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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood


1
Chapter 10
  • Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and
    Late Childhood

2
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4
Body Growth and Proportion
  • Proportional changes are among the most
    pronounced.
  • Head and waist circumference and leg length
    decrease in relation to body height.
  • Muscle mass and tone improve.
  • Strength doubles.
  • Weight gain averages 5-7 pounds a year.
  • Increased weight is primarily due to
    increases in the size of the skeletal and
    muscular systems, and the size of some organs.

5
Motor Development
  • Motor development becomes much smoother and more
    coordinated.
  • Skipping rope, swimming, bike riding, skating,
    and climbing are mastered.

6
Motor Development
  • Increased myelination of the CNS is reflected in
    the improvement of fine motor skills.
  • Hands are used more adroitly as toolshammering,
    pasting, tying shoes, and fastening clothes.
  • By 10-12 years children begin to show
    manipulative skills similar to the abilities of
    adults.

7
Exercise and Sports
  • A 1997 poll indicated that only 22 of children
    in grades 4-12 were physically active for 30
    minutes every day of the week.
  • Only 34 attended daily P.E. classes
    and 23 had no P.E.

8
Participation in Sports
  • Participation in sports can have both positive
    and negative consequences for children.
  • Its an opportunity for exercise, healthy
    competition, building self-esteem, peer relations
    and friendships.
  • It can produce pressure to achieve to win,
    physical injuries, distractions from school,
    unrealistic expectations.

9
Health, Illness, and Disease
  • Accidents and Injuries
  • Obesity
  • Cancer

10
Accidents and Injuries
  • The most common cause of severe injury and death
    is motor vehicle accidents, either as a
    pedestrian or a passenger.
  • The use of seat-belts is important in reducing
    the severity of such accidents.

11
Accidents and Injuries
  • Other serious injuries involve skateboards,
    roller skates, and other sports equipment.
  • Appropriate safety helmets, protective eye and
    mouth shields, and protective padding are
    recommended.

12
Obesity
  • Just over 20 of children are overweight, and 10
    are obese.
  • Girls are more likely than boys to be obese.
  • Obesity is less common in African American than
    White children during childhood, but this
    reverses during adolescence.
  • Obesity at age 6 results in approximately a 25
    chance for adult obesity.
  • Obesity at age 12 results in approximately a 75
    chance for adult obesity.

13
Consequences of Obesity in Children
  • Obesity is a risk factor for many medical and
    psychological problems
  • Pulmonary problems, such as sleep apnea
  • Hip problems
  • Tendency toward high blood pressure and elevated
    cholesterol levels
  • Low self-esteem and depression
  • Exclusion from peer groups

14
Treatment of Obesity
  • Exercise is believed to be an extremely important
    component of a successful weight-loss program for
    overweight children.
  • Many experts on childhood obesity recommend a
    treatment that involves a combination of diet,
    exercise, and behavior modification.
  • Behavior modification programs typically teach
    children to monitor their own behavior, keeping a
    food diary while attempting to lose weight.

15
Cancer
  • Cancer is the second leading cause of death in
    children 5-14 years of age.
  • Currently 1 in every 330 children in the U.S.
    develops cancer before the age of 19.
  • The incidence of cancer in children is
    increasing.
  • Child cancers are mainly those of the white blood
    cells, brain, bone, lymph system, muscles,
    kidneys, and nervous system.
  • All are characterized by an uncontrolled
    proliferation of abnormal cells.

16
Children with Disabilities
  • Who Are Children with Disabilities?
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Educational Issues

17
Who Are Children with Disabilities?
  • Approximately 10 of all children in the U.S.
    receive special education or related services.
  • Within this group, little more than half have a
    learning disability.
  • Of children with disabilities
  • 21 have speech or language impairments.
  • 12 have mental retardation.
  • 9 have serious emotional disturbance.
  • Three times as many boys as girls are classified
    as having a learning disability.

18
Learning Disabilities
  • Children with a learning disability
  • are of normal intelligence or above.
  • have difficulties in at least one academic area
    and usually several.
  • have a difficulty that is not attributable to any
    other diagnosed problem or disorder.
  • The most common problem that characterizes
    children with a learning disability involves
    readingsevere impairment termed dyslexia.
  • They often have difficulties in handwriting,
    spelling, or composition.
  • Successful intervention programs exist.

19
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • ADHD is a disability in which children
    consistently show one or more of the following
    characteristics over a period of time
  • inattention
  • hyperactivity
  • impulsivity
  • The disorder occurs as much as 4-9 times as much
    in boys as in girls.
  • Students with ADHD have a failure rate in school
    that is 2-3 times that of other students.

20
Causes of ADHD
  • Definitive causes of ADHD have not been found.
  • Possible low levels of certain neurotransmitters
    have been proposed.
  • Pre- and postnatal abnormalities may be a cause.
  • Environmental toxins such as lead could
    contribute to ADHD.
  • Heredity is considered a contributor, as 30-50
    of children with the disorder have a sibling or
    parent who has it.

21
Treatment of ADHD
  • Many experts recommend a combination of academic,
    behavioral, and medical interventions to help
    ADHD students better learn and adapt.
  • The intervention requires cooperation and effort
    on the part of the parents, school personnel, and
    health-care professionals.
  • Ritalin is a controversial stimulant given to
    control behavior.
  • In many children, Ritalin actually slows down the
    nervous system and behavior.

22
Educational Issues
  • Public Law 94-142 is the Education for All
    Handicapped Children Act requiring that all
    students with disabilities be given a free,
    appropriate public education and be provided the
    funding to help implement this education.
  • Enacted in 1975, renamed in 1983 the Individuals
    with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
  • IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to
    all children with disabilities, including
    evaluation and eligibility determination,
    appropriate education, and the individualized
    education plan (IEP) and the least restrictive
    environment (LRE).

23
The IEP
  • IDEA requires that students with disabilities
    have an individualized education plan (IEP), a
    written statement that spells out a program
    specifically tailored for the student with a
    disability.
  • In general, the IEP should be
  • related to the childs learning capacity.
  • specially constructed to meet the childs
    individual needs and not merely a copy
    of what is offered to other children.
  • designed to provide educational benefits.

24
The LRE
  • Under the IDEA, a child with a disability must be
    educated in the least restrictive environment, a
    setting as similar as possible to the one in
    which children who do not have a disability are
    educated.
  • Inclusion - educating children with a disability
    in the regular classroom.
  • Mainstreaming - educating children with a
    disability partially in a special education
    classroom and partially in a regular classroom.

25
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26
Piagets Theory
  • The Theory
  • Piaget and Education
  • Evaluating Piagets Theory

27
The Theory
  • Piaget believed that around the age of 7,
    children enter the concrete operational stage.
  • Concrete operational thinking involves
  • mental operations replacing physical actions
  • reversible mental actions
  • coordinating several characteristics of objects
  • classifying and interrelating things
  • seriation
  • transitivity

28
Piaget and Education
  • Take a constructivist approach.
  • Facilitate rather than direct learning.
  • Consider the childs knowledge and level of
    thinking.
  • Use ongoing assessment.
  • Promote the students intellectual health.
  • Turn the classroom into a setting of exploration
    and discovery.

29
Evaluating Piagets Theory
  • Contributions
  • Criticisms

30
Contributions of Piaget
  • Piagets major contributions to understanding
    childrens cognitive development include
  • assimilation
  • accommodation
  • object permanence
  • egocentrism
  • conservation
  • His observation yielded important things to look
    for in cognitive development, such as shifts in
    thinking and the significance of experience.

31
Criticisms of Piaget
  • Estimates of childrens competence
  • Stages
  • The training of children to reason at higher
    levels
  • Culture and education

32
Information Processing
  • Memory
  • Critical Thinking
  • Metacognition

33
Memory
  • Though short-term memory shows no considerable
    increase after age 7, long-term memory increases
    with age during middle and late childhood.
  • Long-term memory depends on the learning
    activities individuals engage in when learning
    and remembering information.
  • Control processes (strategies) are cognitive
    processes that do not occur automatically but
    require work and effort to improve memory.
  • Attitude, motivation, health, and knowledge also
    influence childrens memory.

34
Critical Thinking
  • Critical thinking involves grasping the deeper
    meaning of ideas, keeping an open mind about
    different approaches and perspectives, and
    deciding for oneself what to believe or do.
  • Deep understanding occurs when children are
    stimulated to rethink their prior ideas.
  • Some experts believe that schools spend too much
    time on getting students to give a single correct
    answer in an imitative way, rather than
    encouraging them to expand their thinking and
    become deeply engaged in meaningful thinking.

35
Metacognition
  • Metacognition is cognition about cognition or
    knowing about knowing.
  • Metamemory is knowledge about memory, and
    includes general knowledge about memory and
    knowledge about ones own memory.
  • As they move through elementary school, children
    give more realistic evaluations of their memory
    skills.
  • Some experts believe the key to education is
    helping students learn a rich repertoire of
    strategies that result in solutions of problems.

36
Intelligence and Creativity
  • What Is Intelligence?
  • IQ
  • The Binet Tests
  • The Wechsler Scales
  • Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
  • Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
  • Evaluating the Multiple Intelligence Approaches
  • Controversies and Issues in Intelligence
  • The Extremes of Intelligence
  • Creativity

37
What Is Intelligence?
  • Intelligence is verbal ability, problem-solving
    skills, and the ability to adapt to and learn
    from lifes everyday experiences.
  • Intelligence cannot be directly measured.
  • For the most part, intelligence tests have been
    relied on to provide an estimate of a students
    intelligence.

38
IQ
  • William Stern created the concept of intelligence
    quotient (IQ).
  • IQ is a persons mental age divided by
    chronological age, multiplied by 100.
  • IQ MA/CA x 100.

39
The Binet Tests
  • Alfred Binet developed the concept of mental age
    an individuals level of mental development
    relative to others.
  • Binets original 1905 scale has been revised as
    the Stanford-Binet tests and is administered to
    individuals aged 2 years through adulthood.
  • It requires both verbal and nonverbal responses.
  • It assesses four content areas verbal reasoning,
    quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual
    reasoning, short-term memory.

40
The Wechsler Scales
  • David Wechsler developed tests to assess
    students intelligence
  • The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
    Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) for ages 4-6½
  • The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
    (WISC) for ages 6-16.
  • The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS).
  • The Wechsler scales provide an overall IQ and
    yield verbal and performance IQs.

41
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
  • Robert J. Sternberg developed the triarchic
    theory of intelligence, which states that
    intelligence comes in three forms
  • Analytical - involves the ability to analyze,
    judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast.
  • Creative - consists of the ability to create,
    design, invent, originate, and imagine.
  • Practical - focuses on the ability to use, apply,
    implement, and put into practice.

42
Gardners Eight Frames of Mind
  • Verbal skills
  • Mathematical skills
  • Spatial skills
  • Bodily-kinesthetic skills
  • Musical skills
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Intrapersonal skills
  • Naturalist skills

43
Evaluating the Multiple Intelligence Approaches
  • These approaches have stimulated teachers to
    think more broadly about what makes up childrens
    competencies.
  • They have motivated educators to develop programs
    that instruct students in multiple domains.
  • They have contributed to the interest in
    assessing intelligence and learning in innovative
    ways.
  • Critics say that there has yet to be a research
    base established to support the theories of
    multiple intelligences.

44
Controversies and Issues in Intelligence
  • Ethnicity and Culture
  • The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests

45
Ethnicity and Culture
  • In the U.S., African American and Latino children
    score below White children on standardized
    intelligence tests.
  • The consensus is that these differences are based
    on environmental differences.
  • Many early tests of intelligence were culturally
    biased, favoring urban children over rural
    children, children from middle SES families over
    children from low-income families, and White
    children over minority children.
  • Culture-fair tests are tests of intelligence that
    attempt to be free of cultural bias.

46
The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests
  • Psychological tests are tools whose effectiveness
    depends on the knowledge, skill, and integrity of
    the user.
  • They can be used for positive purposes, or they
    can be badly abused.
  • Some cautions about IQ
  • Scores can lead to stereotypes and expectations.
  • A high IQ is not the ultimate human value.
  • A single, overall IQ score is limiting.

47
The Extremes of Intelligence
  • Mental Retardation
  • Giftedness

48
Mental Retardation
  • Mental retardation is a condition of limited
    mental ability in which an individual has a low
    IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional
    intelligence test, and has difficulty adapting to
    everyday life.
  • Mental retardation can have an organic cause, or
    it can be social and cultural in origin.
  • About 89 of mentally retarded people are mildly
    retarded (IQs of 55-70).
  • About 6 are moderately retarded (IQs of 40-54).
  • About 3.5 are severely retarded (IQs of 25-39).

49
Giftedness
  • People who are gifted have above-average
    intelligence (an IQ of 120 or higher) and/or
    superior talent for something.
  • Characteristics of gifted children are
  • Precocity
  • Marching to their own drummer
  • A passion to master
  • Recent studies support the conclusion that gifted
    people tend to be more mature, have fewer
    emotional problems, and grow up in a positive
    family climate.

50
Creativity
  • Creativity is the ability to think about
    something in novel and unusual ways and to come
    up with unique solutions to problems.
  • Convergent thinking produces one correct answer
    and is characteristic of the kind of thinking
    required on conventional intelligence tests.
  • Divergent thinking produces many different
    answers to the same questions and is more
    characteristic of creativity.
  • Most creative children are quite intelligent, the
    reverse is not necessarily true.

51
Strategies for Developing Creativity
  • Brainstorming
  • Provide environments that stimulate creativity
  • Dont overcontrol
  • Encourage internal motivation
  • Foster flexible and playful thinking
  • Introduce children to creative people

52
Language Development
  • Vocabulary and Grammar
  • Reading
  • Bilingualism

53
Vocabulary and Grammar
  • During middle and late childhood, a change occurs
    in the way children think about words.
  • They become less tied to the actions and
    perceptual dimensions associated with words and
    more analytical in their approach to words.
  • Children make similar advances in grammar.
  • The elementary school childs improvement in
    logical reasoning and analytical skills helps in
    the understanding of the use of comparatives and
    subjectives.

54
Reading
  • Education and language experts continue to debate
    how children should be taught to read.
  • The whole-language approach stresses that reading
    instruction should parallel childrens natural
    language learning, and that reading materials
    should be whole and meaningful.
  • The basic-skills-and-phonetics approach
    emphasizes that reading instruction should teach
    phonetics and its basic rules for translating
    written symbols into sounds, and early reading
    instruction should involve simplified materials.

55
Bilingualism
  • As many as 10 million children in the U.S. come
    from homes in which English is not the primary
    language.
  • Bilingual education aims to teach academic
    subjects to immigrant children in their native
    languages, while slowly and simultaneously adding
    English instruction.
  • This has been the preferred strategy of schools
    for the past two decades.

56
Findings on Bilingual Education
  • Researchers have found that bilingualism does not
    interfere with performance in either language.
  • Children who are fluent in two languages perform
    better on tests of attentional control, concept
    formation, analytical reasoning, cognitive
    flexibility, and cognitive complexity.
  • Bilingual children are also more conscious of
    spoken and written language structure, and are
    better at noticing errors of grammar and meaning.
  • Bilingual children in a number of countries have
    been found to perform better on intelligence
    tests.
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