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Civil War The Civil War- April 12, 1861-April 9, 1865 THE BEGINNING April 10, 1861, Confederacy orders surrender of Fort Sumter (S.C.) April 12, Confederate troops ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Civil%20War

  • Civil War

The Civil War- April 12, 1861-April 9, 1865
  • April 10, 1861, Confederacy orders surrender of
    Fort Sumter (S.C.)
  • April 12, Confederate troops fire on Fort Sumter.

Preparations for War
  • Both, North and South began training troops and
    gathering supplies.
  • Number of seceded states rose to 11 by start of
    war. VA, NC, TN, AK followed the original 7
  • MO, KY, MD, and DE all remained in Union, but
    allowed slavery (border states)

  • Lincoln called for volunteers to only serve for
    90 days. War lasted 1, 458 days. After 1st year
    recruits asked to enlist for 3 yrs.
  • By summer 1861, confederacy had 112,000 soldiers
    and union had 187,000.
  • By end confederacy had 850,000 and union 2.1
  • Union 200,000 black soldiers, and 10,000

Northern Advantages
  • Superior RR system
  • 75 nations wealth
  • Control of sea
  • Industrial capacity
  • Access to overseas supplies and markets
  • 2 times as many people

  • Larger army
  • More war ships
  • Better banking system (raise money)
  • Abraham Lincoln (great and wise leader)

Southern Advantages
  • Large territory
  • Well trained officers
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Fighting for independence
  • Didnt need victory, only a draw
  • Defensive Strategy

  • Public opinion in the north was divided on war.
  • Many northerners believed south would win based
    on American Revolution
  • Strong support of white population to war.

Conditions in North
  • 22 million people
  • Strong, well trained army
  • Manufactured weapons
  • RR built to carry heavy loads of manufactured
  • Industrial society
  • 23 northern and western states
  • Smooth functioning governments
  • Able to get into war quickly

Conditions in South
  • 9 million people
  • No strong navy or trained army
  • Didnt manufacture guns or ammunition.
  • RR built to carry light loads of farm products.

  • Nicknamed Johnny Reb and Billy Yank
  • Usually under 21
  • 25,000 were 16 yrs. Old or younger
  • Most came from lower economic group (not slave
  • Most were not well trained in military.

Soldiers Clothing
  • The Union usually wore Blue uniforms and the
    Confederacy wore Gray.
  • Many did not have official uniforms and many were
    hand made.
  • Some soldiers did not receive uniforms and
    therefore only wore everyday clothing.

  • Each branch had different colored trim on
    uniforms. Ex Artillery had red trim,
    Infantry-blue, cavalry-yellow.
  • Soldiers carried knapsacks to hold any paper,
    pictures, books, and toilet articles. Some
    carried these items wrapped in blankets.
  • Also carried a musket and a leather box for

Soldier's Food
Union soldiers usually ate better than southern
soldiers because they were able to get supplies
easier than the south (blockades) Each side
received daily rations, or portions of food. Ex
20 ounces of beef, 2.56 ounces of dried beans,
1.6 ounces of green coffee, 2.4 ounces of sugar,
and .64 ounces of salt. Many had to depend on
food from the woods or taken from farms.
Some of the weapons included Bowie Knife,
bayonet, field cannon, grenades, land mines,
musket, navel mines, navel swivel cannon, pistol,
revolving rifle, revolver, rockets, Gatling gun.
Civil War
Hot Air Balloons in the Military
Ironclad Ships
Gatling Gun
  • Other firsts
  • Railroad artillery
  • Submarine
  • snorkel breathing device
  • Periscope for trench warfare
  • Land-Mines
  • Field Trenches

  • Flame Throwers
  • Wire entanglements
  • Military telegraph
  • Navel torpedoes
  • Antiaircraft fire
  • Repeating rifles
  • Telescopic sights for rifles
  • Long-range rifles

  • Organized medical and nursing corps
  • Hospital ships
  • Army ambulance corps
  • Legal voting for servicemen
  • U.S. secret service
  • Income tax
  • Tobacco tax
  • Cigarette tax

  • The Medal of Honor
  • Corps of press correspondents in battle areas
  • Photography of battle
  • Negro U.S. Army Officer (Major M.R. Delany)
  • American President assassinated
  • Department of Justice (Confederate)

Union Strategies
Blockade Strategy Obstruct all Confederate
ports and seize the Mississippi river. Was put
into place to stop south from selling cotton and
from getting supplies. Seizing Mississippi was
to split the Confederacy in half leaving Texas,
Arkansas, and Louisiana stranded. This was the
Anaconda Plan.
Capture of Richmond This plan failed because
Robert E. Lee was able to hold off Union
armies. Destroy Cities This plan was very
successful. The plan was to burn and destroy
every city and town so that civilians would stop
supporting the war. Ex Shermans march through
Confederate Strategies
Wear down the North South thought that many
casualties would wear the north down. Destroy the
Blockades Used ironclads and subs to sink the
Unions wooden ships. Also used raiders (fast
ships) to get past blockades.
King Cotton Diplomacy Stop selling cotton to
England and France and eventually they would come
and help south win to keep receiving cotton. It
did not work.
Emancipation Proclamation
On Sept. 22, 1862 Lincoln issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. This stated that unless the south
surrendered by January 1, 1863, all slaves in
states and districts in rebellion against the
United States on Jan. 1, 1863 will be thenceforth
free. If south had of surrendered, slavery would
not have ended at this point.
Bull Run Also called the battle of Manassas
because it was located at Manassas, Virginia.
This was the 1st major battle of the Civil War.
Both sides were not well trained. Stonewall
Jackson (Confederacy) became famous during this
battle. The Confederacy won, and the Union
realized that this would not be a quick war.
Many civilians came to watch the event
Confederacy did not continue on to capture
Washington D.C.
Antietam The bloodiest one-day battle. Fought
near Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD. About
6,000 died and 17,000 wounded. Neither army was
defeated. Robert E. Lees orders were found by a
Union soldier, but George McClellan the Union
General was still not able to defeat the south,
so Lincoln fired him and replaced him with
General Ambrose Burnside.
  • Gettysburg Occurred in Gettysburg,
    Pennsylvania. Robert E. Lee attempted to break
    through and head to Washington D.C.
  • 3 things affected the battle 1. neither side
    had whole army when battle began.
  • General J.E.B. Stuart and his cavalry had gone in
    another direction.

  • James Longstreet failed to join Lee .
  • Estimated that 23,000 Union and 28,000
    Confederates died. This was a 3 day battle.

Georgia Battles
Fort Pulaski On Tybee Island off the coast of
Savannah. First area to see action in GA. On
Jan. 3, 1861 Confederate Troops captured it. In
April 1862, Union took it back, after the
commander refused to give it up. A day and a
half battle took place.
Chickamauga Located 7 miles south of
Chattanooga TN. Braxton Bragg was the famous
commander for the south. He did not allow the
North to advance into GA. This was one of the
bloodiest battles of the war. Bragg mistakenly
did not follow the Union army and push them
further from GA. This allowed Sherman to later
advance into GA
Sherman in Georgia!
  • Shermans immediate goal was to capture Atlanta
    (transportation center of south)
  • He met resistance in Dalton, Resaca, and New
  • Because of the resistance it took Sherman 4
    months to reach Atlanta.
  • Sherman was pushed back at Kennesaw, but
    eventually advanced on.

  • After remaining in Atlanta for 2 months, he began
    his march to the sea, cutting a path sixty miles
    wide and 300 miles long, destroying everything in
    the path.
  • On Dec. 24, 1864, Sherman gave Lincoln a gift of
    the city of Savannah.
  • Now the lower south was cut off from the rest of
    the confederacy.

  • On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to
    General Grant of the Union at Appomattox
    Courthouse in Virginia.

  • Terms of Surrender
  • All officers and enlisted men in the Confederate
    army would be paroled.
  • All military equipment and weapons had to be
    relinquished to the Union.

General Ulysses S. Grant of the Union
General Robert E. Lee of the Confederacy
  • Cost of the War
  • The war cost the U.S. government about 2 million
    per day or about 6 billion total.
  • The south spent about 4 billion on the war
  • Around 620,000 soldiers died in the Civil War