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Egypt: Gift of the Nile


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Title: Egypt: Gift of the Nile

  • Egypt Gift of the Nile

(No Transcript)
  • The Nile valley supplied abundant food to
    those who lived there, while the mountains and
    desert on either side provided them with
    security. Ancient Egypt developed and prospered
    on 750 navigable miles of a river that is 4000
    miles in length. Where it empties into the
    Mediterranean, the Nile creates a fertile delta,
    known as Lower Egypt, where the Egyptian
    civilization first began. Upper Egypt is arid
    except for the narrow fertile land on either side
    of the river. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote
    that "Egypt is the gift of the Nile." By this he
    meant that the Nile determined Egypts economy,
    its form of government, and its culture.

In ancient Egypt, the Nile River served as
the most important transportation route. Boats,
much like these, were used to move people and
cargo up and down it.
The Nile River at sunset. Amun-Re, the sun god,
was one of ancient Egypt's most important gods.
Construction of this colonnade was started by
Amenhotep III in the 13th century BC. Over 60
feet tall, the 14 sandstone columns are shaped
like papyrus plants.
  • Egyptian Obelisk
  • The ancient Egyptians often placed obelisks
    carved from stone at the entrances to their

  • Horus Statue at Edfu Temple
  • Horus was a falcon-headed sky god closely
    associated with every pharaoh.

Here we see tourists being helped up a pyramid
in Egypt.
This picture was taken in the late 1890s.
Sphinx and pyramid built by the pharoah, Khafre
The pharaoh Khafre had this sphinx carved to
guard the way to his pyramid over 4,500 years ago.
Step Pyramid from a distance Built almost 5,000
years ago as the burial place for king Zoser
(Djoser) of the Old Kingdom, the Step Pyramid is
the oldest stone memorial building known.
Great Pyramid at GizaWhen first built, the
pyramids had flat polished sides of white
limestone. Over the years, almost all of the
siding was removed for use as building material
in Cairo
The Sphinx of Memphis, also known as the
"Alabaster Sphinx" because is made of calcite, is
26 feet long and 3,500 years old.
  • Akhenaten Changes Egyptian Art
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Scarab beetles symbolized the sun god Khepri, who
ancient Egyptians believed pushed the sun across
the sky.
Hieroglyph in the form of an owlThis hieroglyph
stands for the sound made by the letter M. It was
carved into an Egyptian tomb wall about 2500 BC.
Slavery was a reality of life for a large part of
ancient Egypt's population. Even common people
who were nominally free could be conscripted by
the king for construction projects during the
annual floods, when agricultural work could not
be performed. These slaves are being punished for
misdeeds. A relief in the mastaba of Governor Ti
at Saqqara.
An ancient Egyptian wall painting depicting the
conquest of Egypt in predynastic times. Around
3100 B.C. King Menes united the regions of Upper
and Lower Egypt into a single state. From that
time to the present, the Nile valley civilization
has largely remained under centralized
administrative rule. In this painting the people
in the black boat, its prow situated at right,
represent the intruders.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments. Among
these instruments are knives, pincers, scissors,
spoons, a saw, various bowls, and a balance. The
ancient Egyptians were very knowledgeable about
the functions and structure of the human body.
This relief is from the temple at Kom Ombo, Egypt.
Ancient Egyptians regarded bees as important
because of the honey they produced. According to
an Egyptian myth, bees were created when the
sun-god Re wept. His tears fell to earth as bees.
The bee was used as a symbol of lower Egypt.
  • Hieroglyphs in the form of an ibis
  • Hieroglyphs are the earliest known writing
    system. This one was carved into an Egyptian tomb
    wall about 2500 BC.

Hieroglyphs the sun-disk and a bird. The round
disk represents the Sun "Re" (or Ra) and the bird
signifies "Son of." The ancient Egyptians
believed that their kings were literally sons of
Re, the sun god. This carving is from a granite
column in the Hall of Annals of Thutmose III at
Karnak, Egypt.
Ibis were thought of as sacred birds in ancient
http//www.unitedstreamingVideo clip on
PapyrusPaper, Writing, and Numbers
Papyrus is a reed that grows along the banks of
the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians used it to
make everything from boats and sandals to baskets
and writing material.
Papyrus plants growing in a channel of the Nile
Delta in Egypt. Papyrus (cyperus papyrus,) a
member of the sedge family, was important in the
daily life of ancient Egypt. The roots were used
as fuel and the pith was eaten. Other uses of the
papyrus plant included sandals, boats, rope,
mats, cloth, and most notably a paper-like
writing material.
This picture shows the minaret, or prayer tower,
of a mosque in Cairo, Egypt.
Anubis The Jackal Headed GodHe was the guide
of the dead as they made their way through the
darkness of the underworld. As a patron of magic,
it was believed he could foresee a persons
destiny, in this role he was the announcer of
Osiris At first the God of corn later the God
of the dead. Osiris brought civilization to the
Egyptians, teaching them the uses of corn and
wine, weaving, sculpture, religion, music and law.
  • This market in Cairo, Egypt, was started over
    700 years ago.

Small towns such as this one are common in Egypt.
Fruit stands are a standard feature of Egypt's
food markets.
Camels are still an important means of
transportation in many parts of the world.
Great Pyramid at GizaWhen first built, the
pyramids had flat polished sides of white
limestone. Over the years, almost all of the
siding was removed for use as building material
in Cairo
  • There are many topics you could study when
    thinking about the amazing culture of the
    Egyptians. Some of these include
  • Religion Gods/Goddesses and Life After Death
  • Pyramids
  • Trading
  • Animals in Egypt
  • Sahara Desert
  • Jewelry and Clothing
  • Fashion of the Egyptians
  • Medicine
  • Food and drink
  • The Social Class Ladder
  • Famous Pharaohs Kings and Queens
  • Mummification
  • The Roles of Men and Women
  • Nubia

  • Read through our classroom books about Egypt and
    decide which three topics you are most interested
    in learning more about!