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Division Ascomycota

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Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology Department Islamic University Division Ascomycota (A – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Division Ascomycota


1
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
  • ??? ???????? ??????
  • Division Ascomycota
  • (A ?????? ????????
  • ??? ???????? ?????? ????? 30000 ??? ??? ????? ?
    ????? ?? ????? 18000 ??? ??? ?????? ?????
    ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???
    ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????
    ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ????
    ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
    (Fruiting bodies).
  • ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??
    ??????.
  • - ???? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ???????
    ??????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????
    ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????????
    ??????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??
    ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????
    ???????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???
    ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????
    ???????---??? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????
    ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????
    ????????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? Truffles.

2
  • B ) ??????? ????? ??????? ?? Ascomycota
  • ???????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ????
    ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????
    ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????
    ????? ????? ?????? ????? ????? Septa ???????
    ????? ????? Pores ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??
    ???? ??? ????.
  • (C ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? Ascomycota
  • ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ?? ??????
    ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? Conidia. ????? ???
    ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ????? ???? Conidiophores ???? ??????? ???
    ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???

3

Acervulus
Pycnidium
Sporodochium
4
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
  • (D??????? ?????? ??????? ?? Ascomycota
  • ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????
    ????????? ?????? Ascospores ????? ??? ????????
    ???? ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? Asci (??????
    Ascus) ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ????
    Ascoma ?????? Ascomata ? ???? ????
    Ascocarps.
  • (E??????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? Ascomycota
  • ????? ?? Ascus ???? ??? 8 ?????? ???? ??? ?????
    ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? 4 ?? 16 ??
    32 ?? ???? ?? ??? ? ??? ????? ??????? ????? 4 ?
    ???? ????? ???????? ????? ?? 8 ??? ????? ?????
    ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????
    ???? ?? 700 ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??
    ????? ??? ??? Trichobolus.
  • ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??
    ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?
    ??????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?? ???? 1000 ?????? ???? ??
    ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????
    ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ????????
    ??? ????? ? ????? ??????.

5
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ??
???????? ??????
??? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? (???????)
6
  • (F ????? ???????? ???? ?? Ascus ??? ?????? ??
    Ascomycota
  • ??? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???
    ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????
    ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??
    Ascus ? ?? Ascospores ?? ??????? ??????? ? ??
    ???? ??????? ???????? ???

- ?????? ?????? ??????? Cleistothecia ??? ????
????? ????? ? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? Ascus
????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????
????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????
???????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???
??? ?????. - ?????? ?????? ?????????Perithecia
?????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???
????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????
Ostiole ? ???? ?? Ascus ??????? ????? ????????
????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? Claviceps. - ??????
?????? ??????? ???????? Apothecia ????? ??
????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? Ascus
????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????
???Peziza . - ?????? ?????? ??????? Naked ascus
??? ?? ?? Asci ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????
?????? ?????.
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
7
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????
8
  • (G ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???
    ??????
  • - ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????
    (Ascocarp or Ascomata) ????? ?? ???? ????? ? ????
    ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????
    (Haploid) ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????
    ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? (Haploid)
    ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???? ????
    ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????
    (Diploid) ?????? Dikaryotic ?? ?? ??????? ???
    ????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ???
    ?? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????
    Plasmogamy ??? ???? ???????? ?????? Karyogamy ??
    ???? (nn) ? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? Hook or
    Crozier ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??
    ???????.
  • - ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? (Asci) ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????
    (Ascospores) ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?? Hook
    ?? Crozier ????? ???????? ?????? Karyogamy.
  • - ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????
    ????? First meiotic division
  • ??? ???? ??? ??? 2 ?? ??????? ?????? ????????
    ??????? (N)
  • ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????Second meiotic
    division ??? ???? ??? 4 ????? ?????? ????????
    ???????.
  • - ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? Mitotic division ????
    ??? ????? 8 ????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ????????
    ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????
    ???? ???????? ?????? Ascospores ???? ???? ??????
    ???? ???? Ascus.

9
  • ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???
    ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? Mycelia
    ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???????
    ???????? ????????? ?? ????????? (Conidia) ???? ??
    ???? ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????? ??????. (?? ????
    ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????
    ????? ???? ?????? ??????.
  • - ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????
    ????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????
    ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????Antheridium ?
    ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????????????Ascogonium
    .
  • ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? Plasmogamy
    ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????
    ???????????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????
    ????? ??? Trichogyne ???? ?????? ???????
    ??????????? ? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????
  • ? ????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ???? ??
    Trichogyne ??? ?? ????.
  • ???? ??? ?? Ascogeous hypha ????? ?? ??
    Trichogyne ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?
    ???????? ???? ??? ??????.
  • - ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????
    ?? ??????? ??????? (?????) ??????? ????
    Dikaryotic ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????
    ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????.
  • - ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? Ascocarp ??
    ???????????? Fruiting bodies ???? ???? ???????
    ???????? ? ?????? ????????. ???? ?????

10
Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
11
  • ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????
    ??????
  • - ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????
  • - ????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????
  • - ????? ?????? ??????Ascocarp ??????? Ascus ?
    ???????? Ascospores
  • - ????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???
    ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????
  • - ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??
    ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????
  • - ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???
    ?? ?????? ????????
  • - ???? ?? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??
    ?????? ???? ?????? ??????.
  • ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????
    (Subclass) ?? ??? ?? ??
  • -1 ??????? ?????? ???????
    Subclass Hemiascomycetidae
  • ???? ?????? (asci) ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??
    ???? ????
  • 2- ???????? ?????? ???????
    Subclass Plectomycetidae
  • ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????
  • -3???????? ?????? ???????
    Subclass Hymenoascomycetidae
  • ????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????

Ascomycota Dr. Abboud Y. ElKichaoui Biology
Department Islamic University
12
  • 1- ???????? ?????? ??????? Subclass
    Hemiascomycetidae
  • ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????
    ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????
    ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?????. ???? ????? ??
    ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ???
    ????????? ? ???????? ???????.
  • ???? ??? ???? ??? (order) ???
  • Endomycetales - Taphrinales - Protomycetales
  • ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????
    ?????? ? ??????? ???
  • a -Order Endomycetales
  • ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???
    ???????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????
    ????? ?????? ??? ????? ? ???? ??? 6????? ?45
    ???? ? 150 ???? ????? ????? ??
  • Ascoidaceae
  • Dipodascaceae
  • Endomycetaceae
  • Saccharomycetaceae
  • Cephaloascaceae
  • Spermophthoraceae

13
  • ??????? ???????? The True Yeasts
  • ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????
    ?????? Unicellular ??????? ???? ?? Ascomycota
    ??? ???? ??????? ?? 60 ???? ? ????? 500 ???? ????
    ????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? Basidiomycota .
  • ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????
    ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????
    ????? ????? Pseudomycelia ????? ?? ????? ? ????
    ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????
    ????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ???? ???? malticellular.
  • ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??
    ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ???? ???? ????
    ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ??? ????????
    ???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????.
  • ??????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????
    ??? ??? ??? Deuteromycota
  • ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ? ?? ???
    Saccharomyces ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????
    Saccharomycetaceae.

14
  • ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ??
    ??? ?????? Robert Hook ?? ??? 1680 ???? ?? ????
    ?? 41 ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???
    ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???
    ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???????
    ??? ??? Saccharomyces cerevisiae ???? ?????? ??
    ????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???????
    ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?????
    ???? ???????? ??? ??????? (A).
  • ????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?? ???? ??????? ??
    ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ??
    ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ????? 10 m ? ????
    ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?
    ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????
    ????????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ?????
    Pseudomycelia.

????? ?? ????? ??????? (??? ???? ????
(Pseudomycelium) ???? ?? ???????
15
  • - ??? ???????
  • ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???
    ????
  • - ??????? Budding
  • ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???
    ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????.
  • ? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???
    ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????
    ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????
    ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???
    ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????
    ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? Bud scar ????? ??
    ?????? ????? ???? Birth scar. ???? ?????? ???
    ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????
    ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ???
    ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???????.

16
  • - ???????? ???????? Transverse Fission
  • ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ???????
    ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????
    mitosis ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???
    ???? ?? ??????? ? ?? ??? Schizosaccharomyces .
  • - ????? ???????? ????????Endospores
  • ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????
    ????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ??
    ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?????
    ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???
    ????? ???? ??????
  • - ??????? ??????Sexual reproduction
  • - ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??????
    ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???
    ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????
  • - ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ???????
    ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????
    ??????? ????? ????? Isogamy conjugation ?? ??????
    ????? Heterogamy conjugation ?
  • - ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??
    ???????? ? ?? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ????
    ????? ?????? ?????? ??????.
  • - ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????
    ?????? ???????? ???????2n Diploid - ????
    ????"Ascus" ?
  • - ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??
    ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ????????
  • - ???? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????????? ? ????? ????
    ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ? ??????
    ??????.

17
????? 2N ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????????
?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????
18
  • ??????? ?????????? ???????
  • ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??
    ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????????
  • ???????
  • ? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????
    ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ? ????????
    ??? ???? ? ???? ????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ??????
    ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ???
    ????????? ? Zymase ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????
    ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? Zymaze
  • C6H12O6 2C2H5OH
    2CO2 Energy
  • - ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????.
  • - ????? ????????? ??? B, G, C ???? ?????? ???
    ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???
    ????????? Ultraviolet
  • - ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????
    ????? ????? Dyastase ??????? ?? ??????? ??????
    ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???
    ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ??????
    ????? ?? ????.
  • ???????
  • ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ????
  • - ???? ??????? ???????? ?????????
  • - ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????
    ?????????? ??????? ??????
  • - ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????
  • Torulopsis and Blasmomycosis ?????? ?????? ?????
    ??????? ?????? ???????
  • Yeast vaginilli ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???
    ?????? ????? ??????
  • Cryptoccocus neoformans ???? ???????? ??????
    ??????? ????? ????? Cryptococeocis
  • Candida albicans ???? ???? ???? Moniliasis ????
    ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????.

Zymaze
19
  • ???? ?????????? Order
    Taphrinales
  • B- ??????? ?????????? Taphrinaceae
  • ???? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?? Taphrina
    ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? 100 ??? ?????? ????
    ????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????
    ????? ??????? ???
  • ? Taphrina deformans ???? ?????? ?????? ?????
  • ? T. pruni ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????
    ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?????
  • ? T. cerasi ????? ??? ?????
  • ? T. communis ????? ??? ????? ??????? ? (??? ???
    ????)
  • ? T. coerulescens ???? ???? ????? ??????
    (Quercus sp.).

20
  • 2- ???????? ?????? ??????? Subclass
    Plectomycetidae
  • ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ??? ??????
    ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????
    ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????
  • Ascocarp ?? ??? Cleistothecium ??????? ??????
    ???? ???? ???? ?????? ? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??
    ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????
    ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????
    ? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???????.
  • ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???
  • Ascospherales
  • Elaphomycetales
  • Onygenales
  • Eurotiales
  • Microascales
  • ????? ?????? ???? ?? Eurotiales ???? ???????? ??
    ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????
    ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????.

21
  • Eurotiales -
  • ???? ??? ?????? ???? Asperginales ????? ????
    Plectascales ?????? ??? ????? 50 ???? ???? ????
    ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???
    ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????
    ?????? ??? ???????? ? ??? ????????? ? ???????.
  • ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????
    ??????????"Conidia" ?????? ????? ??? ? ???
    ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??
    ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ???? ??????
    ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???
    ????????.
  • ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??
  • - Family Amorphothecaceae
  • - Family Eurotiaceae
  • - Family Thermoascaceae
  • - Family Monoascaceae
  • - Family Trichocomaceae
  • - Family Pseudoeuritiaceae
  • - Family Cephalothecaceae

22
  • ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? Eurotiaceae ?? ??
    Aspergillaceae
  • ????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????
    ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???
    Eurotium ???? ???? ???? ???????? ???? Aspergillus
    ????? ????? ??????? Talaromyces ???? ???? ????
    ???????? ???? Penicillium.
  • ? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????
    Aspergillus ? Penicillium ??? ????? ????? ?? ???
    ?? Ascomycota ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????
    ?????? ????? ?? ??? ?? Deuteromycota ??? ????? ??
    ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????.
  • ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? Aspergillus ????
    ?????? ??? Penicillium ?????? ??????? ?????
    ??????.
  • ??? (Eurotium) Aspergillus
  • - ????????
  • ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ??
    ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???
    ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
    ???? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????
    ?????? ???? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???
    ?????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ?????
    ??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????
    ????????.
  • ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? 200 ??? ????????
    ????? ??? ???? ?? ???????
  • Variety ??????? ??? ???.

23
  • ?????
  • ??? ??????????? ??? Aspergillus niger, A.flavus,
    A.fugimatus ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????
    ??????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????
    ?? ??? Aspergillus ?? Aspergilloses. ????????
    ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? Otomycosis.
  • ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ???
    Aspergillus parasiticus ???? ????? ????? ?????
    ???? ?? ??????? ??Mycosis .
  • ??? ???????? ??? A. repens , A. flavus, A. glucus
    ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ? ???? ?????? ????????
    ????????.
  • ?????
  • ? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???
    ????? ????? ????? ?? ????????
  • ? ?????? ????? Aspergillus niger, ?? ????? ?
    ??????? ?? ??????
  • ? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????
    ???
  • Flavin- Geodin- Fungalin- Patulin- Ustin-
    Aspergillin----
  • ? ?????? ????? A. gossypii ?? ????? ???????????
    ??? ??????? (B)
  • ? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?
    ???? ??????? ??????? ???
  • Citric acid ? Oxalic acid ? ????? ????? A.
    niger

24
  • - ??????
  • ????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?????
    ????? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??
    ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????
    ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????
    ???? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????.
  • ??? ???????
  • ??????? ???????? Asexual reproduction
  • ? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?
    ??? ???????
  • ? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????
    ???? Chonidiophores
  • ? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????
    ????????? Vesicle ??? ????? ????????
  • ? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??
    ???????? Sterigmata ? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???
    ????? ?? ?? Sterigmata ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???
    ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? Primary sterigmata
    ???????? Secondary sterigmata.
  • ? ???? ?? Sterigmata ????? ?? ????????
    ?????????Chain of conidia ???? ?????? ??????
    ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??
    Sterigmata .
  • ???? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ? ??? ??????
    ???????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????
    ??????.
  • ? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???
    ????? ?? Sterigmata ??? ??? ????? ????
    ???????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????
    ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ?????
    ????? ?? ??????????.
  • ? ????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??
    ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ????
    ?????? ???? ?????.

25
??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???
Aspergillus sp.
26
  • ??????? ?????? Sexual reproduction
  • ? ??? ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????
    ?????? Aspergillus ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ????
    ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????
    ????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??
    Deuteromycota ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???
    ??? ??? Ascomycota ????? ??? ??? ????? ? ??? ????
    ?????? ???
  • A. herberiorum ? A. repens???? ???? ?? ?????
    ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???????
    ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??
    ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?
    ?? ??????? Homothalic.
  • ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? Heterothalic
    ? ?? A. heterothalicus
  • ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???
  • ? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ???????Antheridium ?
    ??????? Ascogonium ?? ????? ????? ? ??? ?????
    ???????
  • ? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????
    ??????? ???? ?? Ascogonium ??? ???? ??? ???????
    ????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ????
    ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????
  • ? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????
    Cleistothecium ??? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????
    ????? ?? ???? ? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????
    150m-200m ??? ????? ????? ??????
  • ? ????? ?? ?? "Ascus" ???? ?????? ??? ??????
    ?????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????
    ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????.
  • ? ????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?????
    ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????
    ? ????? ?????????
  • - ????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??????
    ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????.

27
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???
Aspergillus repens
28
  • ??? (Tlaromyces) Penicillium
  • ? ????????
  • ????? ??? Penicillium ?? ??? Aspergillus ?? ????
    ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??
    ???? ???? ? Bleu or green mold ? ?? ????? ????
    ?????? Saprophytic fungus.
  • ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? 200 ???
    ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????
    ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????????
    ??? ???? ??? ????? ????? ? ?? ????? ?????? ????
    ????? ???? ???? ????.
  • ? ?????
  • ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ? ??????
    ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???
    ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????
    ???????.
  • ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????? ???
    ?????????? ????? ??? ?????? (????? ????? ?????)
    ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????
    Metulla ?????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????
    Phialides ?? ??????Sterigma .
  • ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????????? Chain of
    conidia. ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ???????
    ??? ??? ???? ????? ???????? Penicillus.

29
  • ? ???????
  • ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????
    ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????
    ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????
  • ? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? Monoverticillate
    ? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? Biverticillate
    ? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????.Polyverticillate
    ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????????
    ?????? Symetrical ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????
    ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? Assymetrical.

????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????
???? Penicillium
?- ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????????
?????????. ?- ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? P.
lanoso-coeruleum?- ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????
P.vermiculatum ?- ?????? ???? P. glaucum ?-
?????? ???? P. herquei ? - ?????? ???? P.
chrysogenum
30
  • ? ??? ???????
  • ??????? ???????? Asexual reproduction ????
    ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????????

??????? ?????? Sexual reproduction
??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?
???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????? 25 ????? ???? ???
?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??? Penicilium
berfel Penicilium vermiculatum, Penicilium
glaucum, ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????
???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? Cleistothecia ??? ???
??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??
????? Homothalic ????? ??? ???? ?? Penicilium
luteum ??? ?????? ??????? Heterothalic ??????
??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? Penicilium ????
??????? ??? ?????? ?? Aspergillus.
31
  • ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????
    ????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?? Aspergillus ?????
    ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? Penicilium ?? ??? ???
    ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???
    ????? ?????? Antheridium ? ????? ???????
    Ascogonium?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??
    Ascogonium ??? ??????? ????? ?? Antheridium
    ????? ???????.

32
? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???
Penicilium vermiculatum, ??? ?? ??? ???????
Ascogonium ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ????
?? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? (?). ??
Ascogonium ?? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????
?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????
???? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? 32 ?? 64 ????. ??
??? ????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???
??? ????? ?????? ( ?) ? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???
?????????? ????? ????? (?)? ? ??? ??? ?????
????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (?) ? ??? ????
?????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????
??????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? ????? Plasmogamy.
? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????
??? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? (?).
33
  • ??????? ?????????? ??????????
  • - ???????
  • ? ???? ??? Penicillium italicum ????? ????
    ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????
  • ? ???? ??? Penicillium exansum ????? ?????
    ?????? ? ??????? ? ????? ???????
  • ? ???? ??? Penicillium purpurogenum ?????? ??
    ????? ??????? ? ?? ?????
  • ? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ???? ????????? ?
    ?????? ? ????? ?????????
  • ? ??? ??????? ??? Penicillium crustaceum ????
    ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?????.
  • ? ???????
  • ? ????? ??????? ???? ??? Penicillium
    roqueforti ???? ???? ??? Roquefort ? ???
    Penicillium camemberti ???? ???? ??? Camembert?
  • ? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???
    ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????
  • ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????
    ???
  • Emodic acid Spinulosin, Citrinin
  • ? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????
    ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ( D )
  • ? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????
    Penicillin ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????
    Penicillium notatum, ????? Penicillium
    chrysogenum ? ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? Penicillium
    chrysogenum ??? ???? X ? ?????? ??? ?????????
    ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??
    ????????. ??? ?? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??
    ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ?????
    ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????
    ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????
    ???????? ?????????? ??????????----???.

34
  • 3- ?????? ??????? Subclass Hymenoascomycetidae
  • ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????
  • - I ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????Series
    Pyrenomycetes
  • -II ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????Series
    Discomycetes
  • ??????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????
    ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????. ????
    ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????
    ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????
    ????? ?? ???????? ???????.
  • - I ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????????Series
    Pyrenomycetes
  • ????? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ????
    ??????? ??? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???
    ?????????
  • ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????
    ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???
    Perithecia ??? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??
    ????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ???
    ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?????
    ?????? ? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ? ?????
    ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????
    ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? Stroma.

35
  • ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ??
  • Order Erysiphales
  • Order Miliolales
  • Order Xylariales
  • Order Clavicipitales
  • Order Diaporthales
  • ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? Clavicipitales ????
    ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????
    ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ?????
    ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?????.
  • ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ????
    ?? ????? ????? ?? ??????? Clavicipitaceae ????
    ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?????
    Cordyceps ???? ????? ??? ??????? ? ??????? ????
    ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????
    ?? ??? Claviceps ???? ????? ??? ????????
    ????????? ????? ??? ??????? Ergot ???????? ???
    ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???
    ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????
    ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? Sclerotia ???????
    (Sclerotium) ???? ??? ????? 11 ???? ????? ???
    purpurae ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????
    Lolium temutentum ?????? ????????? ??? ???????
    ?????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????
    ???????? ??????.
  • ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??
    ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ????
    ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ??????
    ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????
    ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?? Alkaloids ????? ????
    ?????????. Ergotin

36
???? ???? ????? Life cycle
  • ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??
    ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??
    ???? ?????
  • ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ???? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ???????
    ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????
    ??? ??????.
  • -???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???
    ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ?????
    ?? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????
    ??????.
  • -???? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????
    ???? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???
    ????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??????.
  • - ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ???
    ???? ? ?? ???? ??? ???.
  • ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????????
    ????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???????
    ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????
    ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????
    ??????????? ?????? Pseudoparanchyma ?????? ??
    ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ????
    ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? Sclerotia??? ????
    ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????
  • - ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????
    ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??
    ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?????
    ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??
    ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???
    ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????.
  • ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????
    ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??????
    ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???????
    ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????
    (???? ????? Stroma) ???? ????? (?) ????? ???????
    ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? Perithecia
    ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ?????
    ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????
    ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ???
    .
  • - ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????
    ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????
    ?????? ????? ?????.
  • - ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????
    ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???
    ????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ?????
    ?????? ?? ????.

37
  • ??????? ?????? ???????
  • ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????
    ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???
    ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????? Alkaloids
    ????????? Amins ???????? ???? ???? ??????????
    ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ????
    ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????
    ??????????? Ergometrine ????? ????? ???? ???? ??
    ????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???
    ???????.
  • -II ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????Series
    Discomycetes
  • ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ?????
    ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? Apothecia ? ????
    ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????. ????? ??? ????????
    ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????
    6000 ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????
    ??????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????
    ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????
    ???? ???????.
  • ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??
    ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????
    ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????
    ??? ???????? ??????? Cup fungi ???? ???? ???
    ????? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??
    ??????-----???.
  • ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????
    ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???
    ??? ????? ? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ??? ?????? ???????.
  • ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????
    Saddles ? ????????? Morels ??????? ??????
    Truffles.

38
  • ???? ???????? ??????? ???
  • -A?????? ????? ??? ????? ( ???? ??????? ???????
    ??? ??? ?????)
  • -B ?????? ????? ??? ????? ( ???? ??????? ???????
    ??? ??? ?????)
  • -A ?????? ????? ??? ????? ( ???? ??????? ???????
    ??? ??? ?????)
  • ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????
    (A)"Epigean" ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????
    ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????
  • A-1 ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???
    ?????????
  • ????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????
    ???????? ?? ??? ????? ????
  • ??? ???? ??? ??
  • Order Phasidiales
  • Order Ostropales
  • Order Helotiales

39
  • ????? ???? ?? Helotiales ??? ? ???? ?????? ????
    ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
    ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????
    ????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????
    ????????? ? ?? ??????
  • ??? Monilinia frocticola ???? ???? ?????? ?????
    ?????? ???????
  • ??? Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ?????? ???? ????
    ????? ???????? (????) ???Stromatinia glodioli
    ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??
    Gladiolus
  • ??? Pseudopezizia trifolii ?????? ???? ??????
    ?????? ???????---???
  • A-2 ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?
  • ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????
    ???? ? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???
    ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???
    ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????.
  • ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???
  • - Order Cyttariales
  • ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??
    ????? ???????

40
  • - Order Pizizales
  • ? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????
    ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ??
    ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????
    ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????
    ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????
    ???????? ???????.
  • ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?????
    ????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ? ????
    ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ?? ???.
  • ???? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??? 90 ???? ?
    500 ??? ???? ??????? ??
  • Family Sacroscyphaceae
  • Family Pezizaceae
  • Family Ascobolaceae
  • Family Morchellaceae
  • Family Helvellaceae
  • ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????

41
  • ??????? ????????? Family Pezizaceae
  • ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????
    ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???
    ???? ????? ?? ?????.
  • ??? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??
  • Piziza, Scutellinia, Anthroacobia,
    Patella
  • ???? ??????? ? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????
    ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ???? ? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????.
  • - ??? ??? ????? ????? 150 ???? ????? ???? ?????
    ?? ??? ?????? ?????? (??????? ???????) ?????
    ??????? ???????? ?? Piziza versiculosa ???
    ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????.
    ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 40 ?? ??? ?? ???
    Apothecia.
  • - ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???
    ????? ?? ???? ?????Hymenium ????? ????? ?? ????
    ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????
    ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????
    ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????
    ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?????
    ????? Subhymenium ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??
    ???? Ectal excipulum.

42
  • ??? ????? Piziza
  • ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????
  • ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ?????
  • ?- ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????
    ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ????
    ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????
    ??????? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????
    ??????.

43
  • ??????? ??????
  • ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????
    ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ?????
    ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??
    ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????
    ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???????
    ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????
    ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????
    ???? Ascogenous hyphae ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????
    ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????
    ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????
    ??????
  • - ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????
    ????? ?????? ??????? Crozier ?? Hook ? ??
    ????? ??????.
  • ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????
    ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ??????
    ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????
    ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ???? ??????. ????
    ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ????
    ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????
  • ????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????
    ????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????.
  • -????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ???
    ????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????
    ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????
    ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ????. ??? ??????
    ??????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ????.
  • - ????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????????
    ??? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ?????? ?
    ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????
    ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???
    ????? ??? 10 ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ???
    ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???
    ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????
    (Hymenium) ???? ?????

44
??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? Piziza
versiculosa
45
  • ??????? ????????
  • ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????
    Conidiospores ?? ?????? ???????? Chlamydospoes.
  • -B ??????? ??????? ????? ??????
  • ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?
    ??? ???? ????? ??
  • ???? ??????????Order Tuberales
  • ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ??
    ????? ??????? (Mycorrhiza) ?? ???? ????????
    ??????? ????? ?? ?????? Quercus sp. ?????? Fagus
    sp.? ????????? Tilia sp. ? ???? ????????
    Truffles???????? ???? ? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??
    ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????
    ?????.
  • ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ???
    ?????? ? ???? ????? ? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????
    ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???
    ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????
    ??????? ?????? ????.
  • ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ? ????????
    ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????.
  • ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ???

46
  • - ??????? ?????????? Family Tuberaceae
  • ??? 30 ???? ? ????? 140 ???? ????? ???? ???????
    ??? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????
    ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????????
    ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ?
    ??????? ? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????
    ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???
    ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?????.
  • ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? 10 -30 ?? ?? ???
    ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ??????
    ???????.
  • ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???
    ????? Tuber ? ?? ??? ????? 80-100 ??? ?????
    ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????
  • Tuber melanosporum ? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??
    ???? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????
    ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? 20 ?????
    ?????????? 5 ????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? 20 .
  • ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????
    ??????? ? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??? 40-37 ?????.
    ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???
    ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? 8 ?? ????? ???????
    ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????.
  • ???? ????? ???? ???? ??? Tuber magnatum and Tuber
    aestivum

47
  • ??? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???
    ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??
    ????????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????????
    ?????? ?????? Quercus sp. ?????? Fagus sp.
    ????????? Tilia sp. ?????? ???????? ???????
    ??????? ??????? Tuber ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???????
    ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????
    ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????
    ??????? ??? ????? 7 ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???
    ??? ??? ??? 20 ???.
  • ??? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????
    ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? 2000
    ???.
  • ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????
    ????? ???? ?? ????? ? ?????? ???? ???? ?????
    ?????? ???? ??? 4 ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???
    ????? ?? ?????.
  • - ??????? ?????????? Family Terfeziaceae
  • ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ????
    ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ???? Elaphomycetales
    ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????
    ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????
    ????? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????
    ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????????
    ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????
    ????????? Tuberales ??? ??????? ???????? ????
    ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
    ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??
    ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???
    ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????
    ?????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??????
    ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??????.
  • ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????

48
  • ??? Tiramania ?????? ????? T. nivea ? T. pinoyi
    ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? (?????? ???????)
    ???? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? 1000 ????.
  • ??? Terfezia ???? ??? 15 ???? ????? T. boudieri
    ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? T. leonis
    ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???????
    ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????
    ???????? ??????? ?????.
  • - ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??
    ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? Helianthemum
    sp. ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????
    ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????
    ??????? ???????.
  • ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????
    ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ???
    ???? ??? ????? ???????.
  • ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????
    ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????
    ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????
    ?????? (Nombril) ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???????
    ??? ?? ???? ?? 15 ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??
    ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????
    ???????? ??????? ????????. ???? ?????.
  • - ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????
    ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??
    ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???
    ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????
    ?? ?? ??? 4 ??? 8 ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ???
    ?????.

49
???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? Terfesia
olbiensis ???? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????
??????? ?? ???? ?????
???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??
??? ?????? ?????? Terfesia olbiensis ????
?????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ???????
50
  • ???? ???? ??? ??????
  • ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????
  • ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ???
    ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????
    ????????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ??
    ???????
  • - ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ??
    ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????????
  • - ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????
    ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????.
  • ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????
    ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????
  • ????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ????
    ???? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????
  • ????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ??????
  • ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????
  • ??? ???? ?????? ???????
  • ???????? ????? ??????
  • ?? ????. ???? ?????.

???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? Terfesia sp. (????
????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?????
?????????? ? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????
??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????
?????? Mycorrhiza ????? ???? ????? ??????.
51
  • 4- ?????? ????????
  • ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? (???
    ???????? ???????Loculus ) ???? ???? ???? ???
    ???????? ???????
  • - ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??
    ????????? ????
  • -1?? ???? ?????? ????? ???????(????? ??? ????
    ???? ??????? Exoascus ?????? ????? ???? ????
    ??????? (Endoascus)
  • -2 ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????
    ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????
    ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? maltilocular ??
    ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ?????
    ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????
    ????? ?????? ?? ??????? Unilocular? ??? ????
    ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????
    ????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????
    ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????Pseudoperithecium

Subclass Loculooascomycetidae
52
  • ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????
    ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????.
  • ???? ???????? ???????? ??? 5 ??? ??
  • - Order Pleospherales
  • - Order Myriangiales
  • - Order Hemisphaeriales
  • - Order Hysteriales
  • - Order Dothidales
  • ???? ???????????? Pleospherales
  • ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????
    ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????
    ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ??????
    ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????
    ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????
    ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???????.
  • ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ?
    ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????.

53
  • ??????? ????????? Family Venturiaceae
  • ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???
    ?????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?????
    ??? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ??
    ????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???
    ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???
    ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ? ???? ?? ????????
  • ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???
  • Ventura- Gibbera- Stigmatea- Parodiella
  • ????? ??? Ventura ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??
    ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???
    Ventura inaequalis ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? V.
    pyrina ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????
    ????? Ventura inaequalis ?? ???? ??????? ????
    ???? ?????? ?? ??????.
  • ???? ???? ??? Ventura inaequalis
  • - ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??
    ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????. ?? ????? ??????
    ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????
    ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ????, ?? ???? ??????
    ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????.
    ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ???????,
    ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? (???? ???
    ????? ???? ?????).
  • - ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ???????
    ??????? ????? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ??????
    ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????
    ????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??
    ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????
    ????? ??? ??????.
  • - ??? ????? 10 ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??????
    ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????
    ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????
    ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????
    ?????? ???.

54
  • ???? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ???
    ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????
    ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????
    ????? ?????????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???????.
  • ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????
    ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????
    (Acervulus) ???? ???? ??????? ?????????
    ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ????.
  • ????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????
    ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???
    ????? ?? ?????????.
  • ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????
    ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????
    ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????
    ?????? ?? ???????. ??? ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????
    ??????, ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ????
    ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????
    ??????.
  • ???? ???????? ?????? Ascogonium ??? ???????
    ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???
    ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????
    ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????????.
  • - ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ????
    ??????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ? ????????? ??
    ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????

55
  • ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????
    ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????
    ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???????
    ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????
    ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????
    ????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??
    ?????? ??????Ascogenous hypha ???? ???? ??????
    ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???
    ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????.
  • - ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ??
    ?????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???
    ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??
    ?? ?? 8 ?????? ???? ??????? ?????.
  • - ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????
    ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????
    ???? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???
    ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????.

???? ???? ??? Venturia inaequalis
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