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Title: Principles of Sheltering Instruction Sheltered Content Instruction: Principles and Practices


1
Principles of Sheltering
Instruction
Sheltered
Content Instruction Principles and Practices
  • Malden Public Schools
  • Spring 2010

2
M M Ice Breaker
  • Blue Words to Describe Yourself
  • Yellow Words Your Students Use To
    Describe You
  • Green Things You Dislike
  • Brown Places Youve Traveled To

  • Red Things You Love
  • Orange Hobbies/Pastimes

3
(No Transcript)
4
Class Norms
  • Listen Intend to understand rather than respond
    or persuade.
  • Invite differences move away from either/or.
    Embrace and.
  • Suspend your assumptions make your assumptions
    visible to yourself and others. Then, be less
    sure those assumptions are right.
  • Speak from awareness be honest with yourself
    about your purpose and intent in listening.
  • Assume good will listen without judging the
    other persons intentions. Assume their
    intentions are the very best.

5
Sheltered Content Instruction Principles and
Practices
  • This course is designed as an introduction to the
    theories and sheltered strategies for teaching
    content and grade level subject matter to English
    Language Learners.
  • It covers the required skills and knowledge
    covered in the Massachusetts Department of
    Educations Commissioners June 2004 memo on
    Sheltered English Immersion Category 2 trainings.
  • This course will include strategies for teaching
    sheltered subject matter and assessing student
    learning.
  • The essential question that will guide this
    course is How can we design curriculum and
    classroom practices to simultaneously develop the
    language and content knowledge that is necessary
    to meet the goals of students, the expectations
    of their families and community, and the
    expectations of the broader society?

6
Module OneELLs in a State-wide Context
7
Glossary of Terms
  • AMOAAnnual Measurable Objective Achievement
  • AYPAdequate Yearly Progress
  • Bilingual Knowing two languages
  • ELLEnglish Language Learner
  • ESLEnglish as a Second Language
  • FLEPFormerly Limited English Proficient
  • High IncidenceProgram usually having 20 or more
    of one language group enrolled in a school
    district or schools
  • IntegrationIn the context of Chapter 71A,
    integration means students from immersion and
    bilingual classrooms are engaged in meaningful
    learning activities with their native speaking
    peers
  • LEPLimited English Proficient
  • Low IncidenceFewer than 20 LEP students of one
    language
  • L1First language of learner
  • L2Second Language of Learner
  • TBETransitional bilingual education

8
Demographic Changes
  • From 1979-2003 the number of students who spoke a
    language other than English at home grew from 3.8
    million to 9.9 million.
  • From 1990-2003 the school aged population
    increased 19.
  • The number who spoke a language other than
    English at home increased 161.

9
ELLs in Public Schools
  • Most of the students are in elementary schools
  • About 75 of the students are from Spanish
    language backgrounds
  • The students are located mostly in a few states
  • 42 of teachers nationwide have at least one ELL
    in their classroom
  • ELL enrollment in public schools growing 20 times
    faster than average

10
ELLs in Public Schools
There are over 6,000,000 English Language
Learners in U.S. Schools. By 2020, 40 of all
public school students will be ELLs.

11
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-March 2005
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
http//www.doe.mass.edu/ell/statistics/lep.html
12
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools-March 2005
Language Number Spanish 27,249 54.6
Portuguese 4,645 9.3 Khmer 2,058 4.1
Creole (Haitian) 1,977 4.0 Vietnamese 1,724
3.5 Chinese 1,593 3.2 Cape Verdean 1,367
2.7 Russian 916 1.8 Canton Dialect 653
1.3 Arabic 591 1.2 Korean 429 0.9
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
http//www.doe.mass.edu/ell/statistics/lep.html
13
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools
  • In March 2005, Massachusetts Public Schools
    reported 49,923 limited English proficient (LEP)
    students with 112 different primary languages.

14
Reflective Writing Assignment
  • Who are the language learners in your school? Are
    there any commonalities among the ELL population?
    How are they identified and how do they receive
    targeted instruction?

15
Chapter 71A
  • In November 2002, the voters of Massachusetts
    passed Chapter 386 of the Acts of 2002 (known as
    Question 2). This referendum amended the
    existing Transitional Bilingual statue, G.L. c.
    71A.
  • According to Question and Answers Regarding
    Chapter 71A English Language Education in
    Public Schools, published by the Massachusetts
    Department of Education in August 2003, Question
    2 requires the following
  • All children in Massachusetts public schools be
    taught English by being taught in English and all
    children be placed in English language
    classrooms. Children who are English learners be
    education through structured English immersion.
  • Districts to annually determine, no later than
    April 1, the number of English learners in the
    district, and to classify them according to grade
    level, primary language, and the English learners
    program in which they are enrolled.
  • Districts to annually administer a standardized,
    nationally-normed written test of academic
    subject matter in English for grades 2-12 and a
    nationally-normed test of English proficiency for
    grades K-12.
  • Districts to send report cards and other school
    information be sent to parents and guardians of
    English language learners in the same manner and
    frequency as such information is sent to other
    parents and guardians, and, to the maximum extent
    possible, in a understandable language.
  • Office of Educational Quality and Accountability
    to conduct onsite visits to school districts at
    least once every five years to evaluate the
    effectiveness of programs serving English
    language learners.
  • Two-way bilingual programs, whereby students
    develop language proficiency in two languages by
    receiving instruction in English and another
    language in a classroom that usually comprised of
    half native English speakers and half native
    speakers of the other language shall be
    unaffected. No waivers are necessary for
    participation in a two-way bilingual program.
  • English language learners be provided language
    support services until they are proficient enough
    English to participate meaningfully in the
    districts education program.
  • Cited directly from Mass. Department of
    Education Question and Answer document dated
    August 2003, page 10.

16
Question 2 (Ch. 71A) and Title VI
  • 4. SEI for children under the age of 10 with
    allowance for parental waivers
  • 16. All textbooks and other instructional
    materials are to be in English, no subject matter
    taught in any language other then English, and
    students learn to read and write solely in
    English. However, teachers may use an English
    learners native language when necessary for
    clarification purposes. If the students teacher
    does not speak the students primary language,
    the Department recommends that another teacher or
    instructional paraprofessional who does speak the
    students primary language be available at some
    point during the school day for clarification as
    needed.
  • 20. Chapter 71A states that students shall
    receive sheltered instruction for a temporary
    transition period not normally intended to exceed
    one school year. Title VI of the federal
    Civil Rights Act does not permit such a
    limitation. Title VI requires that English
    language learners be provided language support
    services until they are proficient enough in
    English to participate meaningfully in the
    districts education program.

17
Use of Native Language
  • Chapter 71A states that in structured English
    immersion programs, native language should be
    used as a tool for the clarification and that
    clarification in the native language be made
    available, to the maximum extent possible, as
    some point during the day. Instruction must be
    comprehensible. The use of native language is
    one approach to making certain all input is
    comprehensible.
  • Native language may be used by district staff
  • To clarify concepts and ideas not understood in
    English.
  • Remember that the goal of Sheltered English
    Instruction is to make content comprehensible.
    The use of native language facilitates the
    teaching of content to English Language Learners
    particularly at the beginner and early
    intermediate English language development levels.
    The authors of Making Content Comprehensible for
    English Language Learners state that best
    practice indicates that English language learners
    benefit from opportunities to clarify concepts in
    the native language (L1). Although sheltered
    instruction involves teaching subject-matter
    material in English, students are given the
    opportunity to have a concept or assignment
    explained in their L1 as needed (p. 109).
  • To explain directions and instructions not
    understood in English to guide instructional
    tasks
  • Use the students native language when necessary
    to get them on task. It is appropriate to use L1
    when giving direct instructions to facilitate
    students engagement and understanding of
    instructional tasks and activities.

18
Use of Native Language
  • For the health, safety and welfare of students
  • Health, safety and welfare must be dealt with in
    a language that is comprehensible to students.
    For example, when a student becomes ill, it is
    very appropriate to communicate in a language the
    student understands.
  • For communication with families
  • Title VI of the Federal Civil Rights Act states
    that school communications, to the maximum extent
    possible, must be made available to families in
    a language that they understand.
  • For classroom related matters and behavior
    management
  • In some instances behavior management issues may
    be dealt with most effectively in the students
    native language.
  • Native language may be used by students
  • In class for instructional purposes
  • Students may use native language to help their
    peers understand instruction. Alternatively,
    they may request clarification or translation
    from their peers.
  • In playgrounds and hallways
  • Students may use their native language in
    playgrounds and hallways.
  • ? adapted from the Boston Public Schools
    Guidance on Use of Native Language

19
Waivers
  • Chapter 71A provides for waivers based on parent
    request under certain circumstances, assuming
    that the parent annually applies by visiting the
    students school and by providing written
    informed consent.
  • For students under the age of 10, with parental
    consent, waivers are allowed under the following
    conditions
  • The student has been placed in an English
    language classroom for at least 30 days prior to
    the parents application for a waiver
  • Documentation by school officials in no less than
    250 words that the student has special and
    individual physical or psychological needs,
    separate from lack of English proficiency, that
    require an alternative course of educational
    study and inclusion of such documentation in the
    students permanent school record
  • Authorizing signatures on the waiver application
    of both the school superintendent and the school
    principal
  • For students over the age of 10, with parental
    consent, allows waivers when it is the informed
    belief of the school principal and educational
    staff that an alternate course of educational
    study would be better for the students overall
    educational progress and rapid acquisition of
    English
  • Allows students receiving waivers to be
    transferred to bilingual programs or other
    generally recognized educational methodologies
    required by law.
  • Requires individual schools in which 20 students
    or more of a given grade level receive a waiver
    to offer a bilingual or other type of language
    support program in all other cases, students
    with waivers must be permitted to transfer to a
    public school in which such a program is offered.
  • Cited directly from Mass. Department of
    Education Question and Answer document dated
    August 2003.

20
Sheltered Instruction vs. Structured Immersion
  • Sheltered Instruction is
  • a means (method) for making grade-level academic
    content (e.g. science, social studies, math) more
    accessible for English language learners while at
    the same time promoting their English language
    development
  • the practice of highlighting key language
    features and incorporating strategies that make
    the content comprehensible to students
  • an approach that can extend the time students
    have for getting language support services while
    giving them a jump start on the content subjects
    they need for graduation
  • Structured Immersion is
  • A program model for the placement of English
    language learners whereby all curriculum
    materials are in English and native language is
    used for clarification purposes

21
LEP Students in Massachusetts Schools by Program
Placement
22
Performance of LEP Students Focus On Children
Boston Public Schools Office of Research,
Assessment, Evaluation
23
Performance of LEP Students Focus On Children
Boston Public Schools Office of Research,
Assessment, Evaluation
24
Competency Determination Rates
Grade 10 Test May 2005 Retest 1 November 2005 Retest 2 March 2006 Retest 3 November 2006
Regular Education 86 92 95 97
LEP 29 41 54 60
FLEP 40 51 63 70
MCAS Results Class of 2008
Passing English Passing Math Earned Competency Determination
Regular Education 97 94 93
LEP 57 58 45
FLEP 66 64 55
Percentage of Students Attaining the Competency
Determination
Massachusetts Department of Education
http//www.doe.mass.edu/mcas/results.html
25
Massachusetts Drop Out Rates
26
DOE Guidelines June 2005
  • According to the June 2005 Massachusetts
    Department of Educations publication entitled,
    Guidelines for Using MEPA Results to Plan
    Sheltered English Immersion (SEI) Instructional
    Programming and Make Classification Decisions for
    Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students, MEPA
    results and accompanying data will be used as a
    guideline to plan sheltered English immersion
    instructional programming and assist in the
    classification of LEP by proficiency levels.
  • Classification
  • Using the definition of LEP as outlined in
    Chapter 71A, district criteria for identification
    and designation of LEP students have been
    established. Once identified and documented, the
    students placement by proficiency level can
    commence.
  • The decision for each students classification
    begins with a team approach at each school.
    Classroom teachers, specialists, administrators
    and other professionals familiar with students
    classroom performance may be involved in this
    process. Using the MEPA data, examine each
    students overall performance level Beginning,
    Early Intermediate, Intermediate or
    Transitioning. The variables within the data are
    Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing in
    academic and social settings. Gauging the
    students performance within each variable
    includes the differentiations At or Above,
    Approaching or Below which are based and
    compared to a typical student performing in the
    transitional level. Based on these results,
    students may be candidates for reclassification
    or recommended to remain in their current LEP
    status. Students must be At or Above in all 4
    variable areas of the MEPA, receive a passing
    score (Needs Improvement or higher) on MCAS and
    attain proficiency levels in district criteria in
    order to be reclassified from their current LEP
    status. Further, their academic performance is
    monitored for a period of two years.
  • Students with Below, Approaching, or fewer than 4
    areas At or Above will be enrolled in the SEI
    instructional programming. In Kindergarten and
    Grade 1, assessment data is limited to MELA-O
    Dept. of Education recommendations are to
    maintain the LEP status of these students until
    more data becomes available in the upper grades.
  • A dedicated and specially designed English
    Language Development (ELD) curriculum must be in
    place to service all LEP students. The ELD/ESL
    district curriculum is based on the Massachusetts
    English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
    Outcomes (ELPBO).

27
Recommended Instructional Programming for Limited
English Proficient Students
Beginning and Early Intermediate Elementary Jr. High High School English language development 2.5 hrs/day to full day Content areas instruction Hrs. available outside of ELD Specialists/electives art, music Same schedule as all students ESL or ELL license Qualified to teach LEP students
Intermediate Elementary Jr. High High School English language development 1-2 hrs. /day ELA or Reading instruction 1-2 hrs/day Content areas instruction Hrs. available outside of ELD, ELA or reading Specialists/electives art, music Same schedule as all students ESL or ELL license Qualified to teach LEP students Qualified to teach LEP students
Transitioning Elementary Jr. High High School All areas of language and content- provide continuous support to enhance growth in English language development Small group instruction and learning in all areas throughout school day, after school and during summer programs Consistent and systematic monitoring for academic progress Provide additional learning and support opportunities FLEP classified students to be monitored for two years on academic progress. School-based Team meeting to be convened as needed . Qualified to teach LEP students
28
Skills and Qualifications of SEI Classroom
Teachers
  • Category One Second Language Learning and
    Teaching
  • Key factors affecting second language
    acquisition.
  • Implications of these factors on classroom
    organization and instruction.
  • The implications of cultural difference for
    classroom organization and instruction.
  • Organization, content, and performance levels in
    the Massachusetts English Language Proficiency
    Benchmarks and Outcomes.
  • Category Two Sheltered Content Instruction
  • Curriculum and Lesson Planning. Teachers will be
    able to
  • plan lessons appropriate for LEP students at the
    four levels of proficiency described in the
    Massachusetts English Language Proficiency
    Benchmarks and Outcomes.
  • plan lessons that are guided by both language and
    content objectives appropriate for LEP students
    who are at different grade levels and different
    English proficiency levels, and that are aligned
    with the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks and
    the Massachusetts English Language Proficiency
    Benchmarks and Outcomes.
  • plan lessons that are characterized by student
    interaction, students' questions, and appropriate
    group work.

29
Skills and Qualifications of SEI Classroom
Teachers
  • Instructional Strategies. While teaching,
    teachers will be able to
  • make language objectives, content objectives, and
    academic tasks explicit.
  • use supplementary materials, including graphic
    organizers, visuals, and manipulatives to make
    content more comprehensible.
  • group students so that all LEP students can
    participate.
  • integrate language instruction and content
    instruction.
  • Student Tasks. Teachers will be able to
  • plan learning tasks that have a product and that
    enable all students, including LEP students, to
    work and ask questions in small groups.
  • provide opportunities for students to display
    their knowledge in various ways.
  • d. Lesson Delivery. While teaching, teachers will
    be able to
  • assess student comprehension and learning
    throughout the lesson.
  • pace and organize learning activities so that
    students are engaged 90-100 of the time.

30
Skills and Qualifications of SEI Classroom
Teachers
  • Category Three Assessment of Speaking and
    Learning (MELA-O)
  • Multiple dimensions of oral proficiency
    comprehension, production, fluency,
    pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
  • Concept of communicative competence and its role
    in assessment.
  • The six levels of oral proficiency assessed by
    the MELA-O and their relation to the four levels
    of English language proficiency as described in
    the Massachusetts English Language Proficiency
    Benchmarks and Outcomes.
  • Category Four Teaching of Reading and Writing
    to LEP students
  • Basic concepts of linguistics, including
    phonology and syntax of English.
  • Significant theories and practices for developing
    reading skills and reading comprehension in
    English for limited English proficient students
    who are at different English proficiency levels.
  • A variety of strategies for teaching vocabulary.
  • Approaches and practices for developing writing
    skills in limited English proficient students.
  • Initial reading instruction, including phonemic
    awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text
    comprehension. The differences in initial reading
    instruction in English designed for those
    students who have no or limited oral proficiency
    in English compared to those who do have oral
    proficiency in English.
  • The performance criteria and scoring system used
    in the MEPA (Massachusetts English Proficiency
    Assessment) and based on the Massachusetts
    English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
    Outcomes.

31
Massachusetts English Language Development
Assessments
  • Massachusetts English Language Assessment Oral
    (MELA-0)
  • Administered to ALL ELLs, (K-12)
  • Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment
    (MEPA)
  • Administered to All ELLs (Grades K-12)

32
Criteria for Re-classification of English
Language Learners
  • Guidelines for Using MEPA Results to Plan
    Sheltered English Immersion (SEI) Instructional
    Programming and Make Classification Decisions for
    Limited English Proficient (LEP) students (June
    2005)
  • MEPA Overall Performance Level
  • Transitioning At or Above in All 4 Areas
    Speaking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
  • MCAS ELA Test Proficient
  • District Academic Assessments DRA, DIBELS,
    GRADE, Step Rubric, etc.
  • If ELL has satisfied these requirements, student
    is reclassified as Formerly Limited English
    Proficient (FLEP)
  • FLEPs are required to be monitored for academic
    achievement and social adjustment for two years

33
Thinking Differently About English Language
Learners
34
  • Who Are They?
  • The English language learners in your classroom
    may be very different in their background,
    skills, and past experiences from the other
    students you are teaching.
  • Some may have come to the U.S. from a country in
    which they attended school regularly and will
    bring with them literacy skills and content
    knowledge, although in another language.
  • Other students may come with a history of
    survival within a war-torn country where there
    was no opportunity for consistent--or
    any--schooling.
  • Some come from countries where schooling is very
    different. Some may have large gaps in their
    schooling while others may not have had any
    formal schooling and may lack important native
    language literacy skills that one would normally
    expect for students of their age.
  • There will be differences in home background as
    well. Many will belong to very low-income
    families
  • The parents of some of these, however, may have
    been highly educated in their own country, and
    may have once held professional positions.
  • The resources and the needs that the individual
    students bring are therefore often likely to be
    very different.

35
  • Challenges Facing ELLs
  • Whatever label is used to identify these
    students, research has shown that they, in
    disproportionately large numbers, face low
    achievement and high drop out rates.
  • By and large, ELLs are not receiving instruction
    that supports their highest possible achievement.
  • Among the instructional factors that affect ELLs
    achievement are
  • -low teacher expectations
  • -assignment to classrooms with under-qualified
    or inexperienced teachers
  • -instructional methods that do not address the
    development of much needed verbal and vocabulary
    building skills
  • -instruction that does not build on students
    prior skills, knowledge, and experiences
  • -misdiagnosis into special education

36
Their Needs
  • Although ELL students come from diverse
    backgrounds, they have several common needs.
  • They need to
  • build their oral English skills
  • acquire reading and writing skills in English
  • to maintain a learning continuum in the content
    areas (e.g., mathematics, science, and social
    studies).
  • Some ELL students will have other needs that will
    make the task of learning much more difficult.

37
Seeking Effective Policies and Practices for
English Language Learners
  • The Rennie Center May 2007
  • Themes of Successful Schools
  • Believe they cannot effectively serve ELLs with a
    one-size-fits-all policy
  • Adults hold positive values, and beliefs about
    immigrant students and their families
  • Constant attention to data, research, and outside
    resources is essential
  • Highly skilled teachers and leaders are the
    cornerstone of success in these schools
  • Support extends beyond the classroom
  • Students benefit from a staged re-classification
    process and continued support after
    re-classification

38
Seeking Effective Policies and Practices for
English Language Learners
  • Recommendations for Policy and Practice
  • At the State Level
  • Encourage flexibility and experimentation with
    innovative approaches to meet the needs of
    English language learners
  • Offer opportunities to share practices
  • Get specific about transition
  • Ensure a pipeline of leaders for ELL programs
  • Require SEI training in teacher preparation
    programs
  • In Schools and Districts
  • Consider a staged transition process
  • Provide guidance for families of low-incidence
    language students
  • Set goals and create incentives to get teachers
    trained
  • Communicate with parents about the schools
    program to support ELLs, specifically placement
    and transitioning
  • Pool resources among districts with small ELL
    populations

39
Success with English Language Learners
  • All teachers should be familiar with the
    following kinds of knowledge related to their
    language minority students
  • Familiarity with first and second language
    acquisition
  • Awareness of the history of immigration in the
    United States, with particular attention to
    language policies and practices throughout that
    history
  • Awareness of the socio-cultural and
    sociopolitical context of education of language
    minority students
  • Ability to adapt curriculum for students whose
    first language is other than English
  • Competence in pedagogical approaches suitable for
    culturally and linguistically heterogeneous
    classrooms
  • Experience with teachers of diverse backgrounds
    and the ability to develop collaborative
    relationships with colleagues that promote the
    learning of language minority students
  • Ability to communicate effectively with parents
    of diverse language, cultural, and social class
    backgrounds
  • Although learning new approaches and techniques
    may be very helpful, teaching these students
    successfully means, above all, changing ones
    attitudes towards the students, their languages
    and cultures, and their communities. Anything
    short of this will result in repeating the
    pattern of failure that currently exists
  • Affirming Diversity The Sociopolitical Context
    of Multicultural Education by Sonia Nieto (Pages
    220-221)

40
Journal Entry Prompt
  • Think about what you have learned in the
    introduction
  • That schools are becoming increasingly diverse in
    terms of language, culture, and ethnicity
  • That many diverse students do not fulfill their
    academic potential
  • That most teachers do not feel well-prepared to
    teach diverse students
  • Write a paragraph in your journal describing two
    or three things that you would like to know more
    about to help you improve your teaching of
    English language learners. Be as specific as
    possible

41
Module TwoLanguage Acquisition
42
Anticipation Guide Language Acquisition
  • ____1. A child acquires its first language by
    imitating adults.
  • ____2. The process of acquiring a second language
    is more similar to the process of acquiring the
    first language than it is different.
  • _____3. The best way for a child to learn English
    in school is to control the vocabulary, syntax,
    and sequence of grammatical structures that the
    child is exposed to.
  • _____4. Oral fluency in English is a strong
    indicator that an English language learner (ELL)
    will succeed in the classroom.
  • _____5. Once a student has learned the language
    of instruction, English, his problems in the
    classroom are largely over and he should be able
    to handle academic assignment with little
    difficulty.
  • _____6. Placing a child learning English in a
    mainstream classroom will ensure that he/she will
    spend enough time in English to learn the
    language quickly.
  • _____7. An initial silent period can benefit
    the ELL because it allows him/her an opportunity
    to process and decode the new language.
  • _____8. Good teachers should suggest to the
    parents of a child learning English that the
    parents speak English at home.

43
First Language Acquisition
  • Brainstorm in groups what youve noticed about a
    young child acquiring a language

44
The Stages of First-Language Acquisition (L1)
  • I. The Babbling Stage
  • It begins at about 6 months of age.
  • Children begin using sounds from speech
  • Real speech develops from here
  •  
  • II. The Holophrastic stage
  • Children using combinations of sounds that carry
    consistent meaning.
  • Single word utterances called holophrastic
    sentences carry the meaning of whole sentences.
  • Some children skip this stage.
  •  
  • III. The Two-Word stage
  • Around age 2, children make two-word utterances.
  • Little regard is shown for word order,
    inflection, tense, number, or person.
  •  
  • IV. The Telegraph to Infinity Stage
  • Past the Two-word stage, the child puts together
    utterances of various lengths.
  • Stutter pattern like a telegraph (Ex. Danny want
    cookie)
  • Words arranged in order but lacking certain
    "function words"
  • At this point the child will begin to generalize
    about rules of grammar and sometime
    overgeneralize (Ex. He drinked it)

45
Caregiver Speech
  • Caregiver speech is that special way that
    caregivers talk to a child in early
    conversational interactions
  • Characteristics of caregiver speech include
  • Slower rate of speech simpler vocabulary and
    sentence structure than in normal speech with
    adults
  • Reference to here and now
  • Emphasis on meaning over form
  • Extension and elaboration

46
Summary of First Language Acquisition
  • The child learns language by unconsciously
    generating rules, perhaps to fill in an innate
    blueprint.
  • The childs errors often indicate that learning
    is taking place.
  • The child learns certain aspects of language in a
    relatively predictable order.
  • The child acquires language in communicative,
    meaningful, and supportive settings.
  • The child understands more than he/she can say.
  • The child requires a lot of time to become orally
    proficient.

47
Difference Between First and Second Language
Acquisition
48
Separate Underlying Proficiency (SUP)
49
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
50
Implications of CUP vs. SUP
  • CUP suggests that what proficiency is developed
    in L1 will transfer to L2. There are certain
    elements of literacy which are common to both
    languages and will not have to be relearned when
    acquiring the second language.

51
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • Motivation
  • First language development
  • Language distance and attitude
  • Access to the language
  • Age
  • Personality and learning style
  • Peers and role models
  • Quality of instruction
  • Cultural background

52
Affective Filter
  • Stephen Krashen hypothesizes that there is an
    imaginary wall that is placed between  a learner
    and language input. This is called the Affective
    Filter. If the filter is on, the learner is
    blocking out input and output. No language can
    be received or produced.
  • Krashen indicates that anxiety, self-esteem, and
    motivation are the three major variables that
    have an impact on the Affective Filter. The
    filter turns on when anxiety is high, self-esteem
    is low, or motivation is low.

53
Affective Filter Activity
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Turn to a neighbor and share teacher and students
    behaviors and instructional activities that keep
    the affective filter turned off

54
Strategy - Predictable Routines and Signals to
Reduce Anxiety
  • Purpose Promote the understanding of classroom
    expectations, routines and signals to encourage
    full participation by all students
  • Benefits
  • establishes a predictable, consistent daily
    routine
  • recognize signals and visuals which indicate a
    sequence of events and activities
  • allows for more focus and energy for instruction
  • recognize classroom patterns that guide
    instruction, behavior and social expectations
  • lowers students anxiety and helps everyone fully
    participate in class community.
  • Steps
  • Set up the classroom with designated areas for
    activities reading area, group table, partner
    work area etc. Model their use and ask questions
    such as, Where will you sit if you want to read a
    book by yourself?
  • Establish a routine for turning in papers,
    picking up materials, checking assignments etc.
    Model putting things in their established places.
  • Model routines that are new until well
    established in the students daily schedule. Any
    time a student shows confusion about a classroom
    routine or expectation, determine if some
    modeling and practice would lessen the confusion.
  • Contextualize directions by consistently modeling
    as you give information. Modeling, gestures and
    demonstrations are vital ways to contextualize
    instructions. For example, Take out your math
    book, needs to be accompanied by you holding up
    the math book. Open to page 21 may be modeled
    and page 21 written on the board.

55
BICS vs. CALPJim Cummins
  • BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Playground Language
  • Not related to academic achievement
  • Attained after 1-2 years in host country
  • CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
  • Language proficiency needed to function in
    decontextualized, academic settings
  • CALP in L1 and L2 may overlap, despite
    differences in surface features of each
    language
  • Attained between five to seven years in host
    country

56
BICS and CALP
57
BICS and CALP
58
Social (BICS) vs. Academic (CALP) Language
  • BICS
  • Face to Face, Small Group Setting
  • CALP
  • Whole Group, Textbook

59
Source OMalley, J. M. Valdez-Pierce, L.
(1996). Authentic assessments for English
language learners Practical approaches for
teachers Reading, MA Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company.
60
Source OMalley, J. M. Valdez-Pierce, L.
(1996). Authentic assessments for English
language learners Practical approaches for
teachers Reading, MA Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company.
61
Stages of Oral Language Acquisition
  • Pre-Production
  • Cannot produce in English
  • Can understand more than can say
  • Can actively listen for short periods
  • Can respond non-verbally
  • Early Production
  • Can produce individual words and phrases
  • Can answer closed questions
  • Can name, label, list, categorize
  • Speech Emergence
  • Can produce simple complete sentences
  • Can participate in small group activities
  • Can answer open-ended questions why, how, etc.
  • Begins to use English more freely
  • Intermediate Fluency
  • Can create extended discourse

62
Observing the Stage of Second Language Acquisition
Stage of Language Acquisition and Rationale Possible Classroom Strategies
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
63
Strategy-Talk Show
  • Purpose To encourage the production of oral
    English based on information and brainstormed
    vocabulary/language structures.
  • Benefits
  • work in cooperative groups to increase student
    interaction
  • plan an oral presentation using appropriate
    language
  • formulating and asking specific questions based
    on a specific subject area
  • promote listening skills and responding in
    appropriate manner based on specific questions
  • represent and maintain a point of view throughout
    the presentation
  • increases confidence and competence in production
    and fluency
  • motivates students to research and create an
    informative situation.
  • Steps
  • Choose an appropriate subject/topic for
    implementing into a talk show. Choose an area or
    person where students can gain information by
    reading and/or researching.
  • Suggestions include interview characters in
    books or plays read, interview historical
    characters, interview community helpers,
    interview people in the news etc.
  • Explain and model the talk show strategy by
    referring to a television talk show that is
    familiar to the students (i.e. Oprah). The
    teacher models the role of host by having one
    student come to be interviewed about a recent
    classroom event. Before the interview, ask the
    class to brainstorm questions to ask the
    interviewee. Record the questions on a chart and
    discuss the ways to formulate questions for
    interviews. Model the interview. After the
    interview, a third student may be called upon to
    be the interpreter. The interpreter is given
    the job of acting out the questions and answers
    as they are given. Agree upon hand signals to
    indicate specific vocabulary that is used in this
    interview.
  • Guided practice in the talk show format and
    questioning is to be done in groups of three
    (interviewer, interviewee and interpreter).
    Each group will brainstorm a list of questions.
    Interviewer must practice phrasing questions to
    elicit more than one word responses. Teacher
    circulates to encourage interesting questions and
    responses.
  • Presentations to the class are held after
    sufficient opportunities to practice. After
    each groups performance, have student and
    teachers identify good questions, responses and
    interpreting signals.
  • Consider alternatives to hand signals by having
    students use other visuals from the internet,
    signs, pictures, power point, student drawings,
    overhead projector or illustrating ideas as they
    are discussed in the interview.

64
Module ThreeStandards for English Language
Acquisition Development
65
Rationale
  • English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
    Outcomes for English Language Learners
  • Includes outcomes that help teachers track
    progress in the four domains of English Reading,
    Writing, Listening, and Speaking
  • Serves as the basis for annual assessment as
    now required by MA Chapter 71A and NCLB.
  • Foundations
  • MA English Language Arts curriculum
  • MELA-O
  • MA foreign Language Curriculum Framework

66
Central Themes
  • Vocabulary is integral to language development
  • Essential role of oral language in development of
    academic English proficiency
  • English Language Acquisition through content area
    studies

67
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
Outcomes for English Language Learners -
Organization
  • Organization from General to Specific
  • Strands (S, R, W)
  • Listening and Speaking, Reading, and Writing
  • General Outcomes (letter.number)
  • R.4 Literary Elements and Techniques
  • Students will identify and analyze text elements
    and techniques of written English as used in
    various literary genres. (Page 54)
  • Themes
  • Myth and Traditional Narrative (Page 55)
  • Benchmarks (letters a, b, c, etc.)
  • c. Identify phenomena explained in origin myths
    from various cultures. (link to ELA 16.4) (Page
    55)
  • Student Outcomes (number 5, 6, 7, etc.)
  • 5. Recognize nursery rhymes, fables, fairy
    tales, tall tales, lullabies, and myths as
    traditional literature. (link to ELA 16.1)

68
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
Outcomes for English Language Learners
  • Speaking and Listening Strand (S) (Organized by
    Proficiency Level)
  • S.1 Vocabulary Students will comprehend and
    communicate orally in English, using vocabulary
    for personal, social, and academic purposes. (FL
    1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 ELA 4)
  • S.2 Social Interaction Students will comprehend
    and communicate orally, using English for
    personal and social purposes. (FL 1, 2, 4, 5, 6,
    8 ELA 5, 6)
  • S.3 Academic Interaction Students will
    comprehend and communicate orally, using English
    in academic settings. (FL 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 ELA 1,
    2, 5)
  • S.4 Presentation Students will present
    information orally and participate in
    performances that demonstrate appropriate
    consideration of audience, purpose, and the
    information to be conveyed. (ELA 3, 18 FL 3, 6,
    7)
  • Reading Strand (R) (Organized by ELA grade spans)
  • R.1 Vocabulary and Syntax in Print Students will
    acquire and apply vocabulary and syntax to
    comprehend written text. (ELA 4, 5 FL 5, 6)
  • R.2 Beginning to Read in English Using a
    foundation of oral language and previous reading
    experience, students will understand the nature
    of written English and the relationships of
    letters to the sounds of English speech. (ELA 7
    FL 5)
  • R.3 Comprehension Students will read fluently
    and identify facts and evidence in order to
    interpret and analyze text. (ELA 8, 11)
  • R.4 Literary Elements and Techniques Students
    will identify and analyze text elements and
    techniques used in various literary genres. (ELA
    9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18)
  • R.5 Informational/Expository Text Students will
    identify and analyze purposes, structures, and
    elements of nonfiction texts. (FL 4, 7 ELA 8,
    10, 13)
  • R.6 Research Students will gather information
    from a variety of sources, analyze and evaluate
    the quality of the information obtained, and use
    it to answer their own and others questions.
    (ELA 24)
  • Writing Strand (W) (Organized by ELA grade spans)
  • W.1 Prewriting Students will plan for writing by
    building on prior knowledge, generating words,
    and organizing ideas for a particular audience
    and purpose. (ELA 4, 20, 23 FL 7)
  • W.2 Writing Students will write for a variety of
    purposes with a clear focus, coherent
    organization, and sufficient detail. (ELA 19 FL
    1)
  • W.3 Revising Students will evaluate and revise
    word choice, sentence variety, and organization
    of ideas in their writing for a particular
    audience and purpose. (ELA 20, 21, 25)
  • W.4 Editing Students will understand and apply
    knowledge of standard English grammar, spelling,
    and conventions to improve their writing. (ELA 5,
    22 FL 5)

69
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and
Outcomes for English Language Learners
Scavenger Hunt
  • What information can you find in the appendix?
  • What are the general outcomes for the Listening
    and Speaking strand?
  • What are the benchmarks for grades K-4 in the W.3
    Revising general outcome for the theme of word
    choice?
  • What are the themes that address culture in the
    Speaking and Listening Strand?
  • What are the general outcomes for the Reading
    strand?
  • What are the student outcomes for grades 5-8 in
    the R.5 Informational/Expository Text general
    outcome for the theme of text analysis?
  • What are the general outcomes for the Writing
    strand?

70
Benchmarks and Outcomes by MEPA Proficiency Levels
Beginning Early Intermediate Intermediate Transitioning





71
Differentiating by moving between grade level
topic clusters
  • If W.3.15 b were too difficult for a student in
    Grades 9-12, how could you find a benchmark or
    outcome that was more appropriate yet aligned to
    the focus of this your lesson? Word Choice
    Topic Cluster

72
Massachusetts English Language Proficiency
Benchmarks and Outcomes for English Language
Learners
  • What would be a speaking outcome appropriate for
    a fourth grade student who has been in the
    country for two years, but is struggling with
    academic interactions?
  • What would be a reading benchmark that you would
    use as a goal for a 6th grade newcomer with no
    formal schooling in his/her native country?
  • What would be a writing benchmark that you would
    use as a goal for a first grade student who had
    been in the country for a year?
  • What would be an appropriate listening outcome
    for an eighth grade newcomer with only two years
    of formal schooling in his/her native country?

73
Using ELPBO to Plan Instruction
  • View the video tape of the student.
  • Decide on second language proficiency stage.
  • Decide which outcomes in the Speaking and
    Listening Strand you have evidence that the
    student has achieved.
  • Decide which outcomes in the Speaking and
    Listening Strand would be short and long term
    goals for the student.

74
Using ELPBO to Plan Instruction
75
Module ThreeSheltered Content Instruction
Planning Instruction
76
3 Goals of Language Learning
  • To use target language in social settings
  • To use target language in all content areas
  • To use target language in social and culturally
    appropriate ways

77
Four Principles that Help ELLs Succeed in School
  • Increase Comprehensibility
  • Increase Interaction
  • Increase Higher Order Thinking/Thinking
    Strategies
  • Increase Connections

78
Sheltered Instruction True/False Questions
  1. Sheltered Instruction is used in sheltered
    content courses.
  2. Sheltered Instruction is used in a variety of
    program models.
  3. Sheltered Instruction cannot be used in classes
    that contain both English language learners and
    native English speakers.
  4. Sheltered Instruction is the same as high quality
    instruction for native English speakers.
  5. Language development classes should separate from
    content classes for ELLs to learn best.
  6. In sheltered instruction classes, teachers
    integrate ESL Standards.

79
What is Sheltered Instruction?
  • A means for making grade-level academic content
    (e.g., science, social studies, math) more
    accessible and comprehensible for ELLs while at
    the same time promoting their English language
    development.
  • The practice of highlighting key language
    features and incorporating strategies that make
    the content comprehensible to students.
  • It also may be referred to as SDAIE (Specially
    Designed Academic Instruction in English).

80
Expectations of Classroom Instruction
  • Instruction should be comprehensible to all
    learners
  • Learning should be interactive
  • Instruction should be cognitively challenging
  • Instruction should connect school to students
    lives and promote
  • cross-cultural understanding
  • Instruction should facilitate language
    development and academic
  • achievement in the content area
  • The goal of instruction should be achievement of
    academic standards by all students
  • Instruction should develop language and literacy
    across the curriculum

81
Its good teaching plus
  • Compare ELL teaching to the universal design
    model/concept for building architecture
  • While school might be accessible for many
    students, with just good teaching, it hasnt
    worked for the majority of ELLs.
  • It wont be accessible to ELLs without these
    strategies and principles implemented all the
    time that serve as the ramps to school and the
    content.
  • High-quality instruction for ELLs is similar to
    high-quality instruction for other,
    English-speaking students, but ELLs need
    instructional accommodations and support to fully
    develop their English skills.

82
  • It is good teaching for ELLs
  • IF AND ONLY IF
  • the instruction takes into account factors
  • such as the ELLs
  • level of language proficiency in reading,
    writing, Listening,
  • and speaking
  • developmental needs in learning a second language
  • prior schooling
  • cultural differences and adjustments.

83
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
  • The SIOP Model was developed in a national
    research project conducted from 1996 to 2003,
    sponsored by the Center for Research on
    Education, Diversity Excellence (CREDE).
    Through literature review and with the
    collaboration of practicing teachers, researchers
    identified instructional features of high-quality
    sheltered lessons. The model was refined over
    several years of field testing
  • Early research found the SIOP Model to be
    effective with ELLs as measured by narrative and
    expository writing assessments.
  • CAL is currently conducting further research in
    elementary and secondary schools by facilitating
    professional development on the SIOP Model and
    examining the effects of SIOP-based instruction
    on student achievement in core content areas and
    in English language development.

84
The SIOP Model
  • The SIOP Model is a research-based approach to
    sheltered instruction that has proven effective
    in addressing the academic needs of English
    language learners throughout the United States.
  • The model consists of 8 components
  • Lesson Preparation
  • Building Background
  • Comprehensible Input
    Strategies
  • Interaction
    Practice/Application
  • Lesson Delivery
    Review/Assessment
  • Using instructional strategies linked to these
    components, content area teachers help English
    learners develop their academic English skills as
    they learn grade-level content.
  • Training in the SIOP Model helps teachers plan
    and deliver lessons that incorporate these
    strategies consistently.

85
Who Uses the SIOP Model?
  • Elementary classroom teachers
  • Secondary subject-area teachers
  • Coaches and mentor teachers
  • ESL teachers
  • Bilingual program teachers
  • Staff developers
  • School and district administrators
  • Teacher education faculty
  • Pre-service teacher candidates

86
Why Use the SIOP Model?
  • Need As the number of English language learners
    (ELLs) in schools increases, teachers are looking
    for effective instructional practices to reach
    all of their students.
  • Practicality Teachers and researchers worked
    collaboratively to create this effective approach
    to high quality instruction for ELLs.
  • Accountability The SIOP Model includes a
    reliable and valid measure of effective
    instruction.
  • Impact Research on the SIOP Model has shown that
    ELLs' academic skills improve when teachers
    implement it fully.

87
Lesson Preparation
  • Lesson preparation is a key to effective teaching
    and learning.
  • Features of Preparation
  • 1. Clearly defined content objectives for
    students
  • 2. Clearly defined language objectives for
    students
  • Accomplished sheltered instructing teachers take
    time to develop strong lessons that incorporate
    important content objectives from district,
    state, or national standards along with
    systematic development of language objectives.
  • The language objectives should complement the
    content knowledge and sills being taught.
  • The objectives should provide practice in the
    four language skills of reading, writing,
    listening, and speaking.
  • They should also incorporate strategies for
    grammar, vocabulary, and language learning as
    well as other language skills like reading
    comprehension strategies, process writing, and
    oral interactions (negotiation of meaning,
    justifying opinions, making hypotheses). It is
    very important to make these objectives explicit
    to the students so they know what the teacher
    expects them to learn each day.

88
Lesson Preparation
  • 3. Content concepts appropriate for age and
    educational background
  • The content concepts should suit the grade and
    developmental level of the students and, if
    necessary, fill I the gaps in their educational
    backgrounds. As needed, adaptations should be
    made for the students different levels of
    proficiency and background knowledge.
  • 4. Supplementary materials use to a high degree,
    making the lesson clear and meaningful (e.g.,
    graphs, models, visuals)
  • Well prepared SI lessons also include
    supplementary materials that support or provide
    alternatives to the academic text and teachers
    must plan meaningful activities that integrate
    concepts with language practice.

89
Lesson Preparation
  • 5. Adaptation of content (e.g., text, assignment)
  • to all levels of student proficiency
  • With careful prepa
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