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Plant Diseases and Insect Pests

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Plant Diseases and Insect Pests Disease - any kind of injurious abnormality Physiological (environment) Other living organisms (pathogens) Pathogen - biological agent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Diseases and Insect Pests


1
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
  • Disease - any kind of injurious abnormality
  • Physiological (environment)
  • Other living organisms (pathogens)
  • Pathogen - biological agent that causes the
    injury
  • Insects
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • Nematodes
  • Miscellaneous

2
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
  • Parasite - an organism that derives nourishment
    from another living organism
  • Host - an organism that provides nourishment to
    another
  • Obligate parasite - organism that can only
    survive on the living host
  • Host range - list of several different plants
    that some parasites can feed off of

3
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
  • Bacteria - one-celled organisms that enter
    through wounds and cause rot
  • Fungi - multi-celled organisms that either are
    saprophytes or parasites. Ex molds, mildew.
    Cause decay of plants

4
Bacterial rot/wilt
5
Fireblight on an apple
6
Bacterial disease control?
  • Start with clean pots potting media tools
  • Start with clean seed or healthy transplants
  • Use drip irrigation or water in the morning so
    the extra water on the surface of the leaves
    evaporates by evening
  • Antibiotics now exist for injecting into trees
    but treatment is costly and the effects
    temporary. There are no antibiotic spray
    treatments.

7
Fungal rots
8
Fungus on foliage
9
Fungal disease control?
  • Start with clean pots potting media tools
  • Start with clean seed or healthy transplants
  • Use drip irrigation or water in the morning so
    the extra water on the surface of the leaves
    evaporates by evening
  • Fungicides do exist. They can be used as a
    liquid drench, spray or powder.

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13
Captan Thiram synthetic fungicides
14
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15
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
  • Viruses - infectious particles made-up of nucleic
    acids (typically RNA in plants) with a protein
    coat. In the plant cell, the protein coat comes
    off and the RNA uses the plant cell to reproduce
    itself. These are obligate parasites.

16
Virus
Tobacco Mosaic Virus
17
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24
No control methods!
25
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
  • Nematodes - unsegmented worms that feed on roots
    and create wounds for bacteria and fungi to enter

26
Nematode damage on tomato
27
Nematode damage on tomato
28
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29
Nematode damage on carrot
30
Foliar nematodes
Hosta
Zinnia
31
How Plants are Damaged
  • Damage by
  • Direct feeding
  • Secretion of toxic substances
  • Secondary organism enters the wound
  • Symptom - plants response to attack (wilt)
  • Sign - structures produced by the attacking
    organism (webs, tunnels, etc.)

32
Symptom wilt
33
Webbing sign
34
Spread of Insects and Disease
  • Diseases and insects are spread to plants by
  • Water
  • Wind
  • Insects
  • Animals (including people) Ex TMV
  • Machinery
  • Plants are more susceptible to disease and insect
    attack when they are stressed (water or
    temperature)
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