is this not
  • Yet further undermining community land security,
    without clear land policy roads will bring an
    influx of settlers from elsewhere, Burmese army
    families and businessmen.

3. Industrial Clusters Development
  • 1) Rubber industrial cluster
  • 2) Wood and bamboo works industrial cluster
  • 3) Cashew industrial cluster
  • 4) Apiculture (bee raising) industrial cluster
  • Other industrial clusters tourism industry,
    antimony industry, wellness industry (i.e. spas,
    massage, alternative health) etc.

Some of these (bamboo, cashew, bees, alternative
health, tourism) are basically okay. However the
plan only hints at the real large scale mining
agenda. It also promotes unsustainable
mono-culture plantation farming. There is no
inclusion of biodiverse, low input, self reliant
and carbon-neutral indigenous farming practices.
Growing rice, pepper other spices, betel nut
leaf, and the sustainable cultivation and
management of fuelwood species and high value
timber species are all missing from the plan.
4. Rubber Industrial Cluster
Focus on rubber is economically shortsighted, as
most rubber is used in the transport industry
which cannot be sustained without fossil fuels.
These are being quickly depleted and fuel costs
already at historic highs. Not far in the future
this will become critical, likely damaging or
destroying the market for rubber. Rubber trees
take 7 years to come into production, so any new
planting carries very high risk. Diversifying
into food, building materials, paper and wood
energy where increasing future needs are far
more certain may prove a much better investment.
5. Wood and Bamboo Works Industrial Cluster
This makes good sense, as cultivating different
kinds of bamboo, rattan canes and timber can be
sustainably productive using local skills and
inputs. Investing in developing local peoples
skills for cultivating and enriching forests,
processing bamboo, cane, non-timber forest
products and wood, and making better quality
furniture and paper is therefore good.
6. Cashew Industrial Cluster
No serious problems foreseen with this however
it may still be too much of a monoculture though
the integrated farming with goats helps to
diversify it. It could be improved by
introducing more things to the system to better
meet needs of communities for self sufficiency
in food, fuelwood, fertilizer.
7. Apiculture Industrial Cluster
No serious problems foreseen with
this Integrating this with increasing the number
of flowering species and medicinal herbs in the
surrounding forests and farmlands would improve
it. Reducing pesticide use in the surrounding
areas would better guarantee honey quality and
bee survival.
8. River Basins Water Resources Development and
Management Program
  • 1) Megatat River, a tributary of the Zami River,
    for water supply, mini hydro power, and flood
  • Bilin River for water supply, hydro power
    development, irrigation and watershed management.
    According to the 1994 Norconsult study for the
    ADB, this dam will flood a huge area of over 200
  • 3) Dontami River for water supply, mini hydro
    power, and watershed management
  • 4) Ye River for water supply and mini hydro power
  • 5) Melaga River, a tributary of the Moei River,
    for water supply, irrigation and mini hydro power
  • Yunzalin River, a tributary of Thanlwin River,
    for water supply, hydro power and irrigation

These dams will severely disrupt wildlife and
local fisheries, and will flood more villages and
much good farm and forest land. These seem like
just an excuse fore more dam building in the
interests of the consulting companies.
9. Megatat River Basin Water Resources
Development and Management
This development area and dam is located in the
core area of the Megatha Wildlife Sanctuary. It
will destroy an exceptionally beautiful area and
will be devastating for wildlife and the
remaining forests.
10. Bilin River Basin Water Resources Development
and Management
This dam has an extremely big flood area for the
amount of electricity it will generate. (200 km2
for 400 MW, Norconsult 1994). Significantly, It
will flood critical wildlife habitat of the KNU
Thuplay Wildlife Sanctuary. It will displace
many of the communities who are key to protecting
the forests and wildlife there. It will also
flood good lowland rice farms and forest land.
Like other big dams this will only serve to
power cities and industries, mostly foreign
11. Dontami River and Ye River Basin Water
Resources Development and Management
12. Melaga River Basin Water Resources
Development and Management
More dams?!. As with most other dam plans, no
reservoir area is given i.e how much Karen
land will be flooded. Would the hydropower be
used to power the zinc and other resource mining
activities in the area?
13. Yunzalin River Basin Water Resources
Development and Management
Yet more damming of exceptionally beautiful and
clean rivers for a questionable development
14. Payathonezu Settlement Areas Development
  • 1) Provision of water supply with public
    standpipes, power supply by mini hydro or diesel,
    branch schools and clinics (Why no off grid solar
    power or micro-hydro? What guarantee of
    sustainable resourcing of schools and clinics?)
  • 2) Productive re-forestation on hills with fruits
    and cashew trees
  • 3) Participatory land use planning residential
    lots with home gardens, productive re-forestation
    areas, paddy fields, protection areas for water
  • Community organizing CBO or CDC for community
    facilities planning implementation

They make the master plan, allowing actual
participation of communities, in only a few
areas after their plan is discussed and approved
15. Returnees Empowerment Center (REC)
  • Stage 1 Information function
  • 1) Provision of audio-visual equipment, computers
    and associated facilities
  • 2) Support for preparation of promotion materials
    for settlement areas, industrial estates, policy
    and support activities by State Government
  • 3) Planning for facilities and services for Stage
    2 development by cooperation of KNU, State
    Government and other stakeholders
  • Stage 2 Skill training function
  • 1) Adoption of some returnees as trainers and TOT
    for them
  • 2) Provision of training facilities and equipment
  • 3) Association with industrial estates and
    related facilities and enterprises located in
    those facilities

16. Conciliatory Access Improvement Program
  • 1) Theinseik Laykhay road improvement (KNU
    brigade No.1)
  • 2) Ye Joohaproud road improvement (NMSP)
  • 3) Leiktho Yardo road improvement (KNU brigade
    No. 2)
  • 4) Kamamaung Myainggyingu ferry services
    improvement with a new ship and landing
    facilities (KNU brigade No.2 on Kamamaung side
    and KNU brigade No. 5 and DKB-BGF on Myainggyingu

17. Water Supply Improvement Program
Location Development needs
Leiktho Water source expansion for water supply in the STS center
Yardo Development of alternative water sources and complementary use with mini hydro in the Thauyeka River (Thaukyekhat Dam?)
Thandaung Development of water sources to expand water supply in the STS center (Thandaung dam under construction?)
Bawgali Development of alternative water sources in addition to springs currently used
Kamamaung Expansion of pumping capacity to pump up Thanlwin River water
Kyaiktho Resolution of salt water intrusion into dug wells (This problem will be created or worsened by dams on Salween, Bilin and elsewhere)
Kyainsekkyi Expansion of water supply by dug wells
Payathonezu Expansion of public water supply by combining tube wells and planned use of springs
Ye Expansion of public water supply by planned dug wells
Thanbyuzayat Expansion of water supply by dug wella and tube wells
Kyaikmaraw Expansion of public water supply by tube wells
18. Problem Structure Analysis
19. Objectives for Regional Development of
Southeast Myanmar
  • 1) Economic objective To diversify employment
    and income opportunities to improve livelihood,
    increase local capital accumulation, and enhance
    competitiveness of regional economy in
    globalizing economy
  • 2) Social objective To revitalize local
    communities to initiate new economic activities,
    effect better environmental management, and
    enhance local governance capacity
  • 3) Environmental objective To protect and
    enhance environmental quality to ensure
    sustainable economic development, safeguard
    traditional lifestyles and value, and ensure
    lasting peace

20. Basic Strategy for Regional Development of
Southeast Myanmar
  • 1) Improving security conditions through sharing
    development and security related information with
    all stakeholders to cultivate mutual trust among
  • 2) Establishing mechanism for broad-based
    participation of all stakeholders in the process
    of development planning and implementation, and
  • 3) Promoting alternative socio-economic
    activities, which are less resource intensive and
    environment friendly, combining traditional
    practices and modern technology.

21. Vision for Regional Development of Southeast
  • Realization of robust and resilient socio-economy
    open to the global society supported by abundant
    natural resources, diverse economic activities
    and rich cultural heritage of ethnic peoples.

22. Factors Supporting the Regional Development
  • 1) Transport and logistic infrastructure of the
    first quality linking the Southeast Myanmar to
    neighboring regions and countries
  • 2) Industrial clusters to produce a variety of
    products having comparative advantage in the
    global market
  • 3) Environment friendly socio-economic activities
    combining traditional wisdom of peoples with
    modern technology
  • 4) Active communities of mixed ethnicity with
    revitalized conventional cultural activities that
    residents are proud of and visitors can enjoy
  • 5) All of the above embraced in rich natural
    environment under proper management by local
    communities and local governments to ensure

23. Important Concepts to Support the Regional
Development of Southeast Myanmar
Regional development of the Southeast Myanmar with Kayin and Mon States is to be pursued through Knowledge development, Agriculture of high quality, Youth initiative and participation, Industrial clusters, Natural resources management, Mixed ethnicity, and Organizational strength, all for National integration.
24. Development Scenario
  • Development Phasing
  • 1) Preparatory phase up to 2015/16
  • 2) Phase 1 2016/172020/21
  • 3) Phase 2 2021/222025/26
  • 4) Phase 3 2026/272035/36

25. Preparatory Phase up to 2015/16
  • 1) Completion of integrated regional development
    master plan with urgent projects
  • 2) Establishment of REC with information function
  • 3) Initial return of refugees and IDPs on
    voluntary base
  • 4) Pilot implementation of participatory
    mechanism to plan and implement community
  • 5) Initiation of productive re-forestation
  • 6) Preparatory works to establish new economic
    activities in agriculture and industry
  • 7) Skill training for new products to be produced
    by mixed farming and integrated farming
  • 8) Urgent improvement of key artery roads
  • 9) Selective improvement of urban infrastructure

26. Phase 1 2016/172020/21
  • 1) Conclusion of peace agreement and
    acceleration of return of refugees and IDPs
  • 2) Expansion of REC with skill training
  • 3) Institutionalization of participatory planning
    and development
  • 4) Expansion of new mixed farming and integrated
    farming pilot implemented in preparatory phase
  • 5) Establishment of rubber industrial cluster
    with diversified final products (more rubber
  • 6) Establishment of skills and raw materials
    collection and marketing mechanism for cashew
    industrial cluster
  • 7) Initial formation of other industrial clusters
  • 8) FTZ and IE development in full scale
    (accelerate to hazardous waste production. No
    treatment plan or facilities mentioned)
  • 9) Strengthening of east-west economic corridor
    and development of branch arteries
  • 10) Initial improvement of access to settlement
    sites from western side of Dawna mountain range
    (obvious priority open up the secure areas to
    neutralize resistance..)

27. Phase 2 2021/222025/26
  • 1) Increasing return of migrant workers (under
    what pressure?)
  • 2) Production increase from productive
    re-forestation areas
  • 3) Full establishment of cashew industrial
  • 4) Diversification of industries in FTZs and
    I.E.s (Dawei and other polluting Industrial
  • 5) Formation of full transport and logistic
    network with Kyaikkami regional port, FTZs and
    I.E.s (based on unsustainable growth model and
    heavily extractive industries)
  • 6) Establishment of urban hierarchy for effective
    urban services delivery
  • 7) Initiation of joint development and management
    of border areas with Thailand
  • 8) Completion of physical integration of
    Southeast Myanmar by resolution of missing links
    (not hidden agenda of road building to open up
    KNU secure areas)
  • 9) Development and management of tributaries of
    major rivers to reduce flooding and improve
    access (BIG DAMS HATGYI)
  • 10) More broad based participatory planning and
    implementation FPIC? When? Believe it only when
    you see credible consultation process.

28. Phase 3 2026/262035/36
  • 1) Completion of return of migrant workers
  • 2) Diversification of export products of
    agriculture with fruits, cashew products, goat
    meat and milk products, bamboo products, and
    specialty products
  • 3) Establishment of additional industrial
    clusters based on mineral resources, tourism and
    other resources
  • 4) Completion of fully operational transport and
    logistic network linked with neighboring regions
    and countries
  • 5) Reduction of major flooding to manageable
    magnitude to improve further links between
    different areas in major river basins
  • 6) Formation of a city network with urban
    hierarchy extending to neighboring regions and
    countries to share higher order urban functions
    for mutually complementary development

29. Future Characteristic of Southeast Myanmar
  • 1) In-migrating region with average income higher
    than national average diversified employment
  • 2) Model region for alternative socio-economic
    activities with many viable industrial clusters
    and sustainable resource utilization and
    management by peoples (to centre it around dams
    roads is wrong model..)
  • 3) Major tourism center with variety of tour
    itineraries for international and domestic
    tourists, embracing rich cultural heritage of
    ethnic peoples
  • 4) Center for alternative technology with
    advanced education and research facilities (so
    where is this in their plan?
  • 5) Agricultural area specialized in mixed and
    integrated farming to attain high productivity
    without relying much on high use of agro
    chemicals, fertilizer and other external input
    (so where is this in their plan?
  • 6) Regional society open to global society with
    logistic networks linked to neighboring regions
    and countries, city networking to share higher
    order urban functions, cosmopolitan atmosphere
    accommodating peoples of diverse socio-cultural
  • 7) Self-reliant region based on the utilization
    of indigenous resources by and for the benefit of
    local peoples under effective development
    administration by public-private partnership
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