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Can the rumen protect the dairy from mycotoxins?

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Title: Can the rumen protect the dairy from mycotoxins?


1
Can the rumen protect the dairy from mycotoxins?
Naturally ahead
Hilmar Gerhardt, MSc Ruminant Application
Champion, Biomin
2
Analytical Data Criteria
  • Total number of samples analyzed 1384
  • Analysis from 2 perspectives
  • By Geographical Regions
  • By Commodity Types
  • All Analysis done by Romer Labs Singapore

3
Geographical Regions
  • North Asia
  • China, Japan, Korea Taiwan
  • SouthEast Asia
  • Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand
    Vietnam
  • South Asia
  • India
  • Oceania
  • Australia
  • Americas
  • North America
  • - South America

4
Commodity Types
  • Corn
  • Soybean Meal
  • Wheat/bran
  • Corn Gluten Meal
  • Rice/bran
  • DDGS
  • Feed
  • Straw/silage
  • Other feed ingredients
  • fishmeal, canola meal, cassava, sorghum,
    cottonseed meal, copra meal, peanut meal etc.

5
Method of Analysis
MYCOTOXIN Method of Analysis Limit of detection (LOD)
Afla total HPLC lt 1 µg/kg (ppb)
ZON HPLC lt 32 µg/kg (ppb)
DON HPLC lt 50 µg/kg (ppb)
FUM total HPLC lt 100 µg/kg (ppb)
OTA HPLC lt 2 µg/kg (ppb)
Due to the high LOD of T-2 toxin analysis (lt125
µg/kg) it was chosen not to analyze this toxin to
avoid false negative results. However, this
mycotoxin is toxic at levels below 125 µg/kg.
Therefore, its absence from the results of this
survey is not an indicative of its inexistence in
the feedstuffs.
6
Summary Oct. 2007 - Sept. 2008
MYCOTOXIN n Positive Average of positive µg/kg Max. µg/kg Commodity Country
Afla total 1080 31 61 2483 Corn Pakistan
ZON 1057 46 199 3112 Corn China
DON 1086 54 783 32893 Finished feed China
FUM 1068 54 946 9481 Corn China
OTA 901 19 11 197 Corn India
7
Summary Oct. 2007 June 2009
MYCOTOXIN n Positive Average of positive µg/kg Max. µg/kg Commodity Country
Afla total 1353 36 88 6200 Corn India
ZON 1348 36 214 7422 Corn Japan
DON 1350 41 687 13920 DDGS China
FUM 1384 50 1406 32510 Corn Gluten Meal Malaysia
OTA 1240 15 20 1582 Finished feed Pakistan
8
Occurrence of Mycotoxin by Geographical Regions
North Asia Afla-18 ZON-45 DON-63
FUM-55 OTA-10
South Asia Afla-78 ZON-24 DON-18
FUM-50 OTA-38
Americas Afla-9 ZON-28 DON-54
FUM-52 OTA-2
South-East Asia Afla-52 ZON-39 DON-31
FUM-59 OTA-15
Oceania Afla-7 ZON-15 DON-24 FUM-8 OTA-9
9
Importing concerns?
  • Different geographic regions present different
    climates therefore different mycotoxins will be
    present.
  • Importing commodities also means importing
    mycotoxins!

10
Yes, Some rumen microbes (and protozoa) detoxify
myxotoxins
Naturally ahead
11
BUT How much?
Naturally ahead .
12
Natural Bioconversion in the Rumen
Ruminal Detoxification
Rumen Degraded No Rumen Degradation
Aflatoxin 0-42 58 100
Zearalenone 90 ?-Zearalenol 10 x more oestrogenic 10 BUT oestrogenic metabolites
Deoxynivalenol 35 Rumen-pH sensitive 65
Ochratoxin A completely? ?
Doerr 2003
Jouany and Diaz 2005
13
Ruminal Detoxification
14
Detoxifying Capacity
Naturally ahead .
  • Factors reducing the detoxifing capacity of rumen
    microbes
  • High dry matter intake
  • High passage rate
  • Little time for detoxifying
  • Nutrient dense ration (NFC, Fat, Protein)
  • Risk for acidosis
  • Maintain rumen activity?
  • Maximum mycotoxin-inactivation in the rumen?

15
Negative Effects of Mycotoxins depend on
Naturally ahead .
  • Contamination-level in the feeds
  • Different mycotoxins different degradation rate
  • Duration of mycotoxin contamination
  • Milk/Reproduction performance levels (metabolic
    stress)
  • Immune function
  • Rumen health?
  • Cow comfort
  • SCC (milking routine, bedding)
  • Lameness occurrence (floor design, hygiene)

16
Remember !
Ruminal Detoxification
  • After the Rumen nothing stops Mycotoxins !!
  • immunesuppressive
  • livertoxic
  • cytotoxic

17
Why is there an increased risk for mycotoxins in
the field?
Naturally ahead .
  • Annual recontamination
  • No till
  • Less crop rotation
  • Dramatic change of temperatures (at flowering)
  • (cold nights, warm days)

18
You cant change the weather, BUT Effect of
Cultivation system under unfavourable weather
conditions on DON contamination?
Naturally ahead .
19
French study Barrier-Guillot et al. (2004)
presented in Maryland, USA
Naturally ahead .
  • n 765 fields, gt360.000 acres
  • 3 wheat surface in France
  • Risk factors for DON
  • Weather at flowering (biggest impact)
  • Previous crop (corn!)
  • Resistance against Fusarium
  • Cultivation system (ploughing, no till)
  • Crop residues on the soil surface !

20
Why is there an increased risk for mycotoxins in
the rations?
Natürlich im Futter.
  • Highly concentrated rations

21
Why is there an increased risk for mycotoxins in
the rations?
Naturally ahead .
  • Highly concentrated rations
  • High mycotoxin risk (DON, ZON, T-2, Alfatoxins)
    in concentrates
  • Corn, wheat, cotton seed
  • Mycotoxins in corn silage

22
Why is there an increased risk for mycotoxins in
the rations?
Naturally ahead .
  • Highly concentrated rations
  • High mycotoxin risk in concentrates
  • Corn (DON, ZON), wheat (DON ZON), cotton seed
    (T-2)
  • Mycotoxins in corn silage !

23
Mycotoxins in forages?
Naturally ahead .
mycotoxin suspicious samples tested
24
Naturally ahead .
  • Mycotoxins in corn silage
  • UW-Extension Team Forage field study in fall
    2000
  • Objective Mycotoxin level of plants in standing
    corn
  • Results all samples positiv for Fusarium
  • 63 of the samples were between
  • 0,1 4,9 ppm DON (highest 41,6 ppm)

Rankin M., Grau C. (2004)
25
Do Mycotoxins get eliminated in the feeds?
Naturally ahead
  • They are not destroyed by
  • Fermentation (corn silage)
  • Time (longer storing period)
  • Heat

Rankin M., Grau C. (2004)
26
What is happening in the field?
Naturally ahead .
n100 dairies, USA
  • Whitlow et al. (1986)

27
Conclusion of other field data
Naturally ahead .
  • There is a relationship between DON contamination
    and losses in production
  • Gotlieb 1997
  • Seglar 1997

28
Research and field trial difference? Ministry of
Agriculture and Food, Ontario
Naturally ahead .
For example Effects of DON in dairy cows For example Effects of DON in dairy cows
Research Field data
12 ppm DON no reduced milk production (13-22 wk. of lactation) Depressed feed intake and lower milk production at 0,1 ppm DON
29
Research and field trial difference? Ministry of
Agriculture and Food, Ontario
Naturally ahead .
Research Field data
pure mycotoxins synergistic effects of mycotoxins
short trial period most symptoms occur after weeks
mid to late lactation cows, 20 kg milk fresh cows with problems (DA, ketosis)
30
High risk especially in the transition
period! Why?
Naturally ahead .
31
Depressed immune function
Naturally ahead .
Goff Horst (1997)
32
Periparturient energy balance
Naturally ahead .
nutrient intake/-requirement
33
Effect of mycotoxins on transition cows?
Naturally ahead .
  • More DAs
  • (displaced abomasum)

Whitlow et al. (1986) Whitlow Hagler
(1998) Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ontario
34
Effect of mycotoxins on transition cows?
Naturally ahead .
  • More DAs (displaced abomasum)
  • Ketosis, fatty liver syndrome
  • Retained placenta, Metritis
  • Mastitis

Whitlow et al. (1986) Whitlow Hagler
(1998) Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ontario
35
Effect of mycotoxins on transition cows?
Naturally ahead .
  • More DAs (displaced abomasum)
  • Ketosis, fatty liver syndrome
  • Retained placenta, Metritis
  • Mastitis

Whitlow et al. (1986) Whitlow Hagler
(1998) Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ontario
36
Mycotoxins intensify the risk for lameness in
dairy cows
Naturally ahead .
Nocek (1993), adapted Hoffmann (2001)
37
Effects of Mycotoxins
  • T2-Toxin, DON, AFB1
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Intestinal hemorrhages
  • Impaired rumen function
  • Diarrhea
  • Ketosis

DON - Deoxynivalenol ZON Zearalenone AFB1
Aflatoxin B1 T2-Toxin
  • ZON
  • Irregular heats
  • Low conception rates
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Embryonic Loss
  • AFB1, T2-Toxin, DON
  • Milk contamination
  • Decreased milk production
  • Mastitis
  • T2-Toxin, DON
  • Decreased feed intake
  • Lower milk production
  • Decreased feed efficiency
  • DON
  • Laminitis

38
Limits for Mycotoxins?
Naturally ahead
  • Compromised immune system
  • Transition (fresh) cows
  • sick cows
  • stressed cows
  • Most susceptible to mycotoxins!

Linn Chapman 2002
39
Limits for Mycotoxins? exact levels for dairy
cattele unknown!
Naturally ahead
Mycotoxin level low medium high
A-Trichothecenes (T-2, HAT-2, DAS) lt 300 300 - 800 gt 800
B-Trichothecenes (DON, AcDON, NIV, Fus X) lt 500 500 - 2000 gt 2000
ZON lt 100 100 - 250 gt 250
Ochratoxin A lt 200 200 - 500 gt 500
Aflatoxin B1 gt 5 5 -20 (FDA) gt 20
Biomin experience
40
Controlling of the benchmarks in the milk
produktion- small screws..
Naturally ahead
  • Feed conversion, -efficiancy
  • Feed quality
  • Supervision of the animals
  • Optimising the TMR..demand is leading the rations

41
Basics for economical value of life time
performance
Naturally ahead
  • Three lactations or 27000 kg / cow
  • 15 kg of milk per day of life (27000 kg in 1800
    days)
  • Feed efficacy 1,5 kg milk / kg DM

42
Naturally ahead
Less than 20 of dairy cows are finding in
lactation No. 4 und 5!!
66 of dairy cows do not reach the 3rd lactation
!
Auszug aus DGfZ Schriftenreihe, Heft 42, 2005 T.
Schomaker
43
Strategies to minimize mycotoxin impact
  • uncertain results, often connected with high
    feed losses
  • expensive
  • time consuming
  • change in palatability and nutritive value
  • decreased feed quality
  • toxic by-products possible

44
Strategies to minimize mycotoxin impact
  • uncertain results, often connected with high
    feed losses
  • expensive
  • time consuming
  • change in palatability and nutritive value
  • decreased feed quality
  • toxic by-products possible

45
Strategies counteracting Mycotoxins
46
3 Strategies
Unique and exclusive....
Elimination of toxic effects
Biotransformation
Adsorption
All mycotoxins
  • Trichothecenes
  • e.g. DON, T-2,...
  • Zearalenone

47
Experience with Mycofix Plus in Dairy Cows
Experience
48
Naturally ahead
1200 cows 12 week trial on-off-on
49
Naturally ahead
50
Experience
www.bvw.at/
www.vu-wien.ac.at
Acetic Acid Propionic Acid 2,8 1
51
Naturally ahead .
Even in low producing, robust Simmental cows
There is a difference
52
Experience
www.bvw.at/
www.vu-wien.ac.at
  • Results
  • Stronger immune defense
  • Lowering SCC (long trial period!)

53
Experience
www.bvw.at/
www.vu-wien.ac.at
  • Take home message
  • Mycofix Plus increases milk yield.
  • Mycotoxines impair rumen function.
  • Mycofix Plus lowered Somatic Cell Count by 60.

54
Naturally ahead
Long term field trial in a dairy farm 340 cows
Progress of days between calving and new
pregnancy Farm BEAG Agrar GmbH, Behringen,
Germany
Mycofix Plus 3.E since 28. January 2006
55
Field trials

Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus Long term effects of Biomin MycofixPlus

Farms Cows age Lakt. Diff. Millkyield Diff. Livetime Diff. Culling
Nr. in days Nr. Past year Livetime Past year efficiancy Past year cows DIM
Fürstenwalde 603 2120 3,3 0,5 30505 6900 14,7 2,0 343
Griesheim 771 1570 2,5 0,2 23579 3970 14,5 0,6 204
Ranzig 628 1910 2,9 0,0 28466 2750 15,1 1,2 260
Behringen 413 1850 2,5 0,3 30732 5800 16,4 2,0 354
Körner 539 1730 2,9 0,4 27032 3940 15,2 1,7 207
Farms without
Mycofix Plus
Milsana 1427 1810 2,7 -0,1 22578 -150 13,1 -0,1 213
Dermbach 1663 1780 2,7 -0,2 22442 -1550 13,1 -0,2 237

56
Less than 20 of dairy cows are finding in
lactation No. 4 und 5!!
FCM control data
Outlook In using the capability of the dairy
cows by stabilizing the performance with Mycofix
Plus , the better ones reach the higher lactation
number 4,5 and 6 and more
66 der Kühe erreichen nicht die 3. Laktation !
Auszug aus DGfZ Schriftenreihe, Heft 42, 2005 T.
Schomaker
57
References
Naturally ahead .
  • Barrier-Guillot B., Delambre M., Morel A.,
    Maumene C., Gouet H., Grosjean F., Leuillet M.
    (2004) Identification of agronomic factors that
    influence the level of deoxynivalenol (DON) in
    wheat grown in france. XI IUPAC Symposium on
    mycotoxins and phytotoxins, May 17-21 2004,
    Bethesda, Maryland, USA
  • Goff J.P., Horst R.L. (1997) Physiological
    changes at parturition and their relationship to
    metabolic disorders. J. Dariy Sci. 80, 1260-1268
  • Gotlieb, A. (1997) Causes of mycotoxins in
    silages. Pp 213-221. In Silage Field to
    Feedbunk, NRAES-99, Northeast Regional
    Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, NY
  • Hagler Jr., W.M., Tyezkowska, K., Hamilton, P.B.
    (1984) Simultaneous occurence of deoxynivalenol,
    zearalenon and aflatoxin in 1982 scabby wheat
    from the midwestern United States. Appl. Environ.
    Microbiol. 47 151-154
  • Hofman, P. (2004) Feed Molds Mycotoxins. www.
    wisc. edu/dysci/uwex/nutritn/presentn/mold.pdf
  • Hoffmann M. (2001) Gut zu Fuß, wenn es im Trog
    stimmt. DLZ 12, 86-89
  • Linn J., Chapman B. (2002) Drought feed concerns
    and feeding strategies. Timly Topics.
    www.ansci.umn.edu/dairy/topics/out2002-drought_fee
    d_concerns.pdf
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food (2004) Molds
    and Mycotoxins Effects of Moldy Feed and
    Mycotoxins on Cattle. www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english
    /livestock/dairy/herd/food/mico22.htm
  • Nocek, J.E. (1993) Hoof Care for Dairy Cattle.
    W.D. Hoard Sons Company, Fort Atkinson, WI
  • Rankin M., Grau C. (2004) Agronomic
    Considerations for Molds and Mycotoxins in corn
    silage. Crops and Soils Agent, Fond du Lac
    County. Extension Plant Pathologist, UW-Madison
    www.uwex.edu/ces/crops/uwforage/Mycotoxins.htm
  • Seglar, B. (1997) Case studies that implicate
    silage mycotoxins as the cause of dairy herd
    problems. Pp. 242-254. In Silage Field to
    Feedbunk. NRAES-99, Northeast Regional
    Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, NY
  • Whitlow et al. (1986), J. Dairy Sci., 69 (Suppl.
    1) 223
  • Whitlow L.W., Hagler W.M. (1998) The Potential
    for an Association for Mycotoxins with Problem of
    Production, Helath, and Reproduction in Dairy
    Cattle. Proceedings MN Dairy Health Conference,
    May 19-21, 1998. College of Vet Med., UM, St.
    Paul, MN
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