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Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Preschool Children

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Title: Overview of Chapter 11 Author: Robert Kail Last modified by: Pearson Education Created Date: 4/2/1998 8:08:34 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Preschool Children


1
Chapter 9 Cognitive Development in Preschool
Children
  • 9.1 Cognitive Processes
  • 9.2 Language
  • 9.3 Communicating with Others
  • 9.4 Early Childhood Education

2
9.1 Cognitive Processes
  • Piagets Account
  • Information-Processing Perspectives on Preschool
    Thinking
  • Vygotskys Theory of Cognitive Development

3
Piagets Account
  • Preschoolers are in Piagets preoperational stage
  • Children can use symbols but are many weaknesses
    in their thinking egocentrism, centration, and
    appearance as reality
  • Improved biological theories and theory of mind

9.1 Cognitive Processes
4
Three-Mountains Task
5
Conservation Tasks
6
Theory of Mind Task
7
Information-Processing Perspectives
  • During the preschool years, children become
    better at regulating their attention
  • Autobiographical memory originates in the
    preschool years
  • Preschoolers counting follows 3 basic principles

9.1 Cognitive Processes
8
Vygotskys Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Zone of proximal development difference between
    what one can do alone or with assistance
  • Scaffolding matching the amount of assistance to
    the learners needs
  • Private speech comments intended to regulate own
    behavior

9.1 Cognitive Processes
9
9.2 Language
  • Encouraging Word Learning
  • From Two-Word Speech to Complex Sentences
  • How Children Acquire Grammar

10
Encouraging Word Learning
  • Talk more, but with not at children
  • Ask children questions
  • Sesame Street helps (because its interactive)
  • Bilingual children learn language as rapidly as
    monolinguals

9.2 Language
11
The Effect of Asking Children Questions
12
From Two-Word Speech to Complex Sentences
  • Speech is often telegraphic in 2-year-olds
  • Gradually add grammatical morphemes
  • Easiest morphemes mastered first
  • Rule-based so errors of overregularization occur

9.2 Language
13
Wug Stimuli
14
How Children Acquire Grammar
  • Language input is important but more than just
    imitation because childrens speech has its own
    grammar
  • Neural mechanisms that help children find
    regularities (specific brain regions, critical
    period for learning language)
  • Semantic bootstrapping hypothesis children rely
    upon word meaning to discover grammar

9.2 Language
15
9.3 Communicating with Others
  • Taking Turns
  • Speaking Effectively
  • Listening Well

16
Taking Turns
  • Even before children speak, parents model
    turn-taking
  • By 3 years, children know this is a key rule

9.3 Communicating with Others
17
Speaking Effectively
  • Toddlers first conversations about themselves
  • Preschoolers adjust their speech based on the age
    of the listener and context
  • Understand that when listeners misunderstand,
    speakers need to do something

9.3 Communicating with Others
18
Listening Well
  • Preschoolers often dont detect ambiguities in
    messages or assume they understood the speakers
    intent.
  • Preschoolers are more likely to believe confusing
    statements or statements that contradict their
    beliefs when told by a parent instead of a
    classmate

9.3 Communicating with Others
19
9.4 Early Childhood Education
  • Varieties of Early Childhood Education
  • Preschool Programs for Economically Disadvantaged
    Children
  • Using TV to Educate Preschool Children

20
Varieties of Early Childhood Education
  • Preschools and day-care centers are not the same
  • Goal of child-centered programs is to educate the
    whole child
  • Academic programs follow an explicit curriculum
    to achieve academic goals
  • Many programs based on Piagetian ideas

9.4 Early Childhood Education
21
Preschool Programs for Economically Disadvantaged
  • Head Start fosters development of children from
    low-income families
  • In general, children in Head Start are healthier,
    less likely to repeat a grade, less likely to be
    in special education

9.4 Early Childhood Education
22
Using TV to Educate Preschool Children
  • 3-year-olds who watch Sesame Street regularly
    have larger vocabularies later
  • Viewers of shows that stress prosocial behavior
    are more likely to act prosocially
  • TV watching does not lead to decreased attention
    span, mixed findings regarding creativity

9.4 Early Childhood Education
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