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Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change

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Title: Chapter 13 Atmosphere and Climate Change


1
Chapter 13Atmosphere and Climate Change
  • Mr. Manskopf
  • Notes also available at
  • http//www.manskopf.com

2
Statement It has been so hot this summer, must
be that global warming
3
Goals for Chapter 13
  • What is climate?
  • What factors determine climate?
  • What causes seasonal changes?
  • What is the ozone layer and how is it being
    altered?
  • Describe how human actions are changing the make
    up of the Earths atmosphere and what are the
    potential consequence of that.

4
Section 1 Climate and Seasons
  • GOALS
  • Explain the difference between weather and
    climate.
  • Identify four factors that determine climate.
  • Explain why different parts of the Earth have
    different climates.
  • Explain what causes seasons.

5
What is the weather like?
6
What is Camdens climate like?
7
Camdens Climate
8
Why is Camdens climate the way it is?
9
Weather
  • State of the atmosphere at any one time in a
    region
  • What is todays weather like?
  • What was the weather like last summer?
  • What was the weather on October 21st

10
Climate
  • Climate is the long-term average weather
    conditions in an area
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Phoenix, Arizona
  • San Diego, Calif.
  • Portland, Maine

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13
What affects Climate?
14
Climate Factors
  • 1) Latitude the distance north or south from the
    equator impacts a regions climate
  • What is 0o, 90o?
  • What is Camdens latitude?

15
Latitude
16
Latitude
Greenland at noon in the summer
17
Dominican Republic Winter Sun
18
Climate Factors
  • 2) Atmospheric Circulation the direction the
    wind comes from impacts climate
  • Which way generally does wind blow across the
    U.S.?

19
Atmospheric Circulation
  • Prevailing Winds winds that blow predominantly
    in one direction
  • Westerlies
  • Trade Winds
  • Polar Easterlies

20
Atmospheric Circulation
21
Climate Factors
  • 3) Ocean Circulation Patterns Oceans carry heat
    from the equator or cool waters from the poles
  • Surface currents caused by winds

22
Ocean Currents
23
Climate Factors
  • 4) Topography the shape of the land influences
    climate greatly
  • Mountains can impact temperature and
    precipitation patterns

24
Topography Where do you think it snows the most
in the U.S.?
25
Can it snow near the equator?
26
Topography
27
What are some differences you can see across the
state?
28
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29
What causes seasonal changes?
30
When do we get the most direct sunlight?
Noon Sunlight
31
When do we get the most indirect sunlight?
Noon sunlight
32
When is the daylight hours longest/shortest?
December 21st at 7 PM EST WHY DOES IT LOOK LIKE
THIS
33
What time of year is this? How do you know?
34
Seasons
  • Seasons caused by the fact that Earths axis is
    tilted at 23.5o.

35
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36
Section 1 Review
  • Explain the difference between weather and
    climate.
  • Identify four factors that determine climate.
  • Explain why different parts of the Earth have
    different climates.
  • Explain what causes seasons.

37
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38
Section 2 The Ozone Shield
  • GOALS
  • Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth
    from harmful radiation.
  • Describe how CFCs are damaging the ozone layer.
  • What are impacts for a thinner ozone layer.

39
Why is the atmosphere important?
40
Ozone Layer
  • Ozone Layer
  • An area of the stratosphere with high
    concentrations of ozone gas
  • Acts like a sun screen blocking out UV rays
  • Ozone O3
  • Good ozone vs. Bad Ozone

41
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42
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43
Ozone Depletion
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • Man-made chemical
  • Miracle Chemical
  • Damages the ozone layer
  • Takes a LONG time to get to ozone layer and
    destroys many ozone molecules

44
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45
CFCs
  • Used for decades
  • Each CFC molecule can destroy 100,000 ozone
    molecules over decades

46
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47
Ozone Hole
Antarctic Ozone Levels
48
Impacts of Thinning Ozone Layer
  • Damage to skin cells (including skin cancers)
  • Damage to eyes
  • UV Light damages DNA
  • Kills phytoplankton (single-celled organisms)
    which are the base of most ocean food chains
  • UV light damages crops

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50
Wide Ranging Impacts
51
Protecting the Ozone Layer
  • Montreal Protocol international agreement in
    1987 to phase out CFC usage
  • Second conference in 1992 in Copenhagen
  • WHY WILL IT STILL BE A PROBLEM FOR MANY MORE
    DECADES?

52
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53
Section 2 Review
  • Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth
    from harmful radiation.
  • Describe how CFCs are damaging the ozone layer.
  • What are impacts for a thinner ozone layer.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vqUfVMogIdr8

54
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55
Section 3 Global Warming
  • GOALS
  • Explain how the greenhouse effect works
  • Describe why carbon dioxide is important in the
    atmosphere, but why scientists find it troubling
    that levels are rising
  • Analyze what a warmer world might look like
  • DO NOT CONFUSE OZONE DEPLETION WITH GLOBAL
    WARMING!!!

56
Has Earths Climate Always Been Like Todays?
  • How is it possible that you can find shark teeth
    20 miles from the beach in NJ?
  • How is it possible that you find fossils of Palm
    Trees in parts of Canada?
  • Today, global average temp 59oF

57
Has Earths Climate Always Been Like Todays?
  • Over past 4.7 billion years climate has changed
    by
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Changes in solar output
  • Continents moving
  • Meteorites
  • Natural variations in CO2
  • Some changes slow, some quickly

58
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59
Why does a greenhouse stay warm in the winter?
Why does the inside of the car heat up quickly on
a sunny day?
60
Greenhouse Effect
  • Naturally occurring process in the atmosphere
    where gases trap in heat.
  • Like a blanket covering planet
  • Known about for over a century
  • Without it Earth would be COLD

61
Greenhouse Gases
  • Major greenhouse gases include
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Water Vapor
  • Methane
  • CFCs
  • All act to trap in heat

62
Greenhouse Effect
63
We know from the past that CO2 levels tied
closely to temperature
64
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65
We know from the past that CO2 levels tied
closely to temperature
66
Measuring CO2 Since 1958 in Mauna Loa Hawaii
What does this data show? What trends does it
show? Why does it go up and down each year?
67
CO2 rates rising quickly 1764 --- 276 ppm 1995
--- 360 ppm 2010 --- 390 ppm
Chemist Charles Keelings CO2 measurements Why
measure here?
68
Rising CO2 Levels
  • Never 390 ppm in last 420,000 years (possibly 20
    million)
  • Continue to rise rapidly
  • Most CO2 in atmosphere is coming from burning
    fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas
  • WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR THE FUTURE?

69
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70
Where is the CO2 Coming From?
  • 42 Coal powerplants
  • 24 transportation
  • 20 industrial processes
  • 14 residential and commercial usages
  • Exhale, drive, turn on light, burn log in fire
  • 1 gallon of gas burned equals 20 pounds of CO2

71
Where is the CO2 Coming From?
  • 4.6 of the worlds population, yet 24 of
    emissions of CO2
  • From just U.S. coal burning exceeds 146 other
    nations with 3/4th of world population
  • Per capita yearly 500 tons

72
What do these graphs tell you?
73
What do higher CO2 levels mean for our future
climate?
74
Its All About Carbon
  • http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
    Id9943298

75
Global Warming
  • Earths global average temperature continues to
    rise due to the increase in greenhouse gases in
    the atmosphere

76
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78
How Can You Predict The Future?
  • Very Complex Computer Models
  • Those models are saying
  • It is likely that the world will warm 1.4oC to
    5.8oC (2.5oF to 10.4oF) between 2000 and 2100

79
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80
Why Care? I would like a warmer winter, and I
Love Beach Weather
81
WHY CARE? Its not like I can do anything. Plus,
I Love my car.
Some potential benefits of global warming
82
Consequences of a Warmer Earth
  • 1) A Grand Experiment With Potentially Major
    Changes
  • 2) Melting Ice Higher Seas
  • 3) Change in Weather Patterns
  • 4) Human Health Problems
  • 5) Agriculture Changes
  • 6) Effects to plants and animals

83
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84
Maple Trees in VT and NH have been producing less
and less maple syrup over last few decades.
85
Many major cities in the world are below, near or
just above sea level.
86
Florida after sea level rise of 5 meters
87
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88
Reducing Risks
89
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90
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91
International Agreements
  • What make Global Warming a difficult issue for
    political leaders to deal with?

1) Complex Issue
2) Consequences in Future
3) Need behavior changes
4) International
5) Wealth Companies
92
International Agreements
  • Why are international agreements needed?
  • What makes them hard to negotiate?
  • What differences exist between the developed and
    developing countries?

93
Kyoto Protocol
  • 1997 International Treaty accepted by 160
    countries to limit CO2 pollution
  • 1990 levels by 2012
  • U.S. did not ratify
  • New treaties trying to negotiate

94
Global Warming What does the future hold?
95
Section 3 Review
  • Explain how the greenhouse effect works
  • Describe why carbon dioxide is important in the
    atmosphere, but why scientists find it troubling
    that levels are rising
  • Analyze what a warmer world might look like
  • DO NOT CONFUSE OZONE DEPLETION WITH GLOBAL
    WARMING!!!
  • (What are some similarities/differences)

96
Honors Agree or Disagree
  • Developed countries should help countries with
    tropical rain forests so those poorer countries
    can afford to leave their forests intact.
  • Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring molecule
    and rising levels in our atmosphere should not be
    worried about.

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