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Aksum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe

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African Kingoms AKSUM, GHANA, MALI, SONGHAI, ZIMBABWE Aksum (Axum) Arabians crossed the Red Sea and intermarried with people from modern-day Ethiopia These people ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aksum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe


1
African Kingoms
  • Aksum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Zimbabwe

2
Aksum (Axum)
  • Arabians crossed the Red Sea and intermarried
    with people from modern-day Ethiopia
  • These people created the kingdom of Aksum

3
Aksum gains power
  • In the 300s AD, Aksum destroyed Kush, becoming
    the most powerful kingdom in Eastern Africa

4
A trading center
  • Aksum becomes an important trading center for
    goods around the Mediterranean, Africa, and Asia
  • Many new ideas introduced there, including
    Christianity

5
Aksum converts to Christianity
  • When a king named Ezana took the throne around
    400 AD, he converted to Christianity and made
    Christianity the official religion of Aksum
  • There are still millions of Christians in this
    region today.

6
Islamic Invasions
  • The Muslims invasions into North Africa after
    Muhammads death cut into Aksums territory and
    isolated it
  • Aksum would endure and become Ethiopia, but would
    never have the power it once held.

7
Swahili
  • Refers to the people who live as far north as
    Somalia in the Horn of Africa and as far south
  • Indian Ocean trade they are linked with
    Arabs
  • Blend of Arab Culture
  • Islam

8
West Africa
  • Below the Sahara Desert is a semi-dry region
    characterized by grasslands called the Sahel
    (also called Savannah)
  • The region is rich in gold deposits

9
Gold-Salt Trade
  • The Sahel region lacks salt deposits, and so
    people there had to trade for salt from the
    Sahara Desert
  • Several powerful empires developed around the
    trade of gold and salt and would control much of
    Western Africa for almost 1,000 years

10
Camels
  • Camels allowed the gold-salt trade to be
    successful. They allowed people to transport
    great quantities of gold and salt longer
    distances.
  • Other pack animals cannot cross the Sahara, but
    camels can because they can go up to 40 days
    without water.

11
Ghana
  • No one is really sure when the Ghana kingdom
    began, but they do know that it became very
    powerful
  • It is located between the Niger River and the
    Sahara Desert
  • Ghana became powerful because of its control of
    gold in the gold-salt trade across the Sahara
    Desert

12
Ghana
13
Ghana declines
  • Ghana eventually declined in power, mostly
    because it lost its control of the gold trade and
    because new gold mines were found farther east

14
Animism
  • The worship of nature spirits- spirits in plants,
    animals, sun, water, etc.
  • People from Ghana worshipped an animist religion
  • Still prominent in parts of Africa today

15
Mali
  • As Ghana declined in the 1200s AD, the kingdom
    of Mali gained in power.
  • Mali was centered around these new salt mines
    east of Ghana
  • Malis powerful king Sundiata Keita built an even
    larger empire
  • Several of its kings were very devout Muslims,
    even making the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).

16
Timbuktu
  • Mali established the city, Timbuktu, which was a
    center for trade and learning.
  • Universities were established to promote learning
  • Many converted to Islam, and built mosques.
  • Others incorporated parts of Islam into their
    animist beliefs

17
Mali and Timbuktu
18
  • Get out your books to page 416
  • Read the primary source
  • What does the word abhorrence mean in this
    passage?
  • What do the people of Mali do to guilty people?
  • How do you think this affects the feeling of
    safety in Mali?

19
Songhai
  • Eventually, Mali declined, and Songhai took its
    place and built an even larger empire
  • Also was also based on the gold-salt trade
  • And, it inherited much of Malis blend of Islamic
    and animist traditions

20
Songhai
21
Zimbabwe
  • So what do we knowabout Zimbabwe?

Z
L
22
Zimbabwe means stone houses
23
Zimbabwe abandoned
  • No one knows why Zimbabwe was abandoned, but they
    think it was because the land was over grazed and
    the soil depleted

24
Your Mission
  • Draw a map of Africa and
  • Indicate the locations of the kingdoms of Egypt,
    Kush, Aksum (Axum), Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and
    Zimbabwe
  • The location of the gold-salt trade
  • Indicate the years that Aksum, Ghana, Mali,
    Songhai, and Zimbabwe were in power
  • Indicate the religion of each
  • Indicate how each gained economic power
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