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US Becomes a World Power

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Title: US Becomes a World Power


1
US Becomes a World Power
  • RUSH

2
Standard 11.4
  • 11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States
    to its role as a world power in the Twentieth
    century.
  • List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door
    policy.
  • Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S.
    expansion in the South Pacific.
  • Discuss America's role in the Panama Revolution
    and the building of the Panama Canal.
  • Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy,
    William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow
    Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant
    speeches.
  • Analyze the political, economic, and social
    ramifications of World War I on the home front.
  • Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the
    expanding role of the United States in world
    affairs after World War II.

3
Chapter 10 America Claims an Empire 190-1919
  • Section 1 Imperialism and America (pages 342-46)
  • Section 2 The Spanish-American War (pages 346-52)
  • Section 3 Acquiring New Lands (pages 352-59)
  • Section 4 America as a World Power (pages
    359-361)

4
What do we need to know?
  • Why did American business and political leaders
    want colonies?
  • What locations did the United States government
    control?
  • How did the United States gain control of these
    locations?
  • How were racism and Social Darwinism
    justifications for imperialism?

5
Essay Question
  • Essay Question
  • Imagine you are living in1898.
  • Write an editorial explaining your opinion
    regarding the Spanish American War and Americas
    imperialist policy toward countries that are not
    industrialized.
  • Do you agree with the taking and controlling of
    other locations by the United States Government
    or business interests?

6
Key Terms
  • U.S.S. Maine explodes
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Yellow Journalism
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • Joe Pulitzer
  • Rough riders
  • Platt Amendment
  • San Juan Hill
  • War in the Philippines
  • Philippines, Midway Island, Guam
  • Aguinaldo
  • Central America and Caribbean
  • Panama Revolution
  • Panama Canal
  • Big Stick Diplomacy
  • William Howard Taft
  • Dollar Diplomacy
  • Woodrow Wilson Moral Diplomacy
  • Anti-Imperialist League
  • Desire for New Land
  • Imperialism
  • Acquiring new land
  • Thirst for new markets
  • Desire for military strength
  • Alfred T. Mahon
  • Great White Fleet
  • Global Competition
  • Alaska
  • Business and Hawaii
  • 1893 Queen Liliuokalani
  • The White Mans Burden
  • Sanford Dole
  • Asia and the Pacific
  • Global competition
  • John Hay
  • Sphere of Influence
  • China Trade
  • Open Door Policy

7
Who said this?
  • We must have no scruples about exterminating
    this other race standing in the way of progress
    and enlightenment.

8
Quiz 2-07
  • Why does the United States want to be an imperial
    power beginning before 1898?
  • How does the US gain Hawaii?
  • Who was Alfred T. Mahan, and what was his
    message and why?
  • Jose Marti
  • USS Maine-
  • Rough Riders

9
American Pattern of Imperialism
  • The US will intervene in weaker nations when an
    economic/business/ or
  • Political/security interest is present and in
    danger.
  • Hawaii
  • Cuba
  • Philippines
  • China
  • Columbia/Panama
  • Nicaragua
  • Mexico

10
China and United States Relations
  • Why does the United States support an Open Door
    policy regarding China?

11
Pro-Imperialism Document
  • Secretary of State William Day reflects view-
    1898
  • The output of the United States manufacturers,
    developed by the remarkable inventive genius and
    industrial skill of our people
  • Has reached the point of large excess above the
    demand of home consumption. Under these
    circumstances it is not surprising that greater
    interest should be exhibited among our
    manufacturers and economists in the enlargement
    of foreign markets for American goods.

12
Factors to Consider
  • American culture has spread throughout the
    continent of the US
  • US is industrialized
  • US needs markets to sell goods
  • Produce exceeded consumption
  • Business interests desire expansion- Steel
    industry will support (Navy)
  • Global Competition over land is present
  • France, England, Germany, Japan, Italy
  • Industrial world vs. Non-industrial world

13
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14
American Imperialism
  • Is the desire on the part of politicians and
    industrialists to acquire colonies in order to
    support trade and American power.
  • Two reasons for obtaining colonies include
  • Natural Resources
  • Markets to sell American goods
  • Imperialism is driven by business interests
  • Racism in the form of Social Darwinism shape
    attitudes

15
Darwin justification
  • Nations like species struggle constantly for
    existence only the fittest survive.
  • Pacific Islands
  • China

16
What does a country need in order to have an
obtain colonies?
  • A strong navy to protect American investment and
    control the land
  • Alfred T. Mahan advocated strengthening of the
    American Navy.
  • Pro-imperialism- US needs
  • Coaling stops
  • Repair facilities
  • Permanent Bases

17
Alfred T. Mahan
  • In 1890 published a book, The Influence of Sea
    Power upon History 1660-1783
  • Very popular in America, Roosevelt ordered a copy
    for every ship
  • By 1900 US is 3 Navy in the world

18
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19
Missionaries
  • US protestant missionaries support imperialism
  • Convert the heathen
  • Racist attitudes

20
Alaska, Hawaii, and Samoa
  • In 1867 President Johnsons secretary of state
    William Seward purchased Alaska from the Russians
    for 7.2 million

21
Samoa
  • In 1878 the Samoans granted the United States the
    rights to the naval base at Pago Pago

22
How does the US Acquire Hawaii?
  • Hawaii had American planters and missionaries
  • These planters wanted to maintain their power and
    wealth and felt that they would benefit from
    being part of the US
  • The US government was interested
  • Obtaining colonies
  • Increasing trade (Hawaii is a good point to
    support the navy and strategic for trade)
  • The whites on the islands revolted and in 1893
    they seized power

23
Queen Liliuokalani
  • In 1891 Liliukalani ascended to the throne and
    tried to regain power from the Americans
  • American marines were sent to the islands to
    support the coup
  • A new government was formed in Washington and so
    did a treaty of annexation
  • Democratic senators blocked ratification
  • President Cleveland sent a special team to the
    islands to investigate the events
  • They found that the coup had been organized by
    American planters
  • Hawaii was annexed in 1898

24
One American who supported Annexation of Hawaii
  • Sanford Dole
  • Was an advisor to the king then
  • Then the governor during the Coup de etat
  • His brother started the Dole Pineapple business

25
How does the United States get involved in a War
with Spain?
  • McKinley
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Joseph Pulitzer- World
  • William Randolph Hearst- New York Journal
  • The USS Maine
  • De Lome Letter
  • Cuba
  • Rough Riders- San Juan Hill
  • Philippines
  • Aguinaldo

26
Spain
  • Spain was weak
  • Lost most of its former colonies in the early
    part of 1800s
  • Held Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam, and
    various other colonies in Africa
  • Americans begin their contact in Cuba first in
    the Sugarcane business.

27
Cubans wanted independence from Spain
  • Fought in 1860s
  • And again in 1895
  • Spanish repress Cuban rebels harshly
  • Causes Americans to sympathize with the Cuban
    Rebels

28
Jose Marti
  • Cuban poet and Nationalist wanted Cuban
    independence and begins a guerrilla war against
    Spain 1895
  • Man loves liberty, even if he does not know that
    he loves it. He is driven by it and flees from
    where it does not exist.
  • Marti was afraid of American involvement
  • Later dies in the war.

29
President William McKinley
  • President 1896-1901
  • Hesitated to go to war with Spain-
  • Bowes to public pressure- due to
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Maine Explosion
  • De Lome Letter
  • Assassinated by an Anarchist-1901
  • Theodore Roosevelt takes over after

30
Yellow Journalism
  • The Spanish-American War is often referred to as
    the first "media war."
  • During the 1890s, journalism that
    sensationalizedand sometimes even
    manufactureddramatic events was a powerful force
    that helped propel the United States into war
    with Spain.
  • Newspaper publishers used melodrama, romance, and
    hyperbole (exaggeration) to sell millions of
    newspapers-

31
  • How do these pictures reflect the idea of Yellow
    Journalism?

32
Pulitzer and Hurst
  • Two of the greatest Yellow Journalists..
  • Joseph Pulitzer- publisher of the New York World
  • William Randolph Hearst- publisher of New York
    Journal
  • You Furnish the pictures and Ill furnish the
    war.

33
De Lome Letter
  • Spanish diplomat De Lome, wrote a letter
    insulting President McKinley
  • This letter was Leaked to the press and caused
    outrage among Americans.
  • Americans became more open to the idea of War
    with Spain.

34
Maine Explodes 1898
  • Causes Americans to Blame Spain
  • Gives imperialists and excuse to take Spanish
    possessions

35
  • Yellow Headlines

36
  • Yellow Headlines

37
  • US calls for troops and invades Cuba, Puerto Rico
    and the Philippines

38
Roosevelt, Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
  • Theodore Roosevelt, former governor of New York,
    Former Secretary of the Navy,

39
Philippines
  • Pre-planned attack- in event of War Dewey was to
    attack
  • Americans under Dewey destroy the Spanish Fleet
    in Manila Bay

40
Treaty of Paris
  • Ends the Spanish American War
  • Cuba gets freedom from Spain (US will control
    Cuba for some time)
  • US gets Guam, Puerto Rico, and Buys Philippines
    for 20 million

41
Puerto Rico
  • Why is Puerto Rico important to the US even
    today?
  • Does not become a state
  • Is part of the US

42
Cuba
  • Was independent
  • Teller Amendment- stated US had no intention of
    holding Cuba (Before the War)
  • However- the US forced the Cubans to adopt the
    Platt Amendment-
  • Cuba could not make treaties with foreign
    countries to use its territory
  • US was allowed to intervene in Cuban affairs
  • Cuba could not go into debt
  • US could lease land on the island for Navy base
  • Cuba was a US Protectorate
  • There is of course little or no independence
    left to Cuba. Wood, American Commander in Cuba

43
Yankee Imperialism in Cuba
  • Once in control of Cuba
  • American business begins to assert power
  • Tobacco
  • Sugarcane
  • Fruit

44
The Philippines and Aguinaldo
  • The Filipinos wanted independence too
  • Their Leader was Emilliano Aguinaldo
  • They will fight American control for three years
  • Aguinaldo will eventually be captured and give up
    the fight.

45
US Occupies Philippines
  • 70,000 -120,000 troops sent to pacify Philippines
  • 4000 Americans and 20,000 50,000 Filipinos die
  • Lasts 3 years
  • Bloody and Repressive

46
Brutal Counter-Insurgency War
  • Mass killings
  • Concentrations camps
  • We must have no scruples about exterminating
    this other race standing in the way of progress
    and enlightenment.

47
William Howard Taft
  • The first American Governor of the Philippines.
  • Americans claim and control the Philippines until
    1948

48
McKinley and Philippines
  • McKinley thought
  • Returning Philippines to Spain would be cowardly
  • US would not turn over islands to another
    Imperial country
  • Filipinos were not ready for independence
  • US needed to educate the Filipinos

49
Anti-Imperialism League
  • Northeast-Urban
  • Some women
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Mark Twain
  • Samuel Gompers
  • William Jennings Bryan (will later advocate
    supporting Treaty of Paris- to bring debate to
    the presidential election)
  • Undemocratic to hold colonies
  • Empire founded upon force
  • Make worse racial problems in US
  • Bringing large numbers of aliens into the United
    States would threaten the welfare of the nation
  • Morally wrong
  • No man was ever created good enough to won
    another. No nation was ever created good enough
    to own another.

50
Assassination of McKinley
51
Senator Albert J. Beveridge on Expansion January
9, 1900
  • Mr. President, the times call for candor. The
    Philippines are ours forever, "territory
    belonging to the United States," as the
    Constitution calls them.
  • And just beyond the Philippines are China's
    illimitable markets. We will not retreat from
    either. We will not repudiate our duty in the
    archipelago. We will not abandon our opportunity
    in the Orient. We will not renounce our part in
    the mission of our race, trustee, under God, of
    the civilization of the world.
  • And we will move forward to our work, not howling
    out regrets like slaves whipped to their burdens,
    but with gratitude for a task worthy of our
    strength, and thanksgiving to Almighty God that
    He has marked us as His chosen people, henceforth
    to lead in the regeneration of the world.
  • Mr. President, this question is deeper than any
    question of party politics deeper than any
    question of the isolated policy of our country
    even deeper even than any question of
    constitutional power. It is elemental. It is
    racial. God has not been preparing the
    English-speaking and Teutonic peoples for a
    thousand years for nothing hut vain and idle
    self-contemplation and self-admiration. No! He
    has made us the master organizers of the world to
    establish system where chaos reigns. He has given
    its the spirit of progress to overwhelm the
    forces of reaction throughout the earth. He has
    made us adepts in government that we may
    administer government among savage and senile
    peoples. Were it not for such a force as this the
    world would relapse into barbarism and night. And
    of all our race He has marked the American people
    as His chosen nation to finally lead in the
    regeneration of the world. This is the divine
    mission of America, and it holds for us all the
    profit, all the glory, all the happiness possible
    to man. We are trustees of the world's progress,
    guardians of its righteous peace. The judgment of
    the Master is upon us "Ye have been faithful
    over a few things I will make you ruler over
    many thing."
  • From Congressional Record(56th Cong., 1st
    Session) Vol XXXIII,

52
China
  • Trade with China was very important to US in the
    late 1800s

53
China The Sick Man of Asia
  • Chinese government was weak
  • France
  • Germany
  • Britain
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • All had settlements along the coast
  • Spheres of Influence
  • Europeans had control of territory

54
  • The Chinese Cake

55
US wants to protect trade with China
  • 1899 John Hay- Secretary of State
  • Wrote of series of notes called the
  • Open Door notes-
  • All nations allowed to trade with China
  • The US would Safeguard for the world the
    principles of equal impartial trade with all
    parts of the Chinese Empire

56
Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • Chinese nationalists resent the foreign control
    of their country and try to push out Europeans
    and Americans
  • Siege foreign embassy
  • Americans and Europeans fight the Boxers
  • The Boxer rebellion came to an end when a
    multinational armed force rescued foreign
    diplomats in Peking.

57
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58
China and United States Relations
  • Were the Boxers justified in their attack on
    European powers?

59
Roosevelt Become President 1901
  • Was VP for McKinley- assassinated 1901

60
Roosevelt and the Big Stick
  • Roosevelt ardent imperialist
  • Believed in using American power
  • Speak softly but carry a big stick.
  • Held racist views of civilization
  • Civilized WASP, industrialized
  • UncivilizedNon-white, Latin, Slavic,
    non-industrial
  • Common view of imperial powers
  • It is the right and duty of civilized nations to
    intervene in the affairs of uncivilized nations
    for the common good. Good Web Site

61
Roosevelt
  • Peace maker Russo-Japanese War
  • Helped negotiate peace- Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
  • Wins Nobel Peace Prize

62
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63
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64
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65
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
  • James Monroe President in the 1820s
  • Stated to European Powers
  • No European intervention in Latin America will be
    allowed by the United States
  • Idea to prevent newly independent Latin American
    countries from being colonized by European powers
    (Britain, France)

66
Roosevelt Corollary
  • Roosevelt asserts American Imperialism in Latin
    America
  • In Western Hemisphere adherence of the United
    States to the Monroe Doctrine
  • May force the US to exercise police power.
  • Means- the US will intervene in Latin America
  • Example Dominican Republic, Haiti, Nicaragua
  • Common reasons will include Financial
    Difficulties (Loans from European Powers)

67
Roosevelt Corollary
68
Great White Fleet
  • Roosevelt sent the US Fleet of Battleships to
    express American Power

69
Panama Canal
  • US Needed a Canal- to reduce travel time
  • Hay-Panceforte Treaty- 1901 US gained the
    exclusive rights to a canal in Central America
  • Location was Panama
  • Part of Columbia
  • French company had started, US baught the rights
    for 40 million

70
Panama Canal
  • Columbia resisted US intentions to build the
    Canal
  • Roosevelt backs a rebellion of Panamanian wealthy
    against Columbia
  • Nov. 1903 Panama declares independence
  • With 12 American Warships to help
  • US and Panama agree on terms for a Canal
  • Canal built 1903-1914 43,000 workers were used

71
Map of Panama Canal
72
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73
Taft and Wilson follow Roosevelts lead regarding
Imperialism
  • Intervention
  • Support of American interests abroad
  • Some differences

74
Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
  • President Taft takes over for Roosevelt
  • Believe in using American money and loans from
    American Banks to influence Latin American
    countries
  • Idea is to use money to develop Latin American
    Countries
  • Use to control Latin American Countries

75
Woodrow Wilson 1912-1919
  • Democrat (Progressive)
  • PHD-Professor then President of Princeton-
    Political Science
  • Governor of New Jersey
  • Want foreign policy to shape
  • morality in the World.
  • Very religious
  • Committed to Peace in the world.

76
Moral or Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson, It would be the irony of fate if my
    administration had to deal chiefly with foreign
    affairs.
  • Hoped to change relations with Latin America-
    didnt like the Big Stick diplomacy-
  • Wanted to restore Latin American Confidence in
    the US
  • American Economic Expansion with American
    Democracy, and Christianity, to civilize the
    world.
  • Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan
    (Christian, Pacifist- reflected the
    Moral/Missionary vision)

77
Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson saw American influence in the world as a
    moral crusade-
  • Wanted to help create a New World Order guided
    by fair play and cooperation
  • Wanted to spread democracy and hope to less
    fortunate lands
  • Pledged, The United States would never again
    seek one additional foot of territory by
    conquest.

78
Wilson and Morality
  • Americans are meant to carry liberty and justice
    and the principles of humanity wherever convert
    them to principles of America.
  • America must use its enormous moral and
    material power to create a new order.

79
Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson later, introduced the Jones Act to
    Congress asking for self governance for the
    Philippines (their own government)

80
Wilson continues intervention in Latin America
  • Purchase of Virgin Islands from Denmark
  • Dominican Republic intervention
  • Haiti-
  • Nicaragua
  • Example of Mexico

81
Poor Mexico
  • Poor Mexico So far from God, so close to the
    United States
  • Porfirio Diaz Dictator of Mexico
  • When Wilson takes office US business has 1
    billion invested in Mexico
  • Oil, mines, RR, Ranches
  • (more than all other foreign investment
    combined)- US has a huge interest in Mex.

82
Mexican Revolution 1910
  • Porfirio Diaz 1884-1911
  • Dictator of Mexico
  • Pro-American

83
Different Revolutionary Leaders
  • 1911 Diaz deposed by Francisco Madera
  • 1913 Madera deposed by Victoriano Huerta (Madera
    was murdered)
  • Wilson was angry with Huerta and refused to
    recognize his government-
  • Wilson supported Venustiano Carranza who fought
    against Huerta

84
Wilson orders Occupation of Veracruz
  • An incident - American sailors are arrested in
    Veracruz
  • Wilson uses as an excuse to attack
  • Fight and occupy Veracruz
  • Carranza was able to then force Huerta to Flee
    and takes over government

85
Meanwhile- Pancho Villa
  • Francisco Pancho Villa was a supporter of
    Carranza- then the two split
  • Wilson was supporting Villa for a short time but
    changes to only Carranza.
  • Villa kills Americans and also even attacks New
    Mexico 1916
  • Wilson responds by sending General Pershing and
    10,000 American troops to find Villa

86
Mexican Intervention
87
Black Jack Pershing
  • Black Jack
  • Because he commanded black troops in Spanish
    American War
  • Chased Pancho Villa for 1 year
  • Later will lead American Expeditionary Force in
    World War I

88
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89
Rudyard Kipling- Pro Imperialism
  • The White Mans Burden
  • Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the
    best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo
    serve your captives' needTo wait in heavy
    harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your
    new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and
    half-child.Take up the White Man's burden--The
    savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of
    FamineAnd bid the sickness ceaseAnd when your
    goal is nearestThe end for others sought,Watch
    sloth and heathen FollyBring all your hopes to
    nought.
  • This famous poem, written by Britain's imperial
    poet, was a response to the American take over of
    the Philippines after the Spanish-American War.

90
Racism and Expansion
  • Josiah Strong- book Our Country
  • Racist justification of imperialism
  • Asserted Anglo-Saxons had a genius for
    colonization
  • God with infinite wisdom and skill is training
    the Anglo-Saxon race for the final competition of
    races.
  • Implication-weaker, black, brown and yellow
    people were inferior to the Anglo-saxon

91
Protectorate
  • Treaty- strong state agrees to protect vulnerable
    territories against 3rd party (other nation)
    assault
  • In exchange for assistance

92
Blaine Secretary of State
  • Republican under Garfield and Harrison
  • Advocated expansion in Latin America and Pacific

93
American Military Reforms
  • After Spanish American War
  • US modernizes military
  • Increases s of standing Army- 100,000
  • Training
  • Officer schools
  • National Guard reorganization
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