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War Between the States 1861-65


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Title: War Between the States 1861-65

War Between the States 1861-65

Discussion/Essay Question
  • The Northern victory over the Confederacy was
  • Assess the validity of this statement.

Civil War Need to Know
  • The Union
  • Mobilization and finance
  • Civil liberties
  • Election of 1864
  • The South
  • Confederate constitution
  • Mobilization and finance
  • States' rights and the Confederacy
  • Foreign affairs and diplomacy
  • Military strategy, campaigns, and battles
  • The abolition of slavery
  • Confiscation Acts
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Freedmen's Bureau
  • Thirteenth Amendment
  • Effects of war on society
  • Inflation and public debt
  • Role of women
  • Devastation of the South
  • Changing labor patterns

The Effects of the War
  • 618,000 died in the Civil War
  • Ended States Rights concept forever
  • Strengthened the Supremacy of Federal Government
    over the States
  • Accelerated economic development of the North
  • Made Republican Party a powerful and enduring
  • Devastated the Economy of the South
  • Ended Slavery (Emancipation Proclamation 1863 and
    13th Amendment 1865)

Lincolns First Inauguration Carrot and Stick
  • Carrot
  • Tried to reassure the South that he would not
    interfere with Slavery where it existed.
  • He would enforce Fugitive Slave Act
  • We are not enemies but friends. Though passion
    may have strained, it must not break our bonds of
  • Stick
  • He would fight.
  • He would, Employ all powersto reclaim the
    public property and places which have fallen
    places belonging to the government.

President Lincoln's First Inaugural Address,
March 4, 1861
  • In your hands, my dissatisfied
    fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the
    momentous issue of civil war. The Government will
    not assail you. You can have no conflict without
    being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath
    registered in heaven to destroy the Government,
    while I shall have the most solemn one to
    ''preserve, protect, and defend it.

  • It seems clear that in both the North and South,
    sectional antagonisms had risen to such a point
    that the existing terms of union had become
  • They had grown to be two distinct and
    incompatible civilizations
  • They were incapable of living together in peace.

Sentiments on Both sides were Extreme
  • RW Emerson I do not see how a barbarous
    community and a civilized community can
    constitute one state. (Northern View)
  • (Southern View) These people hate us, annoy us,
    and would have us assassinated by our slaves if
    they dared. They are different people from us,
    whether better of worse, and there is no love
    between us. Why then continue together?

  • After Fort Sumter both sides rush to war
  • Nationalism was high
  • Volunteers were plentiful
  • The Confederates wanted independence
  • The Yankees wanted to punish the traitors
  • Armies were raised, equipped, and prepared for

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The Union and Confederacy in 1861
Why did Border States remain in the Union?
Preparations for War North
  • Advantages
  • Natural Resources,
  • Superior Navy
  • Population 3x more
  • 90 of countrys Factories
  • Railroads
  • Production of Firearms, cloth, iron, boots/shoes
  • Disadvantages
  • At first not prepared for war
  • People thought it would only last a short time
  • Needed arms, munitions, equipment
  • Poor leadership
  • Had to fight a war of conquest Invade the South
  • Divided Public Opinion

Preparations for War South
  • Advantages
  • Food Production
  • Virginia had Armories and produced weapons
  • Harpers Ferry Armory
  • Cotton
  • Good military leadership-
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • Good soldiers
  • Disadvantages
  • At first Weapons Shortage
  • Lacked Manufacturing
  • Lacked Transportation
  • Few Rail Roads
  • Needed to import Arms and Equipment
  • (British)
  • Low population
  • Low Resources
  • Little Navy

Resources North the South
Railroad Lines, 1860
Financing the War
  • North
  • Borrow Money- (most) (2.6 Billion)
  • Bonds (400 million)
  • Print Money-Causes inflation
  • Levying Taxes
  • Income Taxes
  • Taxes on goods
  • South
  • Borrow Money- Bonds
  • Print Money-Causes inflation
  • Taxes
  • Cotton export

2 million served in Union Army Most Volunteered
Men Present for Duty in the Civil War
Union had only 16,000 Troops in 1861
Enrolment Act Draft
  • A Poor Mans War
  • People drafted could hire substitutes or pay a
    300 fee to be released
  • Draft law causes tremendous resistance especially
    in New York City Irish Immigrants riot 4 days
    July 1863
  • Racial overtones
  • NYC Democratic City
  • Some wanted to secede from the Union and even
    make it a neutral city
  • 1863- Volunteers for the Army decrease
  • War is bloody and tens of thousands die
  • Union passes and enforces a draft law-
  • Raise troops for the war
  • 46,000 conscripted

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Lincoln and Civil Liberties
  • 1862- as the war goes badly for the North
  • Lincoln uses executive power to remove criticism
    and insure order
  • Executive order of war powers suspends Habeas
    Corpus Due process rights to a trial
  • Authorizes arrests of Anti-War Protestors
  • Anyone associated with Disloyal Practices
  • Especially in Border States
  • Arrested 13,000 people
  • Example Copperheads Peace Democrats
  • Northerners who were against the war

Example- Northern Civil Liberties
  • Copperhead Congressman Clement Valldingham
  • Ohio politician
  • Arrested and denied Habeas Corpus
  • Opposed the war, arrested and then deported to
    the CSA
  • Good Link
  • Ex parte Merriman and Ex parte Milligan

Overview of Civil War Strategy Anaconda Plan
Northern Strategy
  • Lincoln Saw that the North should win by
    resource power
  • Saw the key to victory Destruction of the CSA
    Armies (not the conquest of territory)
  • Isolate the South from trade
  • Squeeze the South into Submission
  • Large scale invasion of Southern Territory
  • 1862 Concept of Total War- There is no hope for
  • We must conquer the Rebels or be conquered by

Course of the War (Map)
  • Statistics of Battles
  • Timeline of Civil (War Link)
  • April 1861 Fort Sumter
  • April 17, Virginia Secedes
  • 1861 Blockade
  • July 1st First Bull Run/Manassas (CSA Victory)
  • McClellan Appointed General in Chief USA
  • November 1861 Trent Affair
  • 1861 Confiscation Act addresses slaves that come
    under the power of the Union forces All slaves
    used for insurrection purposes would be
    considered freed .

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  • Stalemate in the East
  • Movement and progress for the Union in the WEST
  • Feb 25 Nashville Falls to Union
  • March 9 Monitor and Merrimac (CSS Virginia) fight
    (Ironclad Ships)
  • April 9 Battle of Shiloh (TN) Grant US Victory
    23,746 killed (US 63,000 KIA 13,000) (CS 40,000
    KIA 11,000)
  • May Peninsula Campaign Begun US attacks South
    trying to take Richmond
  • April 25 New Orleans Falls to Admiral Farragut US

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1862 continued
  • May Stonewall Jackson defeats US in Shenandoah
    Valley US troops rush to protect Washington DC.
    (CS Victory)
  • May 31 Seven Pines Battle (on Peninsula) US vs
    Lee (CS Victory)
  • July 2 Seven Days Battle, Lee wins Peninsula
    Campaign (CS Victory)
  • July 10 McClellan removed from top spot in US
    Army, General Halleck appointed commander US
  • August 2nd Bull Run/Manassas Pope defeated (CS
  • Sept Army of Northern Virginia (Lees Army)
    Marches North to Maryland
  • Sept 17 Bloodiest single day of the war
  • Battle of Antietam- Lee invades and is met at
    town of Sharpsburg, 2, 108 Union KIA, 9,549
  • CSA 2,700 KIA, 9,024 wounded (US victory)
  • December 11-15 Fredericksburg, 13,000 US
    casualties, 5,000 CS casualties (CS victory)

Progress of war
The Progress of War 1861-1865
The War in the East
War in the East 1861-1862
McClellan quote
  • After being demoted by Lincoln and Stanton the
    Secretary of War
  • He had lost all regard and respect for the
    administration and doubted the propriety of my
    brave mens blood being shed to further the
    designs of such a set of heartless villains.
  • Regarding Hallek vented his anger at serving
    under an officer whom I know to be my inferior.
  • As for Stanton, he was a deformed hypocrite
    villainif he had lived in the time of the
    Savior, Judas Iscariot would have remained a
    respected member of the fraternity of Apostles.

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Foreign Affairs
  • North
  • Wanted no foreign intervention
  • South
  • Wanted recognition from foreign governments-
    Britain or France
  • Wanted intervention from British

1863 (Link)
  • January Emancipation Proclamation
  • March First Conscription Act Passed
  • April 27 May 1 Chancellorsville
  • Lee defeats US Hooker by splitting his forces and
    attacks in 3 places (CSA Victory)
  • May 10 Stonewall Jackson dies
  • Lee loses his best General
  • July Vicksburg falls (Grant) to Union forces,
    Mississippi is controlled by US.
  • July 1-3 Gettysburg
  • Lee invades Pennsylvania trying to gain
    recognition of England and France
  • Terrible Battle 90,000 US vs 75000 CSA
  • Lee loses 1/3 of his army and can not get them
    back (28,000)
  • Meade does not continue the attack and Lee
    retreats back to VA and is able to continue the
    fight. (lost 23,000)

1863 Continued Link
  • September 19-20 (WEST) Battle of Chickamauga TN
  • CS Victory CS 70,000 vs US 56,000
  • Casualties CS 18, 454 US 16,179
  • November 19, Gettysburg Address
  • Lincoln refocuses the struggle A new birth of
  • November 23-25 Battle of Chattanooga
  • Grant Drives CS out of Tennessee
  • December Lincolns Reconstruction Plan announced

Gettysburg Address
  • Four score and seven years ago our fathers
    brought forth on this continent, a new nation,
    conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
    proposition that all men are created equal. Now
    we are engaged in a great civil war, testing
    whether that nation, or any nation so conceived
    and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on
    a great battle-field of that war. We have come to
    dedicate a portion of that field, as a final
    resting place for those who here gave their lives
    that that nation might live. It is altogether
    fitting and proper that we should do this. But,
    in a larger sense, we can not dedicatewe can not
    consecratewe can not hallowthis ground. The
    brave men, living and dead, who struggled here,
    have consecrated it, far above our poor power to
    add or detract. The world will little note, nor
    long remember what we say here, but it can never
    forget what they did here. It is for us the
    living, rather, to be dedicated here to the
    unfinished work which they who fought here have
    thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us
    to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
    before usthat from these honored dead we take
    increased devotion to that cause for which they
    gave the last full measure of devotionthat we
    here highly resolve that these dead shall not
    have died in vainthat this nation, under God,
    shall have a new birth of freedomand that
    government of the people, by the people, for the
    people, shall not perish from the earth.

African Americans and the Union Army
  • 186,000 serve in Union Army, Navy, and laborers
  • Most blacks served in support/labor
  • 54th Massachusetts, Capt. Robert Gould Shaw
  • Blacks captured were returned to slavery or

Confiscation Acts
  • May 1861- Law that allowed Union forces to seize
    enemy material and property of rebellious states
    and citizens for the war effort.
  • Property included slaves
  • Allowed Federal Government to use these slaves
    for the war effort
  • 1862 2nd Confiscation Act
  • Declared free slaves of persons aiding and
    supporting the rebellion
  • Authorized President to employ Freed Slaves as

  • January Emancipation Proclamation signed
  • Lincoln was pressured to create a policy
    regarding slaves in the rebellious states.
  • Previous, Confiscation Acts were used to address
    Slaves that come under the jurisdiction of Union
  • After the victory of Antietam he was persuaded to
    try and weaken the Confederacy

Emancipation Proclamation
  • Executive order of the President
  • Applied only to Slaves in Rebellious states
    (except those already under Union control- TN,
    West VA, Southern Louisiana)
  • Stated as of January 1, 1863
  • I do order and declare that all persons held as
    slaves within said designated States and parts of
    States are, and henceforward shall be free and
    that the Executive government of the United
    States, including the military and naval
    authorities thereof, shall recognize and maintain
    the freedom of said persons.

Significance of Emancipation Proclamation
  • The war was expanded to end Slavery
  • Allowed for the recruitment and use of Blacks
    into the Union Army
  • Did not address slavery in Border States of
    Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, or Delaware

Radical Republicans Review
  • Free every slave-slay every traitor-burn every
    rebel mansion, if these things be necessary to
    preserve this temple of freedom. We must treat
    this war as a radical revolution, and remodel our
  • Radical Republicans
  • Thaddeus Stevens (Rep PA)
  • Charles Sumner (Senator MA)
  • Benjamin Wade (Senator OH)

1864 Link
  • January- Grant appointed Commander of US forces
    and has new plan
  • He has now lots of troops ready to fight with
    many veterans.
  • Attack South through Georgia (Sherman)
  • Attack due South from DC to Richmond and keep up
    relentless pressure.
  • May 5-7 (East) Battle of Wilderness (CSA Victory)
  • US 115,000 vs CS 73,000
  • Casualties US 55,000 CS 31,000
  • May 8-12 (East) Battle of Spotsylvania (Union
  • 5 day battle, Grant doesnt wait to attack Lee
    after Wilderness
  • Casualties US 18,000 CS 12,000

  • June 1-3 (East) Battle of Cold Harbor (CSA
  • Grant still pushing South after Lee, Grant loses
    7,000 in 20 minutes
  • CS 62,000 vs US 108,000
  • Casualties CS 2,500 US 12,000
  • June (East) (US) Siege of Petersburg begins
    (getting close to Richmond)
  • Key RR transport and supply for Richmond
  • Grant still pushing Lee
  • June Battle of Kennesaw Mountain (GA) (CSA
  • Sherman attacking South from TN
  • US 90,000 vs CS 60,000
  • July Crater at Petersburg link
  • Union miners dig under city fortifications and
    blow up tons of explosives and rush in to be

  • September December Shermans March to the Sea
  • September 2 Battle of Atlanta (US Victory)
  • Sherman conquers and burns Atlanta
  • Begins March to the Sea Savannah GA
  • November Lincoln Re-elected President
  • Johnson VP (Democrat from TN) on the Union Ticket
  • December Sherman reaches Savannah (Union Victory)
  • Leaves devastation of 60 miles wide swath

Shermans March to the Sea Nov. 1864-Dec. 1864
  • Sherman marches through Georgia perpetrating
    massive destruction in an effort to break the
    will of the South
  • I can make the march and make Georgia howl!
  • We cannot change the hearts of those people of
    the South, but we can make war so terrible and
    make them so sick of war that generations would
    pass away before they would again appeal to it.

Pictures of Sherman
  • Civil War Pictures
  • http//www.wildwestweb.net/cwleaders/cwleaders.htm

Election of 1864
  • Election in which the candidates were George
    McClellan and Abraham Lincoln
  • George McClellan was a Peace Democrat or
    Copperhead and he wanted to negotiate a
    compromise with the South.
  • Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans campaigned
    for continuation of the War until the South
    surrendered unconditionally
  • Shermans Victory in Atlanta saves Lincolns
    reelection and the Union
  • Lincoln won with an astounding 55 of the popular


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Election 1864
Presidential Election of 1864
  • March Lincolns Second Inaugural speech
  • Promises Leniency
  • March Freedmens Bureau Established
  • April Petersburg Falls
  • Richmond is cot off from supplies
  • April 9 Appomattox Court House
  • Lee Surrenders to Grant
  • April 14 Lincoln is Shot by John Wilkes Booth and
  • April 15 Andrew Johnson is the 17th President.

Lincolns Second Inaugural
  • Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that
    this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass
    away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until
    all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two
    hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall
    be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with
    the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the
    sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so
    still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord
    are true and righteous altogether."
  • With malice toward none, with charity for all,
    with firmness in the right as God gives us to see
    the right, let us strive on to finish the work we
    are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care
    for him who shall have borne the battle and for
    his widow and his orphan, to do all which may
    achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace
    among ourselves and with all nations

What messages is Lincoln sending to the people of
America with this speech?
Lee Surrenders at Appomattox April 9, 1865
  • Grant takes Richmond and no hope is left for the

Casualties both sides
Casualties on Both Sides
Casualties compared to other wars
Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
Northern/Republican Economic Measures Passed
During War.
  • Homestead Act 1862
  • Live on it for 5yrs
  • 160 acres of public land
  • Purchased for small fee
  • Morrill Land Grant Act 1862
  • Public land toe state gov
  • States sell land
  • Use for public Education colleges and
  • Tariff
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Union Pacific? West from Omaha, NA
  • Central Pacific ?East from CA
  • New National Bank

Reconstruction Quiz
  • How do you think the South should be treated
    after the war?
  • What should happen politically?
  • What should happen to the leaders?
  • What should happen to the former slaves?

Southern Attitudes
  • I rode with Robert E. Lee, For three years,
    thereabouts. Got wounded in four places And
    starved at Point Lookout. I caughts the
    rheumatism A-camping in the snow. But I killed a
    chance of Yankees And I'd like to kill some
    mo'. Three hundred thousand Yankees Lie still in
    Southern dust We got three hundred
    thousand Before they conquered us. They died of
    Southern fever And Southern steel and shot. I
    wish they were three millions Instead of what we
    got. I can't take up my musket And fight 'em now
    no more, But I ain't going to love 'em, Now that
    is certain sure
  • I don't want no pardon For what I was and am, I
    won't be reconstructed And I do not give a damn.
  • Im a Good Old Rebel Oh, I'm a good old
    Rebel Now that's just what I am. For this Yankee
    nation I do not give a damn. I'm glad I fought
    agin her, I only wish we'd won. I ain't asked any
    pardon For anything I've done. I hates the
    yankee nation And everything they do, I hates the
    declaration Of independence, too I hates the
    glorious union- tis dripping with our blood- And
    I hates their striped banner, I fought it all I

Reconstruction Need to Know
  • Presidential plans Lincoln and Johnson
  • Radical (congressional) plans
  • Civil rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
  • Military reconstruction
  • Impeachment of Johnson
  • African American suffrage the Fifteenth
  • Southern state governments problems,
    achievements, weaknesses
  • Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction

Reconstruction Essay
  • Analyze the goals and strategies of
    Reconstruction of Two of the following
  • President Lincoln
  • President Johnson
  • Congressional Republicans
  • Thesis President Lincoln and President
    Johnsons approach to reconstruction provided for
    lenient reintroduction of Southern states into
    the Union while, conversely Congressional
    Republicans wanted to only reintroduce the
    Southern states under strict conditions.

Reconstruction Defined
  • Reconstruction is the process used to bring the
    South back into the political Union.
  • Presidential Reconstruction- Lincoln/Johnson
  • Radical Reconstruction
  • End of Reconstruction

Each Plan Answered These Questions
  • How will the rebellious states participate in
  • What terms will they reenter the Union?
  • What will happen to the Black Population
  • What should happen to the Confederate leaders?

Reconstruction Begins Before War Ends
  • 13th Amendment
  • Before the War was over January 1865, Congress
    submitted to the states for ratification
  • Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary
    servitude, except as a punishment for crime
    whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
    shall exist within the United States, or any
    place subject to their jurisdiction.
  • Ratification was complete December 1865

Presidential Plans Lincoln
  • Issues a Proclamation of Amnesty and
  • Spelled out terms for state to rejoin union
  • Ten Percent Plan
  • Full pardon for Confederates
  • Restore all property
  • Loyalty Oath Required
  • Accept Abolition
  • When 10 of the eligible voters take Oath- State
    can reenter the union, send Reps to Congress.
  • Beginning with the 2nd Inaugural, Malice toward
    none, charity for all
  • Lincoln previews his plan to bring sister states
    of the south back into the community of states.
  • Goal of easy reintroduction to Union
  • Strategy of Leniency
  • No provisions for Freedmen

Lincolns Plan continued
  • Suffrage for blacks who
  • Were educated
  • Held property
  • Fought in the Union Army
  • LA, ARK, Tennessee all come into Union under
    Lincolns plans

Congressional Reaction to Lincolns Plan
  • Congressional Republicans did not like Lincolns
  • Too Lenient on the Rebels
  • Need more punitive (punish) components
  • Wanted more support for Freedmen
  • Responded with the Wade-Davis Bill (July 1864)
  • A set of extreme requirements included
  • President Appointed Provisional Governor for
    former CS states
  • Majority of Confederates had to take oaths
  • Conventions had to be developed to approve new
    state constitutions
  • Disenfranchise Former CSA civil and Military
  • Repudiate CSA debts
  • New state constitutions had to ban Slavery and
    hold political rights to blacks
  • Lincoln uses the Pocket Veto to veto.
  • (Pocket Veto is where the president ignores bill
    to kill it)

President Johnson
  • Lincoln is Assassinated
  • Johnson Sworn in as President
  • Johnson was doomed, could not work with
    Republican Congress
  • He was a Democrat
  • Elected under a Unity Platform (Republicans and
    Dems create a coalition ticket election 1864)
  • From Tennessee, A Southerner
  • Self-Made Man
  • Didnt like the rich leadership of the South
  • Stubborn, Intolerant
  • Reluctant to Compromise, Racist
  • Republicans thought he would punish the south
  • Treason is a crime that must be made odious
    Traitors must be impoverished, They must not only
    be impoverished but their social power must be

  • Personality
  • Intemperate
  • Tactless
  • Resentful
  • Insecure
  • Hostile to freed slaves
  • White men alone must manage the South

Presidential Plans Johnson similar to
Wade-Davis Bill
  • 15,000 applied to Johnson for pardons
  • I am so sorry---please forgive me.  Please
    restore my rights!
  • Appoint Provisional Governors
  • Constitutional conventions were to be held
  • Slavery was to be outlawed
  • Nullify acts of secession
  • Repudiate all debts of the Confederacy
  • Results
  • Southern governments followed the process-
    however a number states refused to recognize 13th
  • Former confederate leaders where appointed and
    elected to power
  • Black Codes were developed to limit former
  • All of these measures angered the Republican
    Congress and they acted to end force the South to
  • Goal to bring the South back into the Union fast-
    but limit the rich
  • Strategy Oaths, leniency, limit power of wealthy
  • Issued Proclamations
  • Amnesty and restoration of property rights for
    all who took oath of loyalty to Union and
    emancipation, 51 of eligible voters
  • Confederate officials-and wealthy confederates
    with property of 20,000 or were ineligible or
    could apply individually to president.

Congress Reacts to Johnson Plan
  • End of 1865 all seceded states had new Govs
  • Radical Republicans were angry newly loyal
    states send prominent Confederates to Congress
  • Stephens (former VP of CSA)
  • After investigation- Congress found that the
    Freedmen were not being treated fairly
  • Black Codes- state laws limiting former slaves
  • Fines for vagrancy
  • Force blacks to work on plantations
  • December 1865 Congress Created its own plan for
  • Freedmens Bureau, a Federal support organization
    was extended- helped former slaves with
    education, food, settling labor disputes, and
    even helping poor whites. (renewed)
  • Republican Congress wanted protection for
    freedmen, they wanted to change the culture of
    the South, including Black Suffrage and land
  • Create Joint Committee on Reconstruction

Congress Reacts to Johnson
  • Civil Rights Act 1866
  • Pass Funding Bill for Freedmans Bureau
  • Also declares blacks citizens
  • Authorizes Federal Power to intervene in States
    to protect rights.
  • Johnson Vetoes bills in 1866.
  • Republicans unite against Johnson and mobilize

14th Amendment
  • 14th Amendment Passed
  • Aimed at supporting African Americans
  • Overturned Dredd Scott decision- Former slaves
    are now citizens
  • Defined citizenship born in US and naturalized
  • Equal protection under the laws Citizens are
    granted Privileges and Immunities guaranteed by
  • Penalties for denying rights
  • Reinforced due process
  • Federal Government can intervene to protect equal
    treatment under the law
  • Prohibited former CSA from holding office, unless
    2/3rds congress consented

14th Amendment
  • Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
    United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
    thereof, are citizens of the United States and of
    the state wherein they reside. No state shall
    make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
    privileges or immunities of citizens of the
    United States nor shall any state deprive any
    person of life, liberty, or property, without due
    process of law nor deny to any person within its
    jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or
    Representative in Congress, or elector of
    President and Vice President, or hold any office,
    civil or military, under the United States, or
    under any state, who, having previously taken an
    oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer
    of the United States, or as a member of any state
    legislature, or as an executive or judicial
    officer of any state, to support the Constitution
    of the United States, shall have engaged in
    insurrection or rebellion against the same, or
    given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
    Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each
    House, remove such disability. (limits former
    Confederates from holding office)
  • Section 5. The Congress shall have power to
    enforce, by appropriate legislation, the
    provisions of this article.

Radical or Congressional Reconstruction begins
  • Republicans Win Congressional Election of 1866-
    more Senate 42 (Radical GOP) to 11 Dem
  • House143 (Radical GOP) to 49 Dem
  • Reconstruction Act 1867- Passed over Johnsons
  • Goals
  • To support Freedmen
  • To punish the Southern leadership for the War
  • To reorder Southern society so African Americans
    had a chance to change the culture of the South

Leaders of the Radical Republicans
  • Thaddeus Stevens Republican Majority Leader
  • Charles Sumner- Republican Senator
  • Pro-Equality
  • Strip a proud nobility off their bloated states
    reduce them to a level with plain Republicans
    send them forth to labor and teach their children
    to enter the workshops or handle the plow and you
    will thus humble the proud traitors.

Radical or Congressional Reconstruction 1867
  • Radical bills passed over Veto
  • 1868 Tennessee Admitted immediately
  • Congress rejected Lincoln-Johnson reconstructed
  • 5 Military Districts created the South
  • Enforce order to register qualified voters
  • All adult black males
  • White males not in the rebellion
  • New State Constitutions- insure black suffrage
  • States had to ratify new states had to ratify 13
    and 14th amendments
  • Tenure of Office Act (an effort to remove the
    president as an obstacle to reconstruction
  • Limits President from removing cabinet officers
    without Senate approval
  • Command of Army Act- Prohibits the president from
    issuing military orders
  • Process for states to enter Union
  • New State Constitutional Conventions
  • Ratify 14th Amendment
  • New State Constitutions must include Black

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
  • Northerners who moved South to exploit the poor
    whites and aid the blacks
  • Southerners who worked with the Reconstruction
    forces for greedy purposes

15th Amendment
  • African American Males 21 years old, get the
    Right to Vote
  • Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United
    States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by
    the United States or by any State on account of
    race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to
    enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • At first Blacks will vote, but as time goes on
    State laws and intimidation (KKK) suppress the
    black vote- literacy tests and Poll taxes

Southern State Governments problems,
achievements, weaknesses
  • Positive
  • Many blacks participate early
  • First black Senator elected, Hiram Revels,
  • Freedmens Bureau helps a lot
  • Blacks gain some economic mobility
  • Congress tries to help with Enforcement Acts- to
    repress the KKK and help protect blacks
  • Negative
  • KKK develops to terrorize blacks
  • Redeemers- Southern Democrats want to remove
    republican governors in the South and restore
    traditional Southern leadership
  • Segregation develops
  • Old Southern leadership regains power and
    reconstruction seems to be a complete failure.

New Republican Southern Governments
  • 10 States in south
  • Black majorities
  • South Carolina (pop)
  • Mississippi (pop)
  • Louisiana (pop)
  • Alabama (voters but not pop)
  • Florida (voters but not pop)
  • Republicans maintained control with some Southern

Freedmen Asserting Rights and Culture
  • We claim exactly the same rights privileges and
    immunities as are enjoyed by white men we ask
    nothing more and will be content with nothing
  • Black Churches Established
  • Blacks Held public offices
  • 20 blacks in House of Reps
  • 2 Senators Hiram Revels and Bruce (Mississippi)
  • Blacks had large say in state legislators
  • Freedmen's Bureau established 4000 schools

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Johnson Impeachment
  • Johnson had tried to obstruct Radical
  • He appointed sympathetic military leaders to
    supervise the South
  • He encouraged Southerners to resist Federal law
  • Resisted the racial equality insisted by Congress
  • House Republicans were waiting for an
    excuse-Johnson gave them one when he removed
    Secretary of War Stanton from office. (Tenure of
    Office Act)
  • The House passed Impeachment Act with a 2/3 vote

  • Johnson not removed from office.
  • Not convicted in the Senate
  • 35 to 19 is not 2/3ds
  • 1 vote

Grant Administration 1868
  • Election 1868 US Grant nominated by Republicans-
  • 500,000 Black voters make a difference
  • Corruption
  • Clumsey, ineffectual,
  • Relied on party leaders- patronage and the spoils
  • No reform

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Grant Scandals
  • Credit Mobilier- RR scandal and Bribery
  • Economic problems Greenbacks vs Hard Currency

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Life in the South
  • Devastated economically- (Sherman)
  • In Alabama alone, two hundred thousand persons
    are in danger of extreme suffering, if not of
    actual starvation December 1865

African American Life
  • Immediately after war trends develop for African
  • Many moved from plantations
  • Reunited with family
  • Institutions created
  • Schools
  • Churches
  • Sharecropping Develops
  • Freedmen plant and work plots of land in exchange
    for a of the crop that goes to the owner.
  • Keeps blacks poor and in perpetual debt

Southerners Create Black Codes
  • Black Codes were laws created to limit political,
    economic and social aspects of life for former
  • Contracts for labor
  • Employment laws
  • Licenses to work
  • Travel limitations
  • Segregation
  • Race mixing laws
  • All laws were used to limit blacks so they would
    be second-class citizens

KKK 1866
  • Responding to new social circumstances
  • Former Confederates- (Nathan Bedford Forrest)
    form Ku Klux Klan
  • To terrorize and enforce traditional
    subordination of African Americans

Compromise of 1877
  • Election of 1876
  • Repubs Rutherford B. Hayes, Ohio His
  • Dems Samuel J. Tilden, New York
  • In the middle of an Economic Depression
  • Corruption on both sides, deadlock in electoral
  • Commission, decision agreed upon, Hayes wins the
    Presidency- although no evidence, seem there was
    a deal to withdrawal Federal troops from the rest
    of the South.
  • Redeemer governments would take over (all
    Democrats) and the South would continue in the
    Democratic party structure till the 1960s
  • Resulted in the End of Reconstruction
  • Nast Cartoon http//www.learner.org/biographyofa

New South
  • Redeemers
  • New South Creed
  • Romanticization of the South

Crop Lien System
Booker T. Washington
  • Atlanta Compromise
  • Up from slavery
  • Tuskegee Institute (AL)
  • Plessey V. Ferguson
  • Jim Crowe Laws
  • Grandfather Laws/Clause
  • Poll Tax
  • Literacy Tests
  • Lynching
  • Ida B Wells
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