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Title: Part3%20--%20Weather-Ometers%20


1

2
Textile Test Products
3
Our business is driven by standards
4
What is standardization?
  • Standardization is the single solution of a
    recurring problem under the given scientific,
    technical and economic possibilities.

5
How old is standardization?
  • Ancient Egypt, 4000 years ago Standard on bricks
    made of mud of the river Nile Length 41 cm,
    width 20 cm.
  • Ancient Rome, 2000 years ago Standard on water
    pipes of lead Fixed dimensions, minimum weight
    and numerical designation of pipes.

6
What is a standard?
  • Different definitions by different organizations
  • ISO-Definition
  • Standards are documented agreements containing
    technical specifications or other precise
    criteria to be used consistently as rules,
    guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to
    ensure that materials, products, processes and
    services are fit for their purpose.

7
Technical Standards
  • Standards are
  • developed voluntarily
  • used voluntarily
  • Standards become legally binding
  • when a government references them in a regulation
  • when they are cited in a contract

8
Technical Standards
  • Standards contain
  • a main part
  • Annexes or Appendixes
  • The content is
  • mandatory (main part, normative annex) or
  • informal (notes, nonmandatory or informative
    annex)

9
Technical Standards
  • Examples for different types of standards
    (ASTM)
  • classification
  • guide
  • practice
  • specification
  • terminology
  • test method

10
Technical Standards
  • Standards for test methods
  • may describe the required instruments in detail
    including drawings, pictures, type of instrument,
    name and address of manufacturer etc. (often in
    company standards, American standards, old ISO
    standards)
  • may describe the performance of the test (new
    ISO standards, CEN standards)

11

Technical Standards
  • "Performance based standards "- what does it
    mean?
  • They focus on the intent of the standard and will
    no longer specify the type of equipment or
    manufacturer
  • They allow the user to conduct a test using
    non-specific instrument parameters (basis
    testing procedures)
  • They allow the manufacturer to design and to make
    improvements to instruments without being "locked
    in" to a particular design

12
Technical Standards
  • Performance based standards
  • advantage does not retard the technical progress
  • disadvantage open for competitors
  • disadvantage may increase variability

13
Standardization Organizations
  • Different levels of Standardization
  • International ISO, IEC
  • Regional (European, Arabian countries, Latin
    America, ...) CEN, CENELEC, ...
  • National ANSI, BSI, DIN, JISC, ...
  • Industry Association AATCC, SAE, VDA, ...
  • Company JC Penney, Marks Spencer, Sears,
    Victorias Secret...

14
Standardization Organizations International
  • ISO - International Standardization Organization
  • founded 1947
  • headquarter Geneva, Switzerland
  • 130 members, one in each country
  • 2,800 technical bodies, 30,000 experts
  • 12,000 standards
  • ISO standards may, but do not have to be
    published by ISO members as national standards.
    Changes are allowed.
  • IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
  • founded 1906
  • headquarter Geneva, Switzerland
  • formal agreement with ISO, JTC

15
Standardization Organizations ISO Members
  • Australia (SAA)
  • Brazil (ABNT)
  • Canada (SCC)
  • Chile (INN)
  • China (CSBTS)
  • Colombia (ICONTEC)
  • Costa Rica (INTECO)
  • Ecuador (INEN)
  • Indonesia (BSN)
  • Israel (SII)
  • Japan (JISC)
  • Malaysia (DSM)
  • Mexico (DGN)
  • New Zealand (SNZ)
  • Panama (COPANIT)
  • Philippines (BPS)
  • Singapore (PSB)
  • Thailand (TISI)
  • USA (ANSI)
  • and many more ...

16
Standardization Organizations Europe
  • CEN - European Committee for Standardization
  • founded in the beginning of the sixties
  • headquarter Brussels, Belgium
  • members EC EFTA Czech Republic
  • CEN standards have to be published by CEN members
    as national standards without any change.
  • CENELEC - European Committee for
    Electrotechnical Standardization

17
Standardization Organizations CEN Members
  • Austria (ON)
  • Belgium (IBN/BIN)
  • Czech Republic (CSNI)
  • Denmark (DS)
  • Finland (SFS)
  • France (AFNOR)
  • Germany (DIN)
  • Greece (ELOT)
  • Iceland (STRÍ)
  • Ireland (NSAI)
  • Italy (UNI)
  • Luxembourg (SEE)
  • Netherlands (NNI)
  • Norway (NSF)
  • Portugal (IPQ)
  • Spain (AENOR)
  • Sweden (SIS)
  • Switzerland (SNV)
  • United Kingdom (BSI)

18
Standardization Organizations Cooperation
  • ISO/CEN Cooperation Vienna agreement of 1991.
  • The agreement defines procedures for the
    following
  • cooperation by correspondence
  • cooperation by mutual representation at meetings
  • adoption of existing International Standards as
    European Standards
  • cooperation by transfer of work and parallel
    approval of standards
  • Principal guideline General test methods should
    be developed within ISO. Requests for general
    test methods within CEN should be transferred to
    ISO.

19
Standardization Organizations Committees
  • ISO Technical Committees
  • TC 35 (Paints)
  • TC 38 (Textiles)
  • TC 61 (Plastics)
  • CEN Technical Committees
  • TC 139 (Paints)
  • TC 248 (Textiles)
  • TC 249 (Plastics)

20
Standardization Organizations USA
  • Governmental sector
  • 80 Organizations, 44,000 standards
  • department of defense alone 34,000 standards
  • Private sector
  • 620 Organizations, 49,000 standards
  • central co-ordination ANSI
  • 130 professional associations and scientific
    Organizations (for example AATCC, SAE), 14,000
    standards
  • 300 trade Organizations, 16,000 standards
  • 40 Standardization Organization (for example
    ASTM), 17,000 standards

21
Standardization Organizations USA
  • ANSI - American National Standards Institute
  • founded 1918
  • non-profit Organization
  • coordinating Standardization work of 175
    accredited Organizations in the private sector
  • no standard development
  • member of ISO and IEC
  • ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
  • founded 1898
  • profit Organization
  • 132 committees, 32,000 members
  • 10,000 standards

22
Standardization Organizations USA
  • SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
  • founded 1905
  • non-profit Organization
  • 14,000 active members
  • 1,400 automotive standards
  • AATCC - American Association of
    Textile Chemists and Colorists
  • founded 1921
  • 1,000 active members
  • 185 standard methods, more than 40 related to
    ISO standards

23
Harmonization
Trend
  • Situation in the past
  • Only status of "recommendations"
  • Situation at present and in future
  • Tendency to "worldwide acceptance" and in
    consequence harmonization of National Standards
    with International Standards.
  • Major reasons for this trend
  • Globalization of the economy
  • European standardization situation (new
    approach)
  • Minimization of testing costs

24
Harmonization Current
Situation
  • Europe
  • CEN is taking over ISO and IEC standards resp.
    using these standards as a basis for European
    Standards (EN).
  • Replacement of national standards (DIN, BSI,
    AFNOR, ...) by ISO/IEC test methods directly or
    via CEN.
  • USA
  • Approach Own test methods are revised so that
    they are identical or equivalent to the ISO
    methods.
  • Examples ASTM G3 Weathering and durability and
    ASTM D20 Plastics .

25
Harmonization
  • Basics of International Standards
  • Use of metric units
  • Performance based standards rather than
    instrument describing standards
  • Note At present this is only really true for
    basic standards
  • Possible consequences from harmonizing National
    Standards with International Standards
  • Change to metric units
  • Change to performance based standards

26
ISO-TCs
  • General situation in International
    Standardization (ISO) - weathering
  • Technical committees (TCs) in ISO preparing and
    revising specifications (examples)
  • TC 35 Paints and varnishes
    Note Totally there are about
  • TC 38 Textiles
    50 ISO standards in the field of
  • TC 45 Rubbers
    weathering.
  • TC 61 Plastics
    Only about 20 are really per-
  • TC 6 Paper and Board
    formance based standards !
  • TC 21 Fire protection equipment
  • TC 22 Road vehicles
  • TC 42 Photography
  • TC 106 Dentistry
  • TC 130 Graphic technology

27
Weathering Standards
International
  • ISO 105-B02 1994 Textiles - Tests for colour
    fastness - Part B02 Colour fastness to
    artificial light Xenon arc fading lamp test
    (under revision)
  • ISO 105-B06 1998 Textiles - Tests for colour
    fast-ness - Colour fastness and aging to
    artificial light at high temperatures Xenon-arc
    fading lamp test
  • Note This is the only International Standard
    especially for testing of "automotive materials
    (interior)". This standard was not prepared by an
    "automotive committee" but by the "textile
    committee".
  • Note This situation clearly reflects the missing
    interest of the automotive industry on uniform
    global standards.

28
Important automotive standards
  • Testing of automotive interior materials
  • DIN 75202 (Revision - status 1996 not yet
    published) - Interior materials in motor
    vehicles Determination of colour fastness and
    aging behavior to artificial light at high
    temperature xenon arc lamp test
  • DIN 75220 1992 - Aging of automotive components
    in solar simulation units
  • JASO M346 1993 - Light exposure test method by
    xenon-arc lamp for automotive interior parts

29
Contents of standards
  • Important contents of "performance based
    standards" for accelerated tests in instruments
  • Main objectives
  • Acceleration compared to outdoor exposure
  • Reproducibility and repeatability of test results
  • Key factors
  • Radiation
  • Temperature
  • Further factors
  • Relative humidity
  • wet/dry cycles
  • light/dark cycles

30
Contents of standards
Radiation
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • Definition of "sun radiation" as a "reference
    spectrum" (normally based on the max. irradiance
    at the earth surface)
  • CIE No.85 table 4 is worldwide accepted as
    reference today

31
Contents of Standards
Radiation
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • Specification of a "radiation function (UV and
    visible range)" based on the reference spectrum
    in wavelength steps with tolerances.
  • Filtered xenon radiation is accepted to produce a
    spectral distribution that is the best simulation
    of sunlight over UV- and visible wavelength
    range.
  • Caution The actual ratio between broad band (300
    nm - 400 nm) and wide band (300 nm - 800 nm)
    radiant exposure on the specimens surface depends
    on the reflectance of the specimens.

32
Contents of Standards
Radiation
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • Definition of an irradiance level for the purpose
    of refe- rence resp. specification of an
    irradiance level (normally based on the max.
    irradiance at the earth surface ).
  • Description of "Measuring devices (broad band and
    narrow band - especially for UV range of
    radiation).
  • Requirements on "calibration" of measuring
    devices.
  • Recommendation resp. specification to conduct
    tests as a function of "radiant exposure rather
    than test time.

33
Contents of Standards
Radiation
  • Measurement of radiation
  • Irradiance E and radiant exposure H
  • Narrow band measurements 340 nm
    420 nm (normally)
  • Broad band measurements 300 nm - 400 nm
  • Wide band measurements 300 nm - 800 nm
  • Only measurements based on the same wavelength
    range can be compared.
  • Based on a given spectral distribution the
    E-values can be calculated by using conversion
    factors.

34
Contents of Standards
Temperature
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • The heat efficacy of sun radiation is
    characterized by sample surface temperature
    measurements.
  • Specification of the maximum sample surface
    temperature (partially several values dependent
    on the purpose of the test) as Black
    standard/panel temperatures (BST/BPT).

35
Contents of Standards
Temperature
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • Recommendation to measure the minimum sample
    surface temperature as White standard/panel
    temperatures (WST).
  • Description of "Black standard/panel as well as
    White standard/panel thermometers.
  • Caution There are differences in temperatures
    indicated by BST (insulated) and BPT
    (uninsulated) at given irradiance and chamber
    temperature!
  • Specification of chamber temperature (CHT).

36
Contents of Standards
Temperature
  • Important contents of performance based standards
  • In most standards only the BST or BPT is
    specified and measurement of WST is recommended
    in some standards the BST or BPT and the CHT is
    specified. The number of these standards is
    growing! Examples
  • AATCC TM 16
  • ISO 105-B06
  • Automotive Standards

37
Contents of Standards
Temperature
  • Sample surface temperature has been experienced
    to be the most critical factor in weathering
    tests! Why?
  • Most secondary aging processes following the
    primary photochemical step depend on sample
    surface temperature.
  • It is not practicable to measure and control
    constant the surface temperature of individual
    specimens in instruments.
  • Therefore in standards the sample surface
    temperature is only characterized by (a)
    "reference temperature(s)" - as already described

38
QUESTIONS????
39
The first textile test
40
Colorfastness to Crocking
  • Crocking - A transfer of colorant from the
    surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another
    surface or to an adjacent area of the same fabric
    principally by rubbing
  • Although a physical process, the primary
    evaluation is for appearance (color)
  • Wet and dry evaluation typically performed

41
Crocking Instruments
  • Applicable to many textile materials including
    dye and printed fabrics, carpeting, and
    automotive interior materials
  • Manual (for shorter tests) and automatic models
    available
  • Linear and rotating motion models
  • Can be adapted to provide simple abrasion tests
    for other materials

42
Colorfastness to Crocking
  • AATCC Test Method 8 - Basic Crockmeter Method
  • AATCC Test Method 116 - Rotary Vertical
  • AATCC Test Method 165 - Carpets
  • ISO 105-D02 - Organic Solvents
  • ISO 105-X12 - Colorfastness to rubbing
  • SAE J861 - Organic trim materials
  • ASTM D5053 - Leather

43
AATCC Test Method 8 (Basic)
  • Recommended specimen size 5cm by 13cm
  • Wet and dry tests are specified
  • Mount white test cloth with the weave parallel to
    the direction of rubbing
  • Run test for 10 complete turns
  • Evaluate the white test cloth using the Gray
    Scale for Staining

44
AATCC Test Method 8 (Basic)
  • For the wet test
  • Establish technique for preparing wet crock cloth
    squares by weighing a conditioned square, then
    thoroughly wet out a white testing square in
    distilled water
  • The wet pick-up should be 65 5
  • Use of a hand wringer is recommended
  • White cloth dried and conditioned prior to
    evaluation

45
AATCC Test Method 116 (Rotary Vertical Method)
  • Method is especially useful for prints where the
    singling out of areas smaller than possible to
    test with Method 8 is required
  • Wet and dry tests specified
  • 20 complete turns specified
  • Evaluation performed with the Gray Scale for
    Staining

46
AATCC Test Method 165 (Carpets)
  • Testing before/after treatments such as
    shampooing, steam or hot water extraction, or
    antistatic/antisoil application has been found
    useful
  • Wet and Dry testing specified
  • Ten complete turns (one per second) specified
  • Evaluate with Gray Scale for Staining

47
AATCC Crockmeter - CM-1
  • Manual unit recommended for shorter tests
  • Has cycle counter
  • Comes standard with 16 mm finger and 9 newton arm
  • For wet and dry tests
  • Cloth, abrasive paper, and spring clip
    supplied

48
CM-5 Crockmeter
  • Automatic unit recommended for long/frequent
    tests
  • Electrically powered
  • Count-up timer with automatic shut down
  • Cloth, abrasive paper, and spring clip supplied

49
CM-6 Crockmeter
  • Manual unit
  • Reciprocating rotary motion to meet AATCC Test
    Method 116
  • Can be used for wet and dry testing

50
Verification checks are extremely important to
avoid incorrect results. Potential problems
include
Tips for Better Tests
  • Crocking finger may need resurfacing
  • Loose clips
  • Incorrect mounting
  • Loops to wire clips positioned downward
  • Metal base warped
  • Use Crocking Calibration Cloth!!

51
Crockmeter Testing
  • Non-textile applications
  • Paint scratch and mar
  • UV curable inks using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)
  • Plastic abrasion
  • Copier toners
  • Image fastness
  • ASTM F1319

52
Abrasion Resistance
  • AATCC Accelerotor
  • Simulates dry, moist or wet abrasion
  • Watertight test chamber
  • Different grade liners
  • Reference AATCC Test Method 93

53
AATCC Accelerotor
  • Fabric rotated within an abrasive lined cylinder
  • Fabric subjected to
  • flexing
  • rubbing
  • shock
  • compression
  • stretching
  • other mechanical forces

54
AATCC Accelerotor
  • Results affected by
  • length of time
  • size and shape of impeller
  • rotational speed
  • abrasive liner

55
AATCC Accelerotor
  • Typical tests run 2-6 minutes
  • Special sizes and shapes of
  • rotors are available

56
Specimen Preparation and Evaluation
  • Method A (Weight Loss)
  • Specimen size determined by weight of fabric
  • Procedure specifies measurement to ? 0.1
  • Method B (Strength Loss)
  • Special specimen preparation requirements
  • Procedure specifies ASTM D5034 -- Test for
    Breaking Force and Elongation of Textile Fabrics
    (Grab Test)
  • Other Evaluation Methods

57
Bean Bag Snag Tester
  • Reference ASTM Test Method D5362 - Standard Test
    Method for Snagging Resistance of Fabrics (Bean
    Bag Test Method)

58
Bean Bag Snag Tester
  • Simulates fabric snagging and picking through a
    tumbling action
  • Provides good end-use simulation

59
Bean Bag Snag Tester
  • Applicable to knits and double knits
  • Snag and picks result from fabric tumbling
    against series of rotating pins

60
Snagging Resistance
  • Snag - A yarn or part of a yarn pulled or plucked
    from the surface
  • Distortion - General term for a visible defect in
    the texture of a fabric
  • Protrusion - Visible group of fibers (or yarn)
    that extends above the fabric surface

61
Snagging Resistance
  • Three types of snags identified
  • snags that have protrusion and no distortion
  • snags that have distortion and no protrusion
  • snags that have both distortion and protrusion
  • Distortion - Tension on a snagged yarn
  • changing the size of loops within a knitted
    fabric
  • causing breakage within a woven fabric

62
Bean Bag Snag Tester
  • Uses bean bags weighing approximately 0.45 kg
  • Automatic shut off after 100 revolutions

63
Snagging Resistance Method
  • Laundering/Drycleaning as required
  • Specimen preparation
  • Make socks from 215mm by 115mm swatches
  • Sew supplied bean bags in these socks
  • Typical test runs 100 revolutions
  • Specimen evaluation

64
Snagging Evaluation
  • Option A (From ASTM D5362)
  • ICI Photographic Snagging Standards
  • Rating system of 5 (no snagging) to 1 (very
    severe snagging)
  • Option B (From ASTM D5362)
  • Points accumulated based on type of snag
  • Rating system based on total number of points
    observed

65
Pilling Resistance
  • Common definitions are
  • Fuzz - Untangled fiber ends that protrude from
    the surface of a yarn or fabric
  • Pills - Bunches or balls of tangled fibers that
    are held to the surface of a fabric by one or
    more fibers

66
Pilling Resistance Standards
  • ASTM D3512 - Standard Test Method for Pilling
    Resistance and Other Related Surface Changes of
    Textile Fabrics Random Tumble Pilling Tester
    Method
  • DIN 53867
  • JIS L1076

67
Random Tumble Pilling Tester
  • Determines resistance to pilling and related
    surface changes
  • Applicable to knitted and woven fabrics
  • Clear, lighted viewing chambers

68
Random Tumble Pilling Tester
  • Pills result from random tumble action against a
    mild abrasive
  • Cotton fiber added to initiate pill formation
  • Air injection system
  • Good correlation to end-use performance

69
Pilling Resistance Test Method
  • Laundering/Drycleaning as required
  • Specimens cut to 105mm squares 45 to the warp
    and fill directions

70
Pilling or Non-Pilling?
71
Pilling or Non-Pilling?
  • Hoechst Trevira Tested the Correlation between 2
    Pilling Methods With Real Wear
  • ? Random Tumble Pilling Test (DIN 53867)
  • ? Martindale Method (DIN 53865/ISO CD
    12945/2)

72
Pilling or Non-Pilling?
  • Benchmark (Real Wear) Setup
  • 21 fabrics of different origins and
    constructions by different weavers
  • 8 Wearers of articles for 6 weeks of different
    sizes/wear patterns
  • Clothing assessed (DIN 53867) and dry-cleaned
    every week (5 days)

73
Pilling or Non-Pilling?
  • Results
  • Martindale showed greatly differing values when
    compared to the wear test
  • RTPT Test showed good correlation to wear test

74
Wool / Linen 65/35 (290 g/linear m)
After Wear
P.O.S.
Days
RTPT
P.O.S.
Minutes
Martindale
Revolutions
75
Trevira 350/Wool 55/45 (250 g/linear m)
After Wear
P.O.S.
Days
RTPT
P.O.S.
Minutes
Martindale
Revolutions
76
Trevira 350/Viscose 67/33 (360 g/linear m)
After Wear
P.O.S.
Days
RTPT
P.O.S.
Minutes
Martindale
Revolutions
77
Tips for Better Tests
When gluing the edges of pilling specimens to
prevent raveling, apply the glue with the edge of
a piece of cardboard. Adhesive can be thinned
with water.
78
Universal Wear Tester
  • Other names include
  • Stoll Quartermaster Wear Tester
  • Flex Abrasion Tester
  • Surface Abrader
  • CS 22C

79
Flexing and Abrasion Resistance
  • Common definitions are
  • Abrasion - The wearing away of any part of a
    material by rubbing against another surface
  • Surface abrasion
  • Edge and fold abrasion
  • Flex abrasion
  • Frosting - A change of fabric color caused by
    localized abrasive wear

80
Universal Wear Tester
  • Used to test
  • Woven, knitted, napped and pile fabrics
  • Non-woven and coated fabrics
  • Plastic films and rubber sheeting
  • Athletic shoe materials

Improved Design
81
Universal Wear Tester
  • Other features
  • Frosting Attachment
  • Continuous Change Abradant Head
  • Edge Fold Abrasion Clamp
  • Electrical Depth Micrometer

82
Flexing and Abrasion Resistance Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 119 (Screen Wire)
  • AATCC Test Method 120 (Emery Method)
  • ASTM D3885 (Flexing and Abrasion Method)
  • ASTM D3886 (Inflated Diaphragm Method)
  • FTMS 191-5300 and 5302

83
Test Method Specifics (AATCC)
  • Method 120
  • 10.8 cm diameter circles
  • 100 cycles suggested
  • Uses inflated rubber diaphragm and abradant
  • Evaluate using Gray Scale
  • Method 119
  • 12.7 cm by 12.7 cm
  • 1200 cycles suggested
  • Uses stainless steel wire abradant
  • Evaluate using Gray Scale

84
Test Method Specifics (ASTM)
  • Method D3886
  • 112 mm diameter circles
  • Test to failure or cycle
  • Uses inflated rubber diaphragm and abradant
  • Evaluate for both appearance and physical changes
  • Method D3885
  • 200 mm by 38 mm
  • 300 cycles suggested
  • Uses yoke positioning device
  • Evaluate for both appearance and physical changes

85
Fabric Streak Analyzer
  • Used to determine cause of streaks or uneven
    dyeing of knitted fabric
  • Used by knitters as a Quality Control Device
  • No official test method
  • Recommended by Cotton Inc.

86
Fabric Streak Analyzer (Principles of Operation)
  • Optical grade polystyrene film placed on base
    plate
  • Fabric placed on polystyrene
  • Neoprene diaphragm placed on fabric
  • Cover secures all layers
  • Compressed air used to apply pressure on the
    fabric and polystyrene

87
Fabric Streak Analyzer (Principles of Operation)
  • Heat applied to the base to soften the
    polystyrene
  • Pressurized sample is forced into the softened
    polystyrene
  • Heat turned off and cold water is circulated
    through the base hardening the polystyrene
  • Fabric separated from the polystyrene

88
Fabric Streak Analyzer (Principles of Evaluation)
  • Image in the polystyrene examined for flaw
  • If a streak or defect is seen in the polystyrene
  • problem belongs to the knitter
  • If a streak or defect is NOT seen in the
    polystyrene
  • problem belongs to the dyer

89
Tips for Better Tests
Fabric sample should extend beyond the gasket to
allow air trapped between the fabric and plastic
sheet to escape.
90
Laboratory Wringer
  • Provides repeatable method for evenly extracting
    excess liquids from fabrics
  • Used as an accessory to many ISO, AATCC, and ASTM
    methods

91
Laboratory Wringer
  • Padder used for wetting materials prior to
    wringing
  • Adjustable weights for the top roller
  • Safety switches stop motor if rollers forced apart
  • Neoprene or Teflon-
  • coated rollers available

92
AATCC Perspiration Tester
93
Colorfastness to Perspiration
  • Specimens of colored textiles are wet out in
    simulated perspiration solution, subjected to a
    fixed mechanical pressure and allowed to dry
    slowly at a slightly elevated temperature.
  • AATCC Test Method 15 -- Perspiration
  • AATCC Test Method 107 -- Water

94
AATCC Perspiration Tester
95
Colorfastness to Perspiration
  • Applicable to dyed, printed or otherwise colored
    textile fibers, yarns and fabrics
  • Also applicable to dyestuffs
  • Alkaline test eliminated after studies done in
    1974
  • Some international and special end-use still
    require alkaline test

96
Scorch Tester
  • Scorch Tester used for
  • Colorfastness to Dry Heat
  • Colorfastness to Pressing
  • Tensile Loss from Chlorine Retention

97
Colorfastness to Heat
  • AATCC Test Method 117 -- (Dry heat)
  • Various temperature ranges depending on
    requirements and the stability of the fibers
  • AATCC Test Method 133 -- (Hot pressing)
  • Dry, damp, and wet pressing methods described
    depending on the end use of the textile
  • Various temperature levels used depending on
    class of textile tested

98
AATCC Test Method 117
  • Specimen size not specified
  • Testing time is 30 seconds
  • Pressure specified is 40 10 g/cm2
  • Evaluate specimens for color change using
  • Gray Scale for Color Change (Dyed fabrics)
  • Gray Scale for Staining (Undyed fabrics)

99
Temperature Levels for AATCC Test Method
117 AATCC Level I 149 2C Level II 163
2C Level III 177 2C Level IV 191 2C Level
V 205 2C Level VI 219 2C
100
Temperature Levels for AATCC Test Method
117 ISO Level I 150 2C Level II 180 2C Level
III 210 2C
101
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Dry Pressing -- Dry specimen pressed with heating
    device
  • Damp Pressing -- Dry specimen covered with wet,
    undyed cotton cloth, then pressed with heating
    device
  • Wet Pressing -- Wet specimen covered with wet,
    undyed cotton cloth, then pressed with heating
    device

102
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Temperatures specified
  • 110 2C
  • 150 2C
  • 200 2C
  • Table I of this test method identifies safe
    ironing temperatures for most fabrics

103
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Specimen size of 12cm by 4cm is recommended
  • Yarn or thread, knitted to a fabric of above
    dimensions, is acceptable
  • Dry, damp, and wet pressing all require 15
    seconds of testing
  • Evaluate using Gray Scale for Color Change

104
Scorch Tester
  • Used for both Test Methods 117 and 133
  • Upper plate hinged for sample removal
  • Adjustable pressure
  • Thermostatic control
  • Pyrometer temperature indicator

105
Fixotest
  • Designed for the European market
  • CE approved
  • Meets ISO 105 P01, ISO 105 X11, AATCC TM 117 133

106
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention
  • AATCC Test Method 92 (Single sample method)
  • AATCC Test Method 114 (Multiple sample method)

107
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention (Single
Sample)
  • Fabrics treated in sodium hypochlorite solution,
    rinsed, dried, and pressed between metal plates
  • Solution should contain 0.25 available chlorine
    at a pH of 9.5
  • Uses stock solution (such as Clorox) diluted with
    distilled water

108
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention (Single
Sample)
  • Recommended sample size is 35.6cm (warp
    direction) by 20.3cm (fill direction)
  • Chlorination step involves wetting, bath in
    solution, and rinsing a total of six times
  • Samples are to be air dried
  • Five strips cut from specimen (for tensile test)

109
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention (Multiple
Sample)
  • Specimens are prepared using an automatic washing
    machine and tumble dryer
  • Washing, chlorination, and drying settings are
    specified in the Test Method
  • Specimen and tensile strip size are identical to
    the Single Sample Method

110
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention (Single
Sample)
  • Recommended sample size is 35.6cm (warp
    direction) by 20.3cm (fill direction)
  • Chlorination step involves wetting, bath in
    solution, and rinsing a total of six times
  • Samples are to be air dried
  • Five strips cut from specimen (for tensile test)

111
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention (Multiple
Sample)
  • Specimens are prepared using an automatic washing
    machine and tumble dryer
  • Washing, chlorination, and drying settings are
    specified in the Test Method
  • Specimen and tensile strip size are identical to
    the Single Sample Method

112
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention
  • Strips scorched for 30 seconds as shown below

113
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention
  • Tensile testing should be performed on
    unchlorinated, unscorched, and scorched specimens
  • Calculate tensile strength and report as a
    percentage loss

114
Water Repellency Tumble Jar Dynamic Absorption
Test
  • Absorbency - the propensity of a material to take
    in and retain a liquid, usually water, in the
    pores and interstices of the material
  • Water Repellency - The characteristic of a fiber,
    yarn or fabric to resist wetting

115
Dynamic Absorption Tester
  • Set of specimens placed into tumble jar with
    distilled water
  • 20 minute cycle
  • Specimens dried with Lab Wringer
  • Weighed to nearest 0.1g

116
Water Repellency Tumble Jar Dynamic Absorption
Test
  • Specimens cut into five 20.3cm x 20.3cm squares
  • Squares cut on 45 bias
  • Liquid latex or rubber cement spread on edges to
    prevent yarns from ravelling

117
Water Repellency Tumble Jar Dynamic Absorption
Test
  • AATCC Test Method 70
  • Test is suited for fabrics to which a finish
    (designed for water repellency) has been applied
  • Subjects fabrics to end use conditions
  • Not intended to measure rain penetration
  • Test measures water into (not through) the fabric

118
QUESTIONS????
119
Other Laboratory Dyeing - Laundering Equipment
  • Suga - Japanese manufacturer
  • AHIBA - Texomat G VI and Polymat
  • Mathis - Labomat
  • James H. Heal - Gyrowash
  • Shirley Development
  • Roaches
  • Numerous Pacific Rim Companies

120
New Laundering Technology
  • Quickwash Plus?
  • Laundering Test for Shrinkage and Colorfastness
  • Single wash/rinse/dry cycle in 15 minutes
  • Correlates within 1 of AATCC Method 135
  • Correlates well with ISO 6330
  • Saves on labor, utilities, materials and TIME

Approved by Marks Spencer plc
AATCC Test Method 187-2000
Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
121
New Test Methods
  • AATCC TM 187-2000 Dimensional Stability of
    Fabrics Accelerated

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
122
Correlation Quickwash v. 5 cycles AATCC TM 135
lengthwise shrinkage
widthwise shrinkage
Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
123
Quickwash Accessories
  • QuickView
  • Optical measurement for fabric shrinkage testing
  • Uses digital camera with microprocessor analysis
  • No grid placement or alignment required

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
124
Quickwash Accessories
  • QuickCut
  • A novel laser guided swatch cutter
  • Easily cuts several fabric layers in one stroke
  • Straight and pinking cutting blades available

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
125
Quickwash Accessories
  • QuickTemp
  • Electronic temperature controller for domestic
    laundry machines used in a laboratory
  • Control wash and rinse water temperature within
    1?C

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
126
Specimen Preparation Accessories
  • QuickPunch
  • Tabletop device for stamping out multiple fabric
    specimens
  • Cuts precise and accurate specimens quickly and
    safely
  • Prepares specimens for variety of textile tests

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
127
Specimen Preparation Accessories
  • QuickCircle
  • Cut standard 100 cm2 round specimens easily
  • Precise specimens cut by pressing a button
  • Blade spins with equal pressure incision

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
128
Specimen Preparation Accessories
  • QuickCalc
  • Determines fabric yield
  • Converts standard 100 cm2 round specimen weight
    to g/m2 or oz/yd2
  • Features ratio analysis for blended materials

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
129
Specimen Preparation Accessories
  • QuickDry
  • Dries specimens in 7 to 10 minutes
  • Tumbling action and warm air circulation
    eliminates distortion
  • Smooth specimens for easy measuring

Victorias Secret Stores March 2, 2001
130
Laundering Equipment Applications
  • Washfastness Tests
  • Dry Cleaning Tests
  • Efficiency of washing detergents
  • Laboratory dyeing

131
Laundering Tests
  • Common definitions
  • Washfastness - the property of a material,
    usually an assigned number, depicting a ranked
    change in its color characteristics as a result
    of laundering, drycleaning, or other means of
    soil removal

132
Common Laundering Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 61 - Accelerated test for Home
    and Commercial Laundering
  • AATCC Test Method 86 - Drycleaning of Applied
    Designs and Finishes
  • AATCC Test Method 132 - Drycleaning
  • AATCC Test Method 151 - Resistance to Soil
    Redeposition

133
Common Laundering Test Methods
  • ISO 105 C01 through C05 - Colorfastness to
    washing tests which between them cover mild to
    severe washing procedures
  • ISO 105 C06 - Colorfastness to domestic and
    commercial laundry
  • ISO 105 D01 - Colorfastness to Drycleaning

134
AATCC Test Method 61
  • Accelerated test to evaluate colorfastness to
    laundering
  • One 45-minute test closely approximates five
    hand, home or commercial washings
  • Staining effects not as predictable
  • Method first developed in 1950

135
AATCC Test Method 61
  • Abrasive action for acceleration caused by
  • Frictional effects of fabric against the
    container,
  • Low solution ratio
  • Impact of steel balls on the fabric
  • Several test methods specified for different
    applications

136
AATCC Test Method 61
  • Specimen size 5cm by 10cm or 5cm by 15cm
    depending on test cycle
  • Use Multifiber Test Fabric for staining
    determination
  • Test method describes specific preparation
    procedures for knitted fabrics, piles, and yarns

137
AATCC Test Method 61
  • Test No. 1A -- Hand laundering, Low Temp.
  • Test No. 2A -- Machine laundering, Low Temp.
  • Test No. 3A -- Heavy duty cycles, High Temp.
  • Test No. 4A -- Chlorine test, Low Solution
  • Test No. 5A -- Chlorine test, High Solution

138
AATCC Test Method 61
139
AATCC Launder-Ometer?
  • Atlas Launder-Ometer? accepted formally by AATCC
  • Optimum agitation method
  • Precise temperature control
  • Programmable cycle testing

AATCC Launder-Ometer
140
AATCC Launder-Ometer
  • Used for washfastness testing up to 93 C
  • Water bath stainless steel construction
  • Manually set thermostat
  • 20 position stainless steel rotor

20 Position Rotor
141
AATCC Launder-Ometer
  • Programmable thermostat
  • Multiple step heating and cooling programs
  • Storage for 99 programs
  • Digital temperature display
  • Optional pre-heater
  • Optional rotor for special 2400 mL container size

PS-5 Preheater Module
142
Atlas LP2 Launder-Ometer
  • High temperature dyeing up to 150 C
  • Washfastness tester
  • Glycerin or water bath
  • Microprocessor control
  • Multiple container sizes

143
Other Laboratory Dyeing - Laundering Equipment
  • Linitest Laboratory Dyeing and Fastness System
  • Referenced in ISO Colorfastness to Laundering
    Methods and corresponding national tests
  • ISO 105 E12 - Fastness to milling (severe tests)
  • Compact table top system
  • Manufactured in Germany

144
Washfastness Testing
  • Industries
  • Textiles
  • Dye laboratories
  • Dye-stuff manufacturers
  • Producers of detergents

145
QUESTIONS????
146
Lightfastness Testing of Textiles
147
Colorfastness to Light -
148
Textile Testing Elements
  • Lightfastness
  • The property of a material, usually an assigned
    number, depicting a ranked change in its color
    characteristics as a result of exposure of the
    material to sunlight or an artificial light
    source.
  • Loss of color (Fading)
  • Fiber degradation

149
Colorfastness to Light -Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 16
  • Used by Majority of Textile Manufacturers in USA
  • ISO 105 B02
  • Used by Majority of Textile Manufacturers in
    Europe
  • Approximately 60 use Air Cooled / 40 use
    Water Cooled
  • SAE J1885
  • A severe test used by US automobile manufacturers

150
AATCC Test Method 16
  • Option A, D - Carbon-Arc
  • Option C - Daylight
  • Option E, F - Water-Cooled Xenon-Arc
  • Option H, I, J - Air-Cooled Xenon-Arc
  • Options for each device represent continuous or
    alternating light/dark cycles

151
Test Method 16 - Option C (Daylight)
  • Test specimens exposed behind glass
  • 2 mm single strength sheet glass
  • Specimens should be at least 75 mm below glass
    surface
  • Different exposure types will give different
    exposure temperature conditions
  • Open backed - Lower temperatures
  • (Solid) backed - Higher temperatures

152
Under Glass Exposure Rack
153
Static Indirect
Glass Solar Energy Transmittance
80
60
Transmittance
40
20
0
450
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
Wavelength (nm)
LOF EZ-Kool
154
Laboratory Accelerated Tests
  • Desirable Characteristics
  • Exact match to end-use conditions
  • Does not alter degradation mechanisms i.e.
    correlates with end-use
  • Repeatable and reproducible
  • Independent control over stress factors
  • Provides acceleration over real time

155
Lightfastness to AATCC 16
  • Principles
  • Specimens (and AATCC Blue Wool Standards)are
    exposed under specified conditions.
  • The duration of the exposure is usually determind
    by a specified amont of light exposure in AATCC
    Fading Units (AFU)
  • The Lightfastness is evaluated visually by
    comparison of the contrasts between exposed and
    unexposed protions of the specimens to the steps
    of the AATCC Gray Scale for Color Change or
    instrumental by Color measurement.
  • Lightfastness classification by evaluation versus
    the simultaneously exposed AATCC Blue Wool
    Standards

156
AATCC Fading Units
  • One AATCC Fading Unit (AFU) is 1/20 of the
    exposure required to produce a color change equal
    to Step 4 of the Gray Scale for Color Change on
    an L4 Blue Wool
  • 20 AFUs determined to be 85 kJ/m2 _at_ 420 nm
    exposure based on interlaboratory test study
  • L4 used for instrument calibration
  • Fading of L4 equal to step 4 Gray Scale or Delta
    E 1,7 - 0,3 in 20 - 2 hours

157
Test Method 16 - Options E, F (Water-Cooled Xenon
Arc)
  • Option E
  • 63C BPT
  • 43C Dry Bulb
  • Continuous Light
  • 30 R.H.
  • Soda Lime Outer Filter
  • Borosilicate Inner Filter
  • 1.10 W/m2 _at_ 420 nm
  • Option F
  • 63C BPT
  • 43C Dry Bulb
  • 3.8 Hrs Light/1.0 Hrs Dark
  • 35 R.H./90 R.H.
  • Soda Lime Outer Filter
  • Borosilicate Inner Filter
  • 1.10 W/m2 _at_ 420 nm

158
Filtered Xenon Arc Vs. Sunlight
Relative Irradiance (W/m2 per nm)
Wavelength in nanometers
159
Test Method 16 - Option H (Air-Cooled Xenon Arc)
  • Option H
  • 60C BST
  • 32C Dry Bulb
  • Continuous Light
  • 30 Relative Humidity
  • Seven special Borosilicate IR Absorbing Filters
  • 1.25 W/m2 _at_ 420 nm

160
Test Method 16 - Options I, J (Air-Cooled Xenon
Arc)
  • Option I
  • 70C BST
  • 43C Dry Bulb
  • Continuous Light
  • 30 R.H.
  • Soda Lime Outer Filter
  • Quartz Inner Filter
  • 1.10 W/m2 _at_ 420 nm
  • Option J
  • 70C BST
  • 43C Dry Bulb
  • 3.8 Hrs Light/1.0 Hrs Dark
  • 35 R.H./90 R.H.
  • Soda Lime Outer Filter
  • Quartz Inner Filter
  • 1.10 W/m2 _at_ 420 nm

161
Air-cooled Xenon
  • Meets requirements of ISO 105 test methods
  • Option for high irradiance (220 W/m2 - 300 to 400
    nm)
  • Same control features as other high-end xenon arc
    devices
  • Meets requirements of Options H, I, and J

Xenotest Alpha
162
Lightfastness to ISO 105
163
Weatherfastness to ISO 105
164
ISO Blue Wool Standards
165
Procedure and Evaluation to ISO 105
  • Procedure 1 Inspection of Specimen
  • Expose one specimen together with one set of Blue
    Wool Standards until a contrast equal to Grey
    Scale step 4 5 (first break) is observed
    between exposed and unexposed portions of the
    specimen
  • Note the number of the Blue Wool Standard showing
    the same contrast
  • Continue exposure until the contrast is equal to
    Grey Scale step 4
  • Change the cover mask
  • Continue exposure until the contrast is equal to
    Grey Scale step 3
  • .

166
Procedure and Evaluation to ISO 105
  • Procedure 2 Inspection of Blue Wool Standards
  • Expose several specimens together with one set of
    Blue Wool Standards until a contrast equal to
    Grey Scale step 4 5 (first break) is
    observed between exposed and unexposed portions
    of the Blue Wool Standard 3
  • Inspect specimens and note changes compared to
    Standards 1 3 (prelimanary assessment)
  • Continue exposure until the contrast is equal to
    Grey Scale step 4 5 on Blue Wool Standard 4
  • Change the cover mask
  • Continue exposure until the contrast is equal to
    Grey Scale step 4 5 on Blue Wool Standard 6
  • Change the cover mask
  • Continue exposure until the contrast is equal to
    Grey Scale step 4 on Blue Wool Standard 7

167
Procedure and Evaluation to ISO 105
  • Procedure 3 checking conformity with a
    performance specification
  • Expose the specimens with only 2 Blue Wool
    Standards - the Standard of the requested
    lightfastness, e.g. 5 -
    the standard below, e g. 4
  • Expose until contrasts to Grey Scale Steps 4 and
    3 (by changing cover masks) have been obtained on
    the standard of the requested lightfastness

168
Standard Requirements to ISO 105 B02 - 1994
169
Instrument Settings
170
Tips for Better Tests
171
The answer should be on your desk!
172
Follow the directions exactly
--Calibration --Instrument settings --Lamp
Filters
173
Ask Questions
Resources---- Atlas Representative AATCC,
ASTM, etc technical staff Your
customer Your supplier
174
Other things to examine
  • Specimen Thickness
  • Specimen Mounting
  • The irradiance received on the surfaces of an
    exposed specimen is inversely proportional to the
    square of the distance from the source.

175
Irradiance Considerations
93,000,000 miles
Specimens exposed at any point (or elevation) on
the earths surface will not be affected by
distance.
176
Irradiance Considerations
  • Different size instruments are calibrated to
    compensate for differences in rack diameter
  • Features to improve uniformity
  • Rotating rack around the light source
  • Three-tier inclined rack design
  • Proper lamp calibration

177
Irradiance Considerations
10 in.
9 in.
178
Irradiance Considerations
Applying the inverse square law
Conclusion A specimen that extends one inch
beyond the specimen holder will receive 1.23
times the irradiance reported by the fading
device.
179
Irradiance Considerations
18.5 in.
17.5 in.
180
Irradiance Considerations
Applying the inverse square law
Conclusion A specimen that extends one inch
beyond the specimen holder will receive 1.12
times the irradiance reported by the fading
device.
181
Irradiance - Without Control
182
Irradiance With Control
Irradiance
Time or Radiant Exposure (kJ/m2)
183
Colorfastness to Light - Test Methods
  • Other Lightfastness Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 111 - Weather Resistance
  • 111A, C - Carbon Arc (with/without wetting)
  • 111B - Natural Light and Weather (Direct
    Exposure)
  • 111D - Natural Light and Weather (Behind Glass)
  • AATCC Test Method 177 - Elevated Temp. and
    Humidity
  • DIN 75202
  • DIN 54004

184
Direct Weathering
45 South Exposure Rack
185
Standard Reference Materials AATCC Blue Wool
  • AATCC Blue Wool Lightfastness Standard
  • One of a group of dyed wool fabrics distributed
    by AATCC for use in determining the amount of
    light exposure of specimens during lightfastness
    testing
  • Various proportions of wool blends with a very
    unstable dyestuff
  • L2 through L9 - Increasing degree of light
    stability

186
AATCC Blue Wool
  • Differs from the ISO Blue Wool standards
  • CANNOT be used interchangeably
  • Each higher numbered standard is twice as
    colorfast as the proceeding number
  • More uniform and reproducible results when the
    Blue Wool is backed with white cardboard

187
AATCC Blue Wool
  • Humidity and temperature sensitive
  • Can be used as troubleshooting tool for
    lightfastness equipment for many factors
  • Color change in AATCC Blue Wool performed the
    same as with test textile specimens

188
AATCC Blue Wool
  • Designed for use as a dosimeter for determining
    exposure
  • This use is becoming less common with the advent
    of accurate radiometers
  • L2 and L4 are used almost exclusively today

189
Radiometric Quantities (Selected)
  • Radiant Energy Energy passed on as
    electromagnetic
  • radiation, e.g. heat, radio, light
  • Irradiance Radiant flux incident per unit area
    of surface
  • Units W/m2
  • Spectral Irradiance Irradiance measured as a
    function of
  • wavelength
  • Units W/m2 . nm
  • W Watts s Seconds m Meter
  • nm Nanometer J Joule

190
Radiometric Quantities
  • Radiant Exposure Time integral of irradiance
  • (Irradiation)
  • J/m2 W/m2 . s
  • kJ/m2 1000 J/m2
  • ... To convert a value given in J/m2 to kJ/m2 ,
    you must divide by 1000

1
kJ/m2 W/m2 . s
1000
191

Radiometric Quantities
  • When exposure time is expressed in hours (h) one
    must convert to seconds.

Thus the familiar equation
192
Example
  • Use of equation
  • kJ/m2 W/m2 x 3.6 x (h)
  • To determine duration of a test for specific
    radiant exposure
  • 500 kJ/m2 nm _at_ 420nm
  • When operating at an irradiance level of 1.10
    W/m2 nm
  • 500 kJ/m2 1.10 W/m2 x 3.6 x (h)

193
AATCC Fading Units
  • One AATCC Fading Unit (AFU) is 1/20 of the
    exposure required to produce a color change equal
    to Step 4 of the Gray Scale for Color Change on
    an L4 Blue Wool
  • 20 AFUs determined to be 85 kJ/m2 _at_ 420 nm
    exposure based on interlaboratory test study

194
Calculation of Radiant Exposure
  • Visual evaluation of color change of Blue Wool
    defined to determine (or verify) radiant
    exposures
  • Many companies use spectrophotometer to measure
    change
  • Spectrophotometers measure color differently than
    the human eye
  • Tables that define Step 4 of Grey Scale color
    change confusing
  • Because of confusion, reproducibility may suffer

195
QUESTIONS????
196
Tips for Better Tests
197
Evaluation
  • We dont know if the test is right if the answer
    isnt understood

198
AATCC Gray Scale
Designed for
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