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Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action


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Title: Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science: Concepts in Action

Pearson Prentice Hall Physical Science Concepts
in Action
  • Chapter 25
  • The Solar System

25.1 Exploring the Solar System
  • Objectives
  • 1. Compare and contrast the geocentric and
    heliocentric models of the solar system
  • 2. Describe the orbits of the planets around the
    sun and explain how gravity and inertia keep the
    planets in orbit
  • 3. Name the components of the solar system
  • 4. Identify different technologies used for
    exploring the solar system

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric
  • The geocentric model is from ancient Greece
  • In the geocentric model, Earth is stationary
    while objects in the sky move around it
  • In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other
    planets revolve around the sun
  • Imagine the path of Earths orbit traced on a
  • Def the ecliptic plane is the path of Earths

Gravity plus Inertia Components of the Solar
  • Gravity and inertia combine with each other to
    keep the planets in orbit
  • Without gravity, planetary inertia would cause
    them to fly off in space
  • The components of the solar system are the sun,
    the planets, their moons, and a variety of
    smaller objects that mostly revolve in the same
    plane around the sun

Exploring the Solar System
  • Modern technology including telescopes, piloted
    spacecraft, space probes has allowed scientists
    to explore the solar system
  • Def a space probe in an unpiloted vehicle that
    carries scientific instruments into space and
    transmits information back to Earth
  • NASA launched 2 vehicles, Spirit Opportunity to
    land on Mars in 2004 for a 3 month mission
  • They are still sending information back to Earth
  • The scientist who monitors them is at UNR

25.2 The Earth-Moon System
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain why the moon lacks atmosphere the
    effect this has on the range of temperature on
    the moon
  • 2. Describe the features of moons surface
  • 3. State a theory about the formation of the moon
  • 4. Explain the phases of the moon, tides
    eclipses interpret diagrams of these events

No Atmosphere/Surface Features
  • Moons gravity is too weak to hold onto gas
  • The lack of atmosphere allows moons surface
    temperature to vary tremendously
  • The major surface features are maria, highlands
    and craters
  • Def maria are low, flat plains formed by ancient
    lunar lava flows

Features plus Formation
  • Def highlands are rough mountainous regions that
    cover most of moons surface
  • Lunar highlands are light-colored areas that
    surround the maria
  • Def craters are round depressions caused by the
    impact of high speed meteoroids
  • Def meteoroids are chunks of rock that move
    through the solar system
  • Scientists hypothesize that the moon was formed
    after an enormous collision in Earths history
  • The collision was probably caused by rocky debris
    which was plentiful hit many planets about 4.6
    billion years ago when Earth formed

Phases of the Moon Eclipses
  • Def the different shapes of the moon visible
    from Earth are called phases
  • The moons phases are caused by changes in the
    relative positions of the moon, sun Earth as
    the moon revolves around the Earth
  • Def an eclipse occurs when the shadow of one
    body in space falls on another
  • Def a solar eclipse occurs when the moon casts a
    shadow on a portion of Earths surface
  • Def a lunar eclipse occurs when Earth casts a
    shadow on the moon

8 Phases of the moon
New Moon - The Moon's unilluminated side is facing the Earth. The Moon is not visible (except during a solar eclipse).
Waxing Crescent - The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
First Quarter - One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
Waxing Gibbous - The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
Full Moon - The Moon's illuminated side is facing the Earth. The Moon appears to be completely illuminated by direct sunlight.
Waning Gibbous - The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
Last Quarter - One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
Waning Crescent - The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
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Lunar Eclipse
  • Def tides are the regular rise and fall of ocean
  • Tide are caused mainly by differences in the
    moons gravitational pull on Earth
  • The suns gravity affects tides about half as
    much as the moon
  • Def spring tide is the combined forces of the
    gravity of the sun and the moon
  • Def neap tide is the least tide possible is
    due to first or third quarter moon being at right
    angles to the Earth (compared to suns position)

  • The solar system is the sun and the planets that
    orbit around it
  • The four planets closest to the sun are the
    terrestrial planets
  • Def terrestrial planets are planets similar in
    structure to Earth
  • The four inner planets are all small, dense and
  • All have a crust, mantle and iron core
  • Five planets have been known for centuries
    Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter Saturn

25.3 The Inner Solar System
  • Objectives
  • 1. Compare the terrestrial planets and describe
    characteristics of each
  • 2. Define asteroids and state alternative
    hypotheses about how they were formed

Compare and Describe
  • Mercury is the smallest and closest to the sun
  • Venus is called the evening star or morning star
  • Venuss atmosphere has the greenhouse gas effect
    due to large amounts of CO2 which traps heat and
    raise temperature
  • The CO2 also causes it to rain sulfuric acid when
    it combines with the sulfur in the atmosphere
  • Earths atmosphere is suitable for water to exist
    as a liquid

  • Mars is a major source of study right now,
    including experimentation with rovers from NASA
    named Spirit and Opportunity
  • They landed on Mars in 2004
  • The rovers were designed to send information for
    3 months, but functioned for years yielding
    information about Martian water and soil
  • Spirit was mobile on the Red Planet for over five
    years and then functioned as a stationary science
    platform for another year before getting killed
    off by a Martian winter it couldnt avoid

  • As of January 2012, Opportunity still works
    will spend the Martian winter in a sunny
    spot until the engineers wake it up in Martian
  • In August 2012, NASA landed a much larger, very
    expensive rover called Curiosity
  • Its mission is to see if Mars ever had the right
    conditions to support life
  • Mars shows evidence of having had a lot of water
    in its past
  • other missions to Mars, including manned missions
    are being considered
  • Mars is sometimes called the red planet

  • Def asteroids are small rocky bodies orbiting
    the sun
  • The region in the solar system where they are
    found is called the asteroid belt
  • The asteroid belt is between Mars and Jupiter
  • Scientists hypothesize that asteroids are
    remnants of the early solar system that never
    came together to form a planet

The Inner Solar System
25.4 The Outer Solar System
  • Objectives
  • 1. Compare the gas giants and describe
    characteristics of each
  • 2. Distinguish between planets and dwarf planets
  • 3. Distinguish between comets and meteoroids and
    describe their characteristics
  • 4. Locate and describe the Kuiper belt and Oort

Gas Giants
  • The four outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus
    and Neptune) are gas giants
  • Def gas giants are planets composed mainly of
    hydrogen and helium
  • The four gas giants are thought to have small,
    dense cores, and dense atmospheres composed
    mostly of hydrogen and helium
  • Def a ring is a disk make many small particles
    of rock and ice in orbit around a planet
  • All of the gas giants have rings

  • Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in
    our solar system
  • Jupiter has at least 63 moons
  • Saturns rings are the largest and most visible
    from Earth
  • Saturn has at least 56 moons, but is known for
    its moon named Titan
  • Titan is larger than Mercury

  • Uranus is believed to have a mantle of liquid
    water and dissolved ammonia
  • The axis of Uranuss rotation is tilted more than
  • Neptunes bluish color comes from the methane in
    its atmosphere
  • Its largest moon is called Triton and it has a
    thin atmosphere and an icy surface

Dwarf Planets
  • Def a dwarf planet, like a planet, is spherical
    and orbits the sun directly, but a dwarf has not
    cleared the neighborhood (more on that in a
  • The definition of planet is that it is a
    celestial body in orbit around the sun, has
    self-gravity, is not a satellite and clears the
    neighborhood around its orbit
  • A satellite is any object orbiting a planet,
    whether natural or man-made

  • Pluto does not clear the neighborhood because
    it is part of a sea of objects that occupy the
    same region of space
  • Pluto and its moon Charon have an elliptical
    orbit that sometimes crosses into Jupiters
    orbit, thus lending support to those who want to
    reclassify it
  • Planets must have sufficient force to get other
    objects out of their way
  • Under the new definition as many a 12 planets
    have been proposed
  • Officially at this time there are 8 planets in
    our solar system

  • The astronomers in 2006 came up with the
    following proposals definitions
  • 1. Planets The eight worlds starting with
    Mercury and moving out to Venus, Earth, Mars,
    Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
  • 2. Dwarf planets Pluto and any other round
    object that "has not cleared the neighborhood
    around its orbit, and is not a satellite."
  • 3. Small solar system bodies All other objects
    orbiting the sun
  • The Pluto issue will continue to play out for
    some time is not yet settled

Comets, Meteoroids, Kuiper Oort
  • Def comets are dusty pieces of ice and rock that
    partially vaporize when they pass near the sun
  • Def meteoroids are pieces of rock, usually less
    than a few hundred meters in size, that travel
    through the solar system
  • At the edge of the solar system beyond Neptune
    are Kuiper and beyond Kuiper is Oort

  • Most of the objects in the Kuiper belt lie in a
    doughnut shaped region close to the ecliptic
  • Def the ecliptic plane is the plane in space
    containing Earths orbit (the path of Earths
  • Pluto is in the Kuiper belt
  • Beyond the Kuiper belt is a great reservoir of
    comets called the Oort cloud
  • Occasionally objects from the Oort cloud enter
    the inner solar system as comets

25.5 The Origin of the Solar System
  • Objectives
  • 1. State the nebular theory
  • 2. Relate the nebular theory to the orbits,
    composition and size of the planets

The Nebular Theory
  • Scientists believe the solar system was formed by
    the nebular model
  • The nebular theory state that the solar system
    formed from a rotating cloud of dust and gas
  • Def a protoplanetary disk is a large disk shaped
    cloud of dust and gas resembling a giant fried
    egg rotating in space
  • Most of the mass is concentrated in the center

  • The planets eventually formed from the outer
    parts of the disk
  • The central mass eventually became the sun
  • Def planetesimals were asteroid-like bodies that
    eventually combined to form planets
  • Def accretion is the process of adding mass by
    colliding with other planetesimals
  • The cloud may have been flat as it collapsed,
    laying in one plane creating the orbits
  • Accretion occurs when small particles collect and
    stick together to form large masses

  • planetesimals attracted more and more matter
    leading to moon sized protoplanets with their own
  • The terrestrial planets ended up close to the sun
    and are small and rocky
  • This is because the inner solar system was too
    hot during formation for ice-forming compounds to
  • The gas giants are large and have low densities
    because the outer solar system was cool enough
    for ice-forming compounds to condense