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Plog and Psychographics This is a look at a more specific sub-field of recreation Tourism and motivation Though this can be applied to other recreational facilities – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plog%20and%20Psychographics

Plog and Psychographics
  • This is a look at a more specific sub-field of
  • Tourism and motivation
  • Though this can be applied to other recreational

  • Tremendous amount of recreational research
    revolves around demographics

Psychographics Plog initially developed his scale
while studying the behaviors and motivations of
international airline travelers.
  • Attempt to slice up the psyches of the population
    into various categories - outside the
    straightjacket of demographics
  • Most of the research in this area has
    concentrated on travel research
  • Which type of person likes to go where
  • Extension to recreational personalities and the
    images of places

  • Individuals who belong to the same demographic
    groups and cohorts may have different motivations
    and behaviours
  • The activity may have something to do with
    grouping like personalities
  • If true - this type of analysis can help
    determine market segments, marketing strategies,
    and potential conflicts between various user

  • Customer Analysis
  •     Geographics where clients live or work
  • Demographics age, income, gender, education,
    race, marital status, family size, occupation,
    culture, religion, job requirements,
    socioeconomic status and leisure activities
  • Psychographics lifestyles, attitudes, values
    and beliefs

Elan Boats formerly American Skier
  • To be able to grow Elan Boats beyond what
    American Skier established it is essential that
    we build boats for the competition market as well
    as the wakeboard and family recreation markets..
    They now have three brands, American Skier,
    Volante, and Eagle Air for the three market
    psychographics profiles.

  • Make way for the "cultural creatives," an
    emerging lifestyle group that consists of nearly
    one-fourth or 44 million Americans.
  • This group believes in environmentalism,
    feminism, global issues, and spiritual searching.
  • They represent the leading edge of behavior
    change and are of particular interest to parks
    and recreation because they seek community
    involvement, authentic "experiences," and
    adventuresome, genuine, altruistic, and spiritual
    vacation travel. (American Demographics)

  • Other lifestyle groups identified in the study
    include "heartlanders," the 29 of Americans who
    maintain the traditional beliefs of small towns
    and strong churches, and "modernists,
  • Within the 47 of the population who place a high
    value on success and consumerism. (American
  • A recent study conducted by Roper Starch
    Worldwide for Hyatt Hotels revealed four
    behavioral categories of business travelers
    globetrotter, smooth sailor, world weary, or torn
    traveler. The greatest determinant of a person's
    profile as a business traveler was family status.
    Younger travelers with children at home felt the
    most pressure on the road while older travelers
    without the home responsibilities experienced a
    pleasant change of pace.

  • Viewing, photographing, learning about nature and
    history attract more than 150 million people per
    year (tourists world wide)
  • Land-based participation trends include winners
    and losers when examining changes from 1982 to
    1995. The big winners in percentage change are
    bird watching (155.2), hiking (93.5),
    backpacking (72.7), primitive camping (58.2),
    and attending an outdoor concert or play
    (54.7). Activities experiencing decline
    include tennis (-29.3), hunting (-12.3),
    horseback riding (-10.1).

Golf and Tennis Resort
  • For example the Planters in South Carolina

  • Goal would be to build as much as possible
    integrated facilities - facilities that would
    house tennis players and golfers
  • On the surface, the demographics of these two
    groups that visit resorts are roughly similar (
    income, education, family size, etc)
  • A single clubhouse should be acceptable but

Plog and the Recreation System
  • The best known of Plogs work relates tourists
    (traveler's) motivations to their destination
  • The emphasis is on personality - not
    demographically related variables
  • travellers are distributed along a continuum

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  • Tendency to be anxious, self-inhibited,
  • Concern for small details

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High end
  • Soft adventure group travel is characterized by
    travel to novel or exotic locations, low risk
    activities (perceived and true), low intensity
    activities, high quality food, quality lodging,
    and transportation. One example of a soft
    adventure tour is a luxury tented safari camp in
    Kenya that provides gourmet food, showers, and
    Land Rovers for a safari tour

  • Individuals who are self-confident, curious,
    adventurous and outgoing
  • Preference for non-touristy areas. A delight in
    new experiences
  • Preference for novel destinations and high level
    of activities

  • Grand Canyon

High End
  • Hard adventure travel is characterized by travel
    to novel or exotic destinations, a higher risk
    factor of activities that may require greater
    skill(s), and a higher intensity level of
  • Accommodations are typically more rustic,
    including tents, rustic lodges, and basic hotels.
  • Food is generally the traditional food of the
    region. One example of hard adventure travel is
    traveling by foot on a walking safari through
    Kenya, carrying all supplies and food in a
    backpack that weighs approximately 70 pounds.
    Accommodations are tents and food consists of the
    traditional fare of goat, cabbage, and chipotes
    (flour pancake).
  • The risk factor is considered high due to
    potential wild animal encounters, poor water
    quality, and countless other risks including but
    not limited to injury, inclement weather, and

  • A destination will do best when ?
  • Consequence ?

  • There is a sense and suggestion that because of
    the different motivations that destinations will
    evolve over time
  • Allocentrics will discover a place
  • word-of-mouth and other information is spread
  • Mid-centrics arrive, the allocentrics leave but
    in the long run, psychocentrics arrive