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Major Animal Phyla

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Major Animal Phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata Osprey - Aves Great blue heron - Aves Humpback ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Animal Phyla


1
Major Animal Phyla
  • Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida,
    Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata

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Body PatternsTypes of Symmetry
  • 1) radial symmetry - can be divided into
    many similar halves - has a top bottom, but
    no front or back
  • ex. starfish, sea anemone
  • 2) bilateral symmetry - can ONLY be divided
    into 2 similar halves - has a top, bottom,
    front, back
  • ex. human, crayfish

4
Phylum PoriferaSponges
  • Have no definite shape asymmetrical
  • No tissues or organs
  • Colony of specialized cells
  • Immobile
  • Good powers of regeneration
  • Skeleton of spongin and spicules

5
SPONGE ANATOMY
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Barrel sponge
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Vase sponge
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Tube sponge
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Venus Flower Basket
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Phylum Cnidariastinging-celled animals
  • Jellyfishes, corals, anemones
  • Radial symmetry
  • Two tissue layers
  • Primitive nerve net but no brain
  • Sac-like digestive tract (one opening)
  • Stinging cells for capturing food.

14
CLASSES OF CNIDARIANS
  • Class Hydrozoa Hydra, Portuguese-Man-of-War,
    Obelia mostly polyp or hydroid stage
  • Class Scyphozoa true jellyfishes mostly medusa
    stage
  • Class Anthozoa corals, anemones
  • Class Cubozoa box jellies

15
CLASS HYDROZOA
Hydra
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CLASS SCYPHOZOA
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Moon jelly
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CLASS ANTHOZOA
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Sea anemone
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Aggregating anemones
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Anemone
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Coral polyps
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Coral reef
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CLASS CUBOZOA
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Phylum PlatyhelminthesFlatworms
  • First animals to exhibit bilateral symmetry
  • Have primitive brain ladder-like nervous system
  • 3 tissue layers
  • Includes free-living flatworms and parasitic
    flatworms (tapeworms, flukes)

26
CLASSES OF FLATWORMS
  • Class Turbellaria free-living flatworms
  • Class Cestoda tapeworms
  • Class Trematoda - flukes

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Flatworm
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Flatworm
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Flatworm
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Tapeworm head (scolex)
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Liver fluke
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Phylum AnnelidaSegmented worms
  • Earthworms, sandworms, leeches
  • Tube-like digestive system
  • Have well-developed digestive and circulatory
    systems
  • Segmented bodies
  • Primitive kidneys nephridia

34
CLASSES OF ANNELIDS
  • Class Oligochaeta earthworms, bloodworms
    oligo- means few and chaeta means a bristle
    or stout hair
  • Class Polychaeta many bristles and parapodia
    (fleshly lobes to walk with
  • Class Hirudinea leeches (most are NOT
    bloodsuckers)

35
Christmas tree worm
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Feather-duster worm
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Fireworm
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Nereis a polychaete
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Oligochaete
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Leech
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Phylum Mollusca-soft bodied animals
  • Snails, slugs, nudibranchs, chitons, limpets,
    clams, oysters, squid, octopus, nautilus, etc.
  • Either have no shell, one shell, or two shells
  • Many have hard mouth parts (radula in gastropods,
    beak in cephalopods).
  • Breath with gills

42
CLASSES OF MOLLUSCS
  • Class Gastropoda snails, slugs, conchs,
    nudibranchs have either no shell or one shell
    name means stomach foot
  • Class Bivalvia clams, oysters, mussels have
    two shells that hinge together
  • Class Polyplacophora chitons snail-like with 8
    embedded plates on its back
  • Class Cephalopoda squid, octopus, nautilus,
    cuttlefish name means head foot
    well-developed brain and nervous system

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Nudibranch
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Nudibranch
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Nudibranch
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Chiton
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Chiton
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Reef Squid
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Cuttlefish
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Blue-ring octopus
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Chambered nautilus
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Triton shell
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Oyster on half-shell (needs Tabasco)
54
Scallop
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Phylum Arthropoda Joint-legged animals
  • Insects, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and
    arachnids
  • exoskeleton made of chitin
  • must shed exoskeleton to grow
  • jointed (hinged) appendages

56
CLASSES OF ARTHROPODS
  • Class Crustacea shrimps, lobsters, crabs,
    crawfishes
  • Class Isopoda sea lice some are parasitic
  • Class Merostomata horseshoe crabs
  • Class Cirripedia barnacles
  • Class HexpodaInsects
  • Class Arachnida spiders, mites, scorpions

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Bulldozer
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Cleaner shrimp Crustacea
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Spider crab Crustacea
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Crab zoea crustacea
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Stone crab
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Hermit crab - crustacea
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Giant Isopod
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Parasitic isopod
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Ligia exotica - isopod
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Horseshoe crab Merostomata
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Barnacles - Cirripedia
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Phylum EchinodermataSpiney-skinned animals
  • Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand
    dollars, sea cucumbers, and crinoids
  • Reverted back to radial symmetry (radial in
    adults / bilateral in larvae)
  • Tube feet and water vascular system
  • Most exhibit pentamerism (multiples of 5)
  • Have primitive endoskeleton

69
WHY ARE ECHINODERMS RANKED SO HIGH?
  • Clues from embryology study of the early
    development of animals
  • Protostomes versus Deuterostomes
  • Protostome blastopore (opening) forms the mouth
    in all animals except echinoderms and chordates
  • Deuterostomes blastopore (opening) forms the
    anus in echinoderms and chordates

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CLASSES OF ECHINODERMS
  • Class Asteroidea sea stars
  • Class Ophiuroidea brittle stars, serpent stars
  • Class Echinoidea sea urchins, sand dollars
  • Class Holothuroidea sea cucumbers
  • Class Crinoidea sea lilies, feather stars

72
Sea star - Asteroidea
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Bat star - Asteroidea
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Pycnopodia - Asteroidea
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Brittle star - Ophiuroidea
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Sea urchin - Echinoidea
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Purple urchins Echinoidea
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Sand dollar - Echinoidea
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Sea cucumber Holothuroidea
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Feather star - Crinoidea
81
Phylum Chordata
  • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
  • Dorsal hollow nerve tube
  • Notochord
  • Pharyngeal gill slits
  • Post anal tail

82
SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA
  • Class Agnatha jawless fishes lampreys and
    hagfishes
  • Class Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fishes
    sharks, rays, skates, chimeras
  • Class Osteichthyes boney fishes
  • Class Amphibia frogs, salamanders
  • Class Reptila turtles, snakes, lizards, and
    crocodiles
  • Class Aves birds
  • Class Mammalia - mammals

83
VERTEBRATE BODY PLAN
  • Recapitulation Theory Ontogeny recapitulates
    Phylogeny
  • The embryological and developmental changes an
    organism goes through restates its evolutionary
    history.
  • Evolution cannot go back and change historyit
    can only modify what is pre-existing.

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Sea lamprey - Agnatha
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Hagfish - Agnatha
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Great white shark - Chondrichthys
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Tiger shark - Chondrichthys
89
Manta ray - Chondrichthys
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Stingray - Chondrichthys
91
Electric ray - Chondrichthys
92
Leafy sea dragon - Osteichthyes
93
Sargassum fish - Osteichthys
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Deep sea angler fish - Osteichthyes
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Clown anemone fish - Osteichthyes
96
Bull dolphin - Osteichthyes
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Bullfrog - Amphibia
98
Green sea turtle Reptila
99
American alligator - Reptila
100
Osprey - Aves
101
Great blue heron - Aves
102
Humpback whales - Mammalia
103
Sea lion Mammalia
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