Horticulture%20Science%20Lesson%2031%20Understanding%20Integrated%20Pest%20Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Horticulture%20Science%20Lesson%2031%20Understanding%20Integrated%20Pest%20Management

Description:

Horticulture Science Lesson 31 Understanding Integrated Pest Management What are the basic elements of an integrated pest management program? 3. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1241
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: Lindi152
Learn more at: http://www.montgomery.kyschools.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Horticulture%20Science%20Lesson%2031%20Understanding%20Integrated%20Pest%20Management


1
Horticulture Science Lesson 31 Understanding
Integrated Pest Management
2
What is integrated pest management?
  • Integrated pest management (IPM) is a pest
    management strategy that uses a combination of
    best management practices (BMP) to reduce pest
    damage with the least disruption to the
    environment.
  • Best management practices (BMPs) are those
    practices that combine scientific research with
    practical knowledge to optimize production and
    increase crop quality while maintaining
    environmental integrity.

3
What is integrated pest management?
  • IPM provides protection against hazards to
    humans, domestic animals, plants, and the
    environment.
  • Studies have shown that no single control measure
    works consistently over a long period of time.
  • A reason for this is that pests can develop
    resistance to certain control measures.

4
What is integrated pest management?
  • The goal of IPM is to keep pest populations below
    the economic or aesthetic injury level.
  • 1. Economic injury level is the point at which
    the cost of pest control equals the revenue loss
    caused by a pest.
  • It is determined by estimating the potential
    yield loss, the value of the crop, and the cost
    of treatment.
  • Economic injury level also clearly defines how
    much damage can be tolerated.

5
What is integrated pest management?
  • 2. Economic threshold is the number of insects
    per plant or the amount of damage to the plant
    that economically justifies the use of control
    measures.
  • If a control is applied when a pest population
    reaches the economic threshold, the population
    will be suppressed before it reaches the economic
    injury level.

6
(No Transcript)
7
What is integrated pest management?
  • The key to a successful IPM program is scouting,
    which involves regularly monitoring pest
    populations and crop conditions.
  • A scout collects data about which pests are
    causing damage, what stage of life each pest is
    in, and whether the pest population is increasing
    or decreasing.

8
What is integrated pest management?
  • The weakest link in each pests biology must be
    found if management of the pest is to be
    successful.

9
What is integrated pest management?
  • Benefits of IPM help sustain the ability of the
    earth to meet the needs of an increasing human
    population.
  • 1. The benefits to horticulture vary with the
    crop and the extent to which pests interfere with
    economical production.
  • Careful planning is required to make effective
    use of IPM.

10
What is integrated pest management?
  • The benefits of IPM to the horticulture industry
  • a. There are reduced pesticide costs in
    addition to fewer pesticides used with IPM.
  • b. Application costs are reduced due to time,
    and the cost of labor for pesticide application
    is reduced.
  • c. Less pesticide resistance develops within
    populations of insects, weeds, and diseases.

11
What is integrated pest management?
  • 2. IPM also benefits the environment, which is
    made more sustainable and friendly to people.
  • Benefits of IPM to the environment
  • a. Reduced contamination and degradation of the
    environment occurs through the use of IPM.
  • Pesticide residues do not build up in soil,
    water, and other natural resources.
  • b. Cancer-causing residues are present in
    smaller amounts or are not on food at all.
  • Less pesticide residue on food products means a
    decreased chance of people ingesting pesticides.

12
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • An understanding of the major pest groups and
    their biology is required to ensure success in
    reducing crop losses due to pests.
  • A pest is a living organism that can cause injury
    or loss to a plant.
  • Pests include insects, diseases, weeds, mites,
    nematodes parasites, and animals.

13
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • Insects are a group of animals with an
    exoskeleton and three body parts.
  • Most insects have six legs and four wings.
  • More than 800,000 kinds of insects have been
    identified.
  • Insects are capable of producing large numbers of
    offspring in a short time and can cause
    economical loss by feeding on horticultural
    crops.

14
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 1. Insects have either chewing or sucking
    mouthparts.
  • Damage symptoms caused by chewing insects are
    leaf defoliation, leaf mining, stem boring, and
    root feeding.
  • Insects with sucking mouthparts produce distorted
    plant growth, leaf stippling, and leaf burn.

15
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
16
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • A plant disease is defined as a disturbance to
    the normal growth and development of a plant.
  • Diseases are generally classified as being
    infectious or noninfectious.
  • Infectious diseases are caused by living
    organisms such as bacteria, fungi, or virus,
    which are often referred to as disease pathogens.
  • An infectious disease can be spread to other
    plants.

17
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • Noninfectious diseases are caused by
    environmental imbalances and cannot be spread to
    other plants.
  • Noninfectious disease examples include over
    watering, nutrient deficiencies, and air
    pollution damage.
  • Plants are most susceptible to disease when they
    are under some type of stress.
  • The stress is usually associated with
    environmental factors.

18
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 1. The occurrence and severity of infectious
    plant diseases is based on three factors.
  • A susceptible plant or host must be present.
  • The causal agent or organism that produces a
    disease must be present.
  • Environmental conditions conducive to the causal
    agent must occur.
  • The relationship of these three factors is known
    as the disease triangle.
  • Disease control programs are designed to affect
    each or all of these factors.

19
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
20
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 2. Fungi are a principal cause of plant disease.
  • Fungi are organisms that lack chlorophyll.
  • They absorb nutrients from living or dead
    organisms.
  • Their bodies consist of threadlike vegetative
    structures known as hyphae.
  • When hyphae are grouped together, they are called
    mycelium.
  • Fungi can reproduce and cause disease by
    producing spores or mycelia.
  • The fungus can produce spores asexually or
    sexually.

21
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 3. Bacteria are one-celled or unicellular
    microscopic organisms.
  • Bacteria can enter a plant only through wounds or
    natural openings.

22
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 4. Viruses are composed of nucleic acids
    surrounded by protein sheaths.
  • They are capable of altering a plants metabolism
    by affecting protein synthesis.
  • Plant viruses are transmitted by seeds, insects,
    nematodes, fungi, and mechanical means.
  • Viral diseases produce several symptoms including
    ring spots, stunting, malformations, and mosaics.
  • A mosaic symptom is a leaf pattern of light and
    dark green color.

23
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • Weeds are plants that are undesirable and are
    often considered out of place.
  • Weeds compete for space, nutrients, water, and
    light that the crop plants need to grow.
  • They also harbor insect pests.
  • Weed life cycles are annuals, biennials, and
    perennials.
  • They are also classified as broadleaf or grass
    weeds.

1. An annual weed is a plant that completes its
life cycle within one growing season.
24
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 2. A biennial weed is a plant that will live for
    two growing seasons.
  • Vegetative growth occurs in the first year where
    the plant produces leaf, stems, and root tissue.
  • During the second year, the plant flowers and
    produces seeds.
  • 3. A perennial weed can live for more than two
    growing seasons and may reproduce by seed and/or
    vegetative growth.

25
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 4. Broadleaf weeds have a broad leaf associated
    with dicot plants.
  • Examples are dandelions, ground ivy, plantain,
    and spurge.
  • 5. Grass weeds include monocots such as
    crabgrass, nimblewill, and quackgrass.

26
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • Plants suffer from a variety of other pests
    including mites, nematodes, parasitic plants, and
    animals.
  • 1. Mites are small organisms with an
    exoskeleton, two body parts, and eight legs.
  • 2. Nematodes are tiny hair-like roundworms that
    feed on the root of plants.
  • They may live in the soil or water, within
    insects, or as parasites of plants or animal
  • Nematodes are quite small and produce damage to
    plants by feeding on roots, stems, or leaf tissue.

27
How are the types of pests identified and
described?
  • 3. Some plants, such as dodder and mistletoe,
    are parasitic.
  • Parasitic plants extract water and nutrients from
    other plants and give nothing in return.
  • 4. Animals including deer, mice, rabbits, and
    voles cause severe physical damage to plants,
    which often causes plant death.

28
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • For successful management of pests, the IPM
    program must be a year-round program.
  • Also, IPM control measures for a specific crop,
    poinsettias for example, should begin before the
    plants enter the greenhouse.
  • The strength of IPM is the combination of control
    measures used.
  • Four broad areas of control include sanitation,
    cultural/physical control, biological control,
    and chemical control.

29
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • Many pest problems can be greatly reduced, if not
    eliminated, with sanitation.
  • Sanitation is simply the effort made to keep a
    greenhouse or garden clean.
  • Many insects and diseases can be found in plant
    debris.
  • Sanitation involves the removal of weeds from the
    immediate area around crops.

30
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • Cultural/physical control methods are those
    methods that physically prevent activities of
    pests.
  • Used alone they probably will not provide
    complete control of pests and reduce certain
    problems.
  • Cultural/physical controls are also safe to
    humans and relatively easy to implement.
  • 1. Stop the introduction of pests to the
    greenhouse when possible.
  • 2. Remove and destroy heavily infested and
    diseased plants.

31
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • 3. Maintain optimal cultural requirements for
    each crop (growing medium, watering, fertility,
    temperatures, etc.) to promote healthy growth.
  • 4. Fungal diseases can be reduced by providing
    good air circulation around the plants.

5. The yellow sticky traps used as monitoring
tools also serve as a means of physical control.
32
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • Biological controls involve the use of living
    organisms to control pests.
  • They maybe microbial organisms, parasitic
    organisms, or predators.
  • Biological control organisms for greenhouse use
    are found in nature and are considered
    environmentally safe.
  • 1. A bacterium, Bacillus thurengiensis,
    effectively controls caterpillars.
  • Aphids and whitefly can be controlled to an
    extent by species of bacteria and fungi.
  • The bacteria and fungi are natural diseases of
    those insects.

33
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • 2. Parasitic organisms help to control some
    pests.
  • The parasites are natural enemies of the pest and
    live off the pest organism.
  • An example is a tiny parasitic wasp that lays its
    eggs on the whitefly larva that feeds on plant
    leaves.
  • The eggs hatch with the wasp larva inside the
    whitefly larva.
  • The wasp larva proceeds to eat the whitefly
    larva.
  • The wasp matures, emerges from what is left of
    the whitefly, mates, and looks for whitefly larva
    on which to lie the next generation of eggs.

34
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • 3. Predatory organisms can be released to devour
    certain plant pests.
  • A beetle attacks whitefly larva and adults.
  • A mite is used to control thrips.
  • Ladybugs eat aphids.
  • As with parasitic organisms, chemical pesticides
    should not be used with predatory organisms.
  • Also, predatory and parasitic organisms should be
    released when pest populations are small.

35
What are the basic elements of an integrated pest
management program?
  • The use of chemicals to control pests and
    diseases is chemical control.
  • The chemicals used are called pesticides.
  • Although once used almost exclusively, control of
    pests with the use of pesticides is now viewed as
    only one component of an IPM program.
  • In fact, use of chemical pesticides is now often
    done only when absolutely necessary.
  • Application of pesticides must be done safely to
    reduce potential injury to people and the
    environment.
About PowerShow.com