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Authoritarian%20Regimes

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Title: Authoritarian%20Regimes


1
Authoritarian Regimes
  • Case Study Fascist Japan
  • Chapter 5

2
Chapter Objectives
  • The beginnings of Fascism and how it became
    popular
  • Factors contributing to the failure of the
    democratic government in Japan
  • Reasons for the rise of Fascism in Japan

3
EssentiallyThe Chapter is about
  • Impact of Economic Problems
  • Problems at the end of
  • World War I
  • 1929 Great Depression
  • Failure of the Democratic Government
  • Weakness of the Japanese Parliament
  • Corrupt Politicians
  • Lacked Support of Workers and Peasants

WHAT LED TO THE RISE OF FASCISM IN JAPAN
  • Fear of Chinese Nationalism
  • Anti-Japanese Protests

Unhappiness with Former Allied Powers 1919
Versailles Treaty 1921-22 Washington Naval
Conference Mid-1920s Immigration Issues
Unhappiness with Japanese Leaders who wanted
Friendly Ties with the former Allied Powers
4
Chapter AssignmentDue in Week 4
  1. To what extent did a weak Japanese parliament
    contribute to the failure of the democratic
    government in Japan? Explain your answer. (12m)
  2. Unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was
    the most important reason that led to the rise of
    fascism in Japan. How far do you agree with this
    statement? Explain your answer. (13m)

5
Activity 1
  • What is Fascism?
  • In groups of 4, come up with a mind-map on what
    Fascism is about
  • You may use your textbook as a guide
  • You have 10 minutes

6
What is Fascism?
Comes from the Italian word Fascio
Founded by Benito Mussolini in 1919
Founded at a time when Italy was having social
disorder and economic problems
Popular with the people as they believed that
Democracy was ineffective and inefficient and
that its leaders were weak
Fascism believed in Nation First and that
Democracy was weak as power was in the hands of
the people. Fascism believed in having strong
leadership
Fascism was spread throughout the world and in
Japan, the idea was strongly influenced by the
Military
Fascists also believed that the nation should
grow strong and expand hence they were popular
with young men and WWI veterans
Fascism also brought About a sense of belonging
7
Benito Mussolino
8
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Why did Fascism seem so attractive?
  • The Japanese democratic leaders were weak,
    corrupt and inefficient
  • As a result, they were unable to solve the
    economic problems that plagued the people of
    Japan
  • Since Fascism valued the nation and worked
    towards its progress through strong leadership,
    the idea appealed to many Japanese

9
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • The Factors
  • The Limited Power of the Diet
  • The Damage of Democracys Reputation by
    Corruption
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • Farmers Economic Problems
  • Workers Economic Problems
  • Trade Imbalance
  • Great Depression of 1929

10
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • The Limited Power of the Diet
  • Although there was a parliament (Diet), power
    remained with the Emperor and the Genro (retired
    statesmen who served the Emperor)
  • No power to make decisions or policies
  • Could not control the ministers as they were
    under the control of the Emperor

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12
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • The Limited Power of the Diet
  • As the Diet had no control over the government,
    its recommendations were usually overruled
  • As a result, the military wielded much power over
    the government

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14
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • The Damage of Democracys Reputation by
    Corruption
  • As Democratic leaders had to be elected into the
    Diet, political parties were formed with large
    sponsorship from the Zaibatsus
  • The Zaibatsus sponsored politicians in order to
    use the close ties to make the government pass
    laws that would benefit them

15
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • The Damage of Democracys Reputation by
    Corruption
  • Because of these close ties, there were many
    rumours of corruption
  • Due to these accusations, many political parties
    fought in parliament and disillusioned the
    Japanese people

16
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17
Zaibatsus
18
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • Farmers Economic Problems
  • Lack of land which led to a lack of profits as
    the plots were too small to grow more rice
  • Landlords rented land at very high prices which
    made life difficult for the farmers
  • Tenant unions used violence and tenant-landlord
    violence was very common

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20
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • Workers Economic Problems
  • Poor living and working conditions
  • Crowded and unhygienic quarters
  • Worked long hours
  • Locked in working compounds
  • Could only leave their working compounds a few
    times each month
  • Fed up, most workers joined Communist-sponsored
    unions

21
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • Trade Imbalance
  • Despite its internal problems, Japan prospered
    from global trade
  • Japan exported silk textiles, china (plates,
    cups, etc) and porcelain
  • However, there was a trade imbalance because
    Japan had to import many raw materials and food
    from abroad to feed its growing population

22
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24
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • The Great Depression of 1929
  • Led to a decrease in Japan exports due to
    protectionism policies (increase in taxes on
    foreign goods to protect home-made products in
    difficult economic times)
  • Japan was badly affected because the demand for
    Japanese silk fell drastically
  • This led to economic depression

25
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26
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
High Taxes on Japanese Silk
More people bought silk or other type of cloths
produced by their home countries thus reducing
the demand for Japanese silk
Effect of Protectionism on Japan
High prices of Japanese silk
People in other countries could not afford to buy
Japanese silk
27
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
80 Fall in Silk Prices
Businessmen who Owned silk factories Went bankrupt
Other businesses were affected
Impact of decrease in silk Price
The Japanese had less money to buy other goods
Lower prices led to fewer goods being produced
Fewer workers were needed in factories and more
Japanese became unemployed
28
Effects of the Great Depression on Japan
Less Demand
CRASH!
Loss of Paper Profits
Lower Prices
Less Employment
Less Production
Less Money in Circulation
DEPRESSION
Less Bank Credit
Less Employment
Less Demand
Less Building of Factories and Homes
29
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • The Great Depression of 1929
  • The farmers were very badly hit because they
    produced silk to earn more income
  • Worse still, they were hit by a drought in 1932
    and made even less money
  • Desperate they even resorted to selling their
    daughters to make ends meet

30
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Failure to Solve Economic Problems
  • The Great Depression of 1929
  • When the economy failed to improve, they joined
    the army or patriotic societies
  • The peasants felt that democracy wasnt working
    and instead believed in national reconstruction,
    military strength and respect for authority
  • Many young rural men enlisted in the Japanese
    army

31
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • To what extent did a weak Japanese parliament
    contribute to the failure of the democratic
    government in Japan? Explain your answer. (12m)
  • Step 1 Explain how the weak Japanese parliament
    contributed to the failure of the democratic
    government in Japan (Remember to EXPLAIN HOW IT
    HAPPENED and NOT WHAT IT IS)
  • Step 2 Explain 2 OTHER FACTORS In this case,
    Damage to Democracys Reputation and the Failure
    to Solve Economic Problems
  • Step 3 Weigh your answer. How far was the weak
    Japanese parliament responsible for the failure
    of the democratic government AS COMPARED TO the 2
    OTHER FACTORS?

32
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region
    threatened Japanese plans to control the area
  • Paris Peace Conference 1919
  • Washington Naval Conference 1921-22
  • London Disarmament Conference 1930
  • Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s
  • Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism
  • Internal Reasons
  • The Showa Restoration
  • Patriotic Societies
  • Militarys great influence over the government
  • Military take-over of Japan

33
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region
    threatened Japanese plans to control the area
  • Since the opening of trade with Japan by the
    American Commodore, Matthew Perry, American
    businessmen were interested in doing business in
    the Asia-Pacific
  • The US took control of many Pacific islands to
    obtain Guano (bat shit)
  • Other islands were used as bases for American
    trading ships
  • By the 1930s, more of the Pacific region came
    under American control including Hawaii and the
    Philippines
  • Japanese militarists believed that Japanese and
    American economic and military interests would
    come into conflict over who would control the
    Asia-Pacific

34
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35
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36
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37
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Paris Peace Conference 1919
  • As Japan had fought with the Allied Powers in
    WWI, they requested that the League of Nations
    formally recognise that all races were equal
  • As the League of Nations refused, the Japanese,
    particularly the Japanese Army, were unhappy

38
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39
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Washington Naval Conference 1921-1922
  • The WNC aimed to reduce the naval forces of the
    worlds major powers
  • For every 5 ships Britain and the USA could
    build, Japan could only build 3
  • The Japanese felt that this was an unfair treaty
    and an attempt to restrict Japanese naval power

40
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41
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • London Disarmament Conference 1930
  • Many Japanese were unhappy when PM Hamaguchi
    Osachi wanted to ensure further naval arms
    reduction with Britain and the USA where he
    agreed, at the LDC to further limit Japans
    smaller battleships
  • They were also unhappy that he was trying to
    improve ties with China
  • The PM also reduced spending on the Army to end
    the Great Depression
  • He was accused by the Army of being too soft and
    betraying the country
  • He died in 1931 from wounds sustained in an
    assassination attempt in 1930

42
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43
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s
  • In 1924, the USA restricted Asian immigration as
    part of its isolationist and protectionist
    policies
  • All Asian immigration (except for Filipinos) was
    banned
  • Asian immigrants could not become US citizens
    even if they had been living there for a long
    time
  • Asians could not marry Caucasians and were not
    allowed to own land

44
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s
  • There was also Asian Segregation (California
    Alien Law 1931)
  • These new immigration laws angered the Japanese
    who saw these policies as a sign that the
    Americans thought the Japanese were inferior
  • These laws combined with the effects of the Great
    Depression caused many Japanese to turn away from
    Democracy and support Japanese expansion overseas

45
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46
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism
  • Since 1894, Japan had taken advantage of Chinas
    weak political situation to gain special trading
    rights and privileges within China
  • The Chinese were angered by the dynastic decline
    and the giving of foreign concessions
  • Subsequently, there were struggles between the
    Chinese warlords and the KMT and CCP (who both
    tried to unite China). These struggles weakened
    the country

47
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48
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism
  • When the KMT succeeded in uniting China, the
    Chinese demanded an end to the special
    concessions to Westerners and Japanese in China
    and Manchuria
  • Strikes and boycotts hurt Japanese economic
    interests in China and Manchuria

49
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism
  • Japanese Kwantung Army Officers in Manchuria
    realised that a strong and united China could
    prevent further Japanese expansion in the country
  • They urged Japan to occupy Manchuria and North
    China before anti-Japanese feelings became too
    strong
  • The Japanese militarys call for action was
    supported by many Japanese

50
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51
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • Internal Reasons
  • The Showa Restoration
  • From the 1890s the Japanese education system
    emphasised
  • Nationalism
  • Loyalty to the Emperor
  • Self-Sacrifice
  • Obedience
  • Japans response to the Great Depression and
    foreign opposition to its growing empire was the
    Showa Restoration (Bright Harmony)
  • Western values were characterised to be selfish,
    greedy and individualistic and Japanese virtues
    such as self-sacrifice for the nation were
    promoted

52
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53
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • Internal Reasons
  • The Showa Restoration
  • The slogan Sonno Joi (Restore the Emperor and
    Expel the Barbarian!)
  • The SR produced youths who were blindly loyal to
    the Emperor and the nation
  • These youths also believed in militarism and an
    aggressive military policy

54
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55
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • Internal Reasons
  • Patriotic Societies
  • Since the 1920s, many patriotic societies with
    links to the military were set up in Japan (Black
    Dragon Society, Cherry Blossom Society)
  • They were extremely nationalistic and believed in
    Japans superiority to other nations
  • They wanted to use an aggressive foreign policy
    to make Japan strong again
  • These societies wanted to get rid of democratic
    leaders and set up a military dictatorship on
    behalf of the Emperor

56
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57
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • Internal Reasons
  • Army and Navys Great Influence over the
    Government
  • The Army and Navy had a great influence over
    political decisions and acted independently from
    the government
  • They wanted to copy the West and acquire more
    colonies in China and Manchuria
  • Military success made the Army and Navy popular
    (e.g. Russo-Japanese War) and helped them gain
    even more influence over the government.
  • Leaders who did not support the militarys
    ambitions were often assassinated

58
Japanese Military Gains
  • 1894-1895 Sino-Japanese War
  • Japan defeated China
  • It took over Taiwan and demanded that China give
    up control over the Liaodung Peninsula in
    Manchuria
  • This started the Japanese presence in Manchuria
  • 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
  • Japan defeated Russia
  • First Asian power to defeat a major European
    power
  • Signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905
  • 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth
  • Gained the right to build a railway in Manchuria
    which was rich in oil and coal
  • Took over Port Arthur, the Liaodung Peninsula
    and the southern Sakhalin Island from Russia
  • 1914 Japan joined the Allies in WWI
  • When Japan entered the war on the side of the
    Allies, it occupied the German territories of
    Shantung and parts of the Pacific islands
  • 1915 Japan Issues the 21 Demands to China
  • Weak Chinese government is forced to accept
    Japanese advisors
  • Japan is able to keep Shantung
  • 1905-1910
  • Japans control of Korea is achieved

59
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • Internal Reasons
  • Military Take-over of Japan
  • In 1930, the military brought down the Hamaguchi
    government by shooting the PM
  • In May 1932, the new PM, Inukai, was killed for
    criticising the actions of the Japanese Army in
    Manchuria
  • Succeeding PMs felt pressurised to support the
    Kwantung Army in Manchuria or were already strong
    supporters of the military
  • After 1932, after the Manchurian Incident, the
    Japanese government began to follow the aims of
    the Army

60
What led to the Failure of the Democratic
Government in Japan?
  • Unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was
    the most important reason that led to the rise of
    fascism in Japan. How far do you agree with this
    statement? Explain your answer. (13m)
  • Step 1 You can start by saying that Unhappiness
    with the former Allied Powers was a reason for
    the rise of fascism in Japan BUT there are other
    factors as well (e.g. See Slide 23)
  • Explain how unhappiness with the former Allied
    Powers was led to the rise of fascism in Japan.
    Remember to EXPLAIN HOW IT HAPPENED and NOT WHAT
    IT IS)
  • Step 2 Explain 2 OTHER FACTORS (Aqmal 2 more
    factorsnot ONE)
  • Step 3 Weigh your answer. How important was
    unhappiness with the former Allied Powers
    responsible for the rise of fascism in Japan AS
    COMPARED TO the 2 OTHER FACTORS?

61
What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan?
  • External Reasons
  • American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region
    threatened Japanese plans to control the area
  • Paris Peace Conference 1919
  • Washington Naval Conference 1921-22
  • London Disarmament Conference 1930
  • Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s
  • Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism
  • Internal Reasons
  • The Showa Restoration
  • Patriotic Societies
  • Militarys great influence over the government
  • Military take-over of Japan

62
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