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Title: St.%20Boniface%20Church,%20St.%20Catherine

St. BonifaceRoman Universalism in North Orange
  • St. Boniface Church, St. Catherines Academy and
    Associated Roman Catholic Institutions in
    Anaheim, California

Researched and Written by Alex Lamb, Anaheim High
School, Anaheim, CA
St. Boniface Roman Catholic Church
  • German immigrant Roman Catholics followed German
    immigrant Protestants to Anaheim, in Southern
    California, and established St. Boniface Catholic
    Church in 1860. Many of these German immigrants
    had originally come to California to become
    wealthy during the gold rush of 1848-1849.
  • The new St. Boniface Church was begun on
    September 1, 1902, at the corner of Lincoln
    Avenue and Harbor Boulevard. It sustained serious
    damage during the Long Beach earthquake of 1933
    and eventually was torn down by the late 1950s.
    The present day church is located one block West
    of Harbor Boulevard on Lincoln Avenue.

German Roman Catholic Immigration
  • The first large wave of German Roman Catholics
    began in the mid 1840s. Most German immigrants
    during this time were more secure economically
    than the Irish Catholic immigrants who were also
    coming into the United States at this time. Most
    German Catholic immigrants were able to purchase
    farms or small businesses, and settled in the Mid
    West and in cities like Chicago, Cincinnati, St.
    Louis, and Milwaukee. A few made their way to
    California, to seek their fortunes in the gold
    fields, or to settle in small farming communities
    like Anaheim.
  • American nativist political parties arose like
    the Know-Nothings, which were anti-Catholic,
    anti-immigrant, and believed that immigrants
    would take away the good paying jobs of
    native-born Americans. These nativist and
    anti-Catholic feelings would arise later in
    Anaheim during the 1920s when the Ku Klux Klan
    in Anaheim took control of the city council and
    for a while wielded considerable political

St. Boniface School
  • St. Boniface School was established in the 1930s
    to provide Catholic education from Kindergarten
    to Grade 8.
  • Several graduates of St. Boniface then went on to
    attend Marywood Girls High School in Anaheim (at
    the corner of Harbor Boulevard and Broadway),
    Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana, or Servite
    High School in Anaheim.
  • However, a great many of St. Boniface alumni
    chose to attend Anaheim High School, a public
    school, one block West, at 811 W. Lincoln Avenue.

Nativism and the Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim During
the 1920s
  • Recently arrived newcomers to the city of
  • Anaheim from the South and the Mid-West
  • brought their ideas of nativism with them
  • in the form of the Ku Klux Klan, which
  • was fundamentalist Protestant, anti-
  • Catholic, anti-foreigner, anti-new scientific
  • ideas, and anti alcohol. Anaheim up to this
  • time had been predominately Roman
  • Catholic, and had a long tradition of
  • manufacturing alcoholic beverages such as
  • wine and beer. Traditionally, Anaheim was
  • the only wet town in Orange County.

The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim
  • In the mid 1920s, there were Klan
  • rallies on the softball field at
  • Pearson Park, and a fiery cross was
  • placed on the cement walkway
  • before the main entrance of St.
  • Boniface Church. For a time, the
  • Klan gained control of the Anaheim
  • City Council. One year, a Klan
  • convention was held in Anaheim,
  • and one could see the initials
  • KIGY (Klansman, I greet you)
  • written throughout the city.

How Was the Klan Finally Defeated?
  • The Klan was active in Anaheim from 1922-1927.
  • The population of Anaheim during that time was
    less than 10,000 inhabitants. Klan membership
    didnt exceed 300.
  • To defeat the Klan, the Knights of Columbus, a
    Catholic organization, created a strategy based
    on obtaining the membership rolls of the Anaheim
    Klan and bringing it out into the open.
  • The U.S.A. Club was created to fight the Klan. It
    included Knights of Columbus members, Protestant
    clergymen, and prominent business and
    professional men, such as Ernest Ganahl, owner of
    Ganahl Lumber Company.
  • A special election was held on February 3, 1925
    which ousted four members of the Ku Klux Klan
    from the Anaheim City Council.

St. Boniface Catholic Church Completed in 1903
The New St. Boniface Church in 1961
Prominent Members of St. Boniface Catholic
Church, Anaheim
  • The Carl Karcher Family Mr. and Mrs. Carl
    Karcher, started the Carls Jr. hamburger
    restaurant chain, and have been generous
  • The Joseph M. Anton Family The father of Joseph
    Anton, Abdullah, immigrated to Anaheim from
    Lebanon, and was part of the Maronite (Syrian)
    Rite of the Catholic Church. Joseph Anton began
    Antons Food Market on the corner of Lemon and
    Los Angeles Streets (now Anaheim Boulevard).
  • The George Garebedian Family George was
    originally from Armenia, and came to Anaheim in
    1915. He began as a hospital custodian, and
    accumulated orange groves in and around Anaheim.
    His son, Richard, attended St. Boniface School,
    Anaheim High School, and became an optometrist.

Prominent Members of St. Boniface Parish
  • The Roman Wisser Family Roman Wisser immigrated
    to Anaheim from the Alsace-Lorraine region of
    France because of the booming wine industry. His
    sons and daughters started Wisser Sporting Goods
    Store on Lincoln Avenue in Anaheim.
  • The Ernest Ganahl Family The Ganahls were
    immigrants from Germany, and established Ganahl
    Lumber Company in Anaheim, today consisting of
    several branches. Ernest was instrumental in
    defeating the Klan in the 1920s.
  • Dr. John A. Larson, M.D. Dr. Larson was a well
    known and highly regarded general practitioner
    who was the last doctor in Anaheim to make house
    calls. His son, John Jr., also a doctor,
    continues to practice medicine in the Anaheim

Prominent Members of St. Boniface Parish
  • Rudolph Oscar Monnig Mr. Monnigs ancestors can
    be traced to Germany in the 17th Century. Oscar
    Monnig, a German immigrant to New York City, took
    a boat to St. Louis, Missouri, and took another
    boat up the Missouri River to a German settlement
    called Rhineland, all before 1861. His
    descendants eventually settled in Anaheim, and
    they created the Monnig Floor Covering Company.
    Frank Monnig graduated from Anaheim High School
    in 1967.
  • The Joseph Huarte Family Of Basque Spanish
    heritage. Affiliated with the Bastanchury family
    (spring water company). His grandson John was a
    quarterback at the University of Notre Dame,
    where he won the Heismann Trophy in 1962. Members
    of this family were also teachers at Mater Dei
    High School in Santa Ana, and at Marywood Girls
    High School in Anaheim.

Father John Quatannens of St. Boniface Church -
US Army Chaplain (R)
  • Father John Quatannens of St. Boniface, was
    called to duty by the U.S. Army in 1943 as a
    chaplain. He was born in Flanders, Belgium. He
    was one of the first to land at Omaha Beach in
    Normandy, France, on June 6, 1944. He was
    attached to General George S. Pattons 3rd Army,
    and administered to the wounded during the Battle
    of the Bulge from December 16, 1944 to February,

St. Catherines Academy (formerly St.
Catherines Military Academy)
  • First built by the German community of Dominican
    Sisters, and opened in 1889, originally as a
  • It is located directly North of St. Boniface
    Catholic Church.
  • It became a Roman Catholic orphanage in 1894,
    taking in orphan boys as young as three months.
  • The school experienced financial difficulties
    during its first year of operation. An Eastern
    firm offered to buy the property in order to
    build a shoe factory.
  • Reverend Mother M. Pia (1854-1925) travelled to
    Anaheim to sign the papers for the final sale. As
    she was approaching St. Catherines from the
    railroad station, a swarm of bees followed her
    carriage. The bees stopped at St. Catherines. In
    those days, bees were thought to bring good luck.
    Mother Superior Pia then decided not to sell the
    property. St. Catherines began to prosper from
    then on. Other Roman Catholic institutions were
    then established in Anaheim Marywood Girls High
    School in 1912, and Servite High School in 1958.

Sister Johnellen Turner, O.P.,Current Director
of Saint Catherines Academy
Mother Pia, of the Dominican Sisters, Founder of
Saint Catherines
Original Main Building, St. Catherines
Cadet, Saint Catherines Military School, 1920s
Colonel Bizzell (Commandant) andSister Johnellen
on the Parade Grounds
St. Catherines Military School 1920s
St. Catherines Academy
Educational Philosophy of St. Catherines Academy
  • Commandant Colonel Barry Bizzell, U.S.M.C., Ret.,
    states St. Catherines Philosophy We will
    continue to teach leadership, self-discipline,
    honor, and respect through military tradition.
  • Ms. Joanna Ronan, Marketing Director of St.
    Catherines Academy says A Catholic school is
    first about promoting peace.

Hollywood Comes to St. Catherines
  • St. Catherines was well known within the
    Hollywood community, and highly regarded. Many in
    the film industry sent their sons to study here.
    It was chosen as the site to make The Private War
    of Major Benson, released in 1955 and starring
    Charlton Heston. The movie was filmed on location.

Marywood Girls High School (1912), Anaheim,
Servite High School, Anaheim (1958)
Who Was St. Boniface?
  • Saint Boniface was born in England in the late
    7th century CE. He became the official missionary
    to preach the Gospel to the heathen tribes in
    Holland and Germany. Boniface was part of the
    Emperor Charlemagnes plan to convert the pagan
    Germanic tribes to Christianity by force or
    peaceful means.

St. Boniface was Killed by Germanic Tribes
  • He became a bishop in the year 723 CE. In the
    presence of a hostile, pagan crowd, he felled to
    the ground a sacred oak tree of the god Thor, and
    out of this wood he built a Christian church, the
    first in Germany. He planted a young fir tree to
    represent the tree of life. It is believed that
    from this action grew the German custom of the
    Christmas tree.

St. Boniface and his Holy Ax
  • Boniface was later attacked by a group of
    Germanic pagan warriors who objected to his
    forced conversions. He was declared a Saint.
    Today he is the patron saint of the Germans. When
    German Catholics moved to Anaheim in 1857, it was
    natural that their church should be dedicated to

Who Was Saint Catherine? (282-305 CE)
  • Saint Catherine, the daughter of the governor of
  • Alexandria, Egypt, converted to Christianity in
  • her late teens. When she attempted to convert the
  • Roman Emperor to Christianity, he ordered her
  • placed in a prison. She was condemned to death
  • on the breaking wheel, an instrument of torture.
  • According to legend, the wheel broke when she
  • touched it, so she was beheaded. She became a
  • symbol of proper Christian behavior and her
  • power as an intercessor was renowned. Joan of
  • Arc confessed that she communicated with her.
  • Her pilgrimage sites included the monastery at
  • Mount Sinai, Egypt Rouen, France and Canter-
  • bury and Westminster in England.

The Three Main Pillars of Western Civilization
  • The Judeo-Christian Heritage, Greek Rationalism,
    and Roman Universalism

I. The Judeo-Christian Heritage
  • 1. The Jewish sense of historical purpose.
  • 2. Gods divine plan was to be revealed to men
    through history (Old and New Testament
  • 3. A covenant-contractual relationship between
    God and man implying mutual trust and
    responsibility, and the ethical values coming
    from this covenant.
  • 4. The Messiah concept a divine redeemer with a
    divine plan (Christian tradition).

Examples of Judeo-Christian Heritage
  • 1.God-centered relationship, with man as a
    special creature of God with great worth and
    dignity, lord of all earthly creation, but still
    subject to God.
  • 2.Equality of all men before God, due to mens
    souls as image of God.
  • 3.Mans spiritual, loving soul created by a
    personal, loving God.

Christ, played by Jeffrey Hunter in King of Kings
II. Greek Rationalism
  • 1. There is an underlying order or harmony in
  • 2. Everything in the everyday world is governed
    by natural laws.
  • 3. These natural laws can be understood by human
  • 4. The emphasis in ancient Greece was on the
    rational part of man.
  • The development of knowledge mathematics, the
    natural sciences (astronomy, chemistry, physics).
    This is where order and harmony are believed to
    have always existed.
  • The Greeks tried to define the universe in terms
    of scientific and materialistic explanations.
    This orderly, rational explanation of the natural
    world could also be used to explain the behavior
    of human beings, and their place in the world.

Greek Rationalism Example
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).English
    mathematician and natural philosopher, formulated
    the laws of gravity and motion and the elements
    of differential calculus.

III. Roman Universalism
  • unione verspart alhaving
  • ismbelief in.
  • 1. The Roman view of the Mediterranean basin as
    One World.
  • 2. A single, great, centralized political entity
    known as the Roman Empire.
  • 3. A system of universal government run under an
    organized system of laws
  • The Roman Law.
  • Examples
  • The concept of one world. The Holy Roman
    Empire, the United Nations, The European Common
    Market, the Roman Catholic Church
  • (catholicusuniversal, general).
  • The absolute monarchies and governments of Europe
    in the 17th century.
  • 20th century totalitarian governments
  • Imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus-The Senate and
the People of Rome
One WorldConcept The Roman Empire (Roman
One World Charlemagnes Empire 800 AD
(Frankish Empire)
Roman Universalism Roman Catholics in the World
(in green) Today
One World Holy Roman Empire 1100 CE
One World Napoleons Empire, 1812
One World European Union (2008)
The Roman Catholic Church
  • Early Christians in the Roman Empire adopted
    Roman political administration and organization
    almost immediately.
  • After the Roman (political) Empire fell, the
    Roman Catholic Church was the strongest
    institution in the Western Roman Empire. The
    church continued Roman culture throughout Western
  • According to Sir Kenneth Clark, it could be
    argued very convincingly that the Roman Catholic
    Church was solely instrumental in saving Western
  • The monk-scholars of the Church copied and thus
    preserved the ancient manuscripts of Greece,
    ancient Judea, and the early Christians. One
    could argue therefore that the Catholic Church-a
    form of Roman Universalism-saved Western

The Roman Catholic Church is Roman Universalism
  • Roman Empire
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • One capital Rome
  • One ruler Emperor
  • One language Latin
  • The state is supreme
  • One law Roman law
  • One capital Rome
  • One ruler The Pope
  • One language Latin
  • The Church is supreme
  • One law Church law

Who are the Catholics and What do they Believe?
  • The term Catholic means universal or whole.
  • It is the largest Christian church in the world
    with 1.147 billion people in 2007. Catholics are
    17.40 of the world population.
  • The Pope is the head of the Church, and it
    defines its mission as spreading the gospel of
    Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments, and
    exercising charity.
  • It teaches that it is the church founded by Jesus
    Christ, its bishops are the successors of
    Christs apostles, and that the Pope is the
    successor to Saint Peter.
  • Catholic doctrine maintains that the church is
    infallible when it rigidly teaches a doctrine of
    faith or morals.
  • Catholic worship is centered on the Eucharist in
    which the Church teaches bread and wine are
    supernaturally transubstantiated into the body
    and blood of Christ.

Who are the Catholics and What do they Believe?
  • The Churchs hierarchy is headed by the Bishop of
    Rome, the Pope (Holy Father), a position that
    makes him the leader of the worldwide (universal)
    Catholic Church.
  • The current Pope is Francis, who was elected on
    March 13, 2013.
  • The office of the Pope is known as the Papacy.
    His ecclesiastical jurisdiction if often called
    the Holy See.
  • The Roman Curia directly serves the Pope. It is
    the governing body that administers the
    day-to-day business of the Catholic Church.
  • The Pope is also the head of state of Vatican
    City State, a sovereign city-state within the
    city of Rome.

Who are the Catholics, and What do they Believe?
  • Following the death or resignation of a Pope,
    members of the College of Cardinals who are under
    age 80 meet in the Sistine Chapel in Rome to
    elect a new Pope. The title of Cardinal is a rank
    of honor bestowed by Popes on certain high
    churchmen such as leaders within the Roman Curia,
    bishops serving in major cities and distinguished
    theologians. Since 1389, only fellow Cardinals
    have been elevated to the position of Pope,
    although theoretically any male Catholic can be
  • Individual countries, regions, or major cities
    are served by local particular churches known
    as dioceses or eparchies, each supervised by a
    Catholic bishop. Dioceses are further divided
    into numerous individual communities called
    parishes , each staffed by one or more priests,
    deacons, and/or lay ecclesial ministers. Parishes
    are responsible for the day-to-day celebration of
    the sacraments and pastoral care of the Catholic

Who are the Catholics?
  • Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the
    laity, may enter into consecrated life as monks
    or nuns.
  • A candidate takes vows confirming their desire to
    follow the three evangelical counsels of
    chastity, poverty and obedience.
  • Examples of institutes of consecrated life are
    the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans,
    the Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, and
    the Sisters of Mercy.

Signal that a new Pope has been Elected
  • Once a new Pope has been elected by the College
    of Cardinals, a special paper is burned which
    transmits white smoke.

A New Pope is Elected
  • A conclave of Cardinals elects the new Pope in
    the Sistine Chapel inside Vatican City, in Rome.

Pope John XXIII (Left) and Pope John Paul II
(Right) were both highly regarded Pontiffs
Pope Innocent III (1161-1216 CE)
  • Innocent III was the most powerful Pope of all
    time, forcing his will upon the leading monarchs
    of Europe, playing off one king against another
    with consummate skill. He was successful in
    excommunicating entire countries unless the
    reigning monarch bent to his will. He instigated
    the 4th Crusade, approved the new Franciscan and
    Dominican Orders, and successfully crushed
    heretics in Southern France.

St. Peters in Rome, the center of the Roman
Catholic Church
  • The Crucifixion of St. Peter by Caravaggio
  • St. Peters in Rome, site of St. Peters burial

Who Are the Dominican Sisters?
  • St. Catherines Academy, in St. Boniface parish
    is owned and administered by the Dominican
    Sisters of Mission San Jose.
  • What is the difference between a nun and a
    sister? Both Nuns and Sisters are called
    Sister. However, there is a distinction made in
    the Catholic Church which is generally not made
    by the public. Nuns take solemn vows and are
    cloistered, that is, they reside, pray, and work
    within the confines of a monastery. Sisters take
    simple vows and live in a life governed by the
    particular mission, vision, and charisma of the
    respective Orders or Congregations of Sisters.
    Sisters embrace ministries that take them out to
    serve the people in hospitals, schools, parishes,
    social services, etc.

Who Are the Dominican Sisters, and What is Their
Role at St. Catherines?
  • The Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose are
    inspired by the dedication of Mother Superior Pia
    (1854-1925) who was also responsible for the
    founding of St. Catherines Academy dedicated in
    1889. This order of Sisters was originally from
    Regensburg, Germany.
  • According to their website, the Sisters are
    committed to the education of the poor and the
    vulnerable. St Catherines is rooted within the
    Dominican pillars of prayer, study, community,
    and ministry.

Who Are the Dominican Sisters and What is their
  • According to Sister Caroline Monahan (formerly
    Sister Thomas Anne), St. Catherines for boys is
    a mixture of feminine (the Sisters), and
    masculine (the military). The best of the
    military emphasized here is honor, courage,
    leadership, combined with compassion.
  • The students are taught to develop a strong sense
    of responsibility and compassion towards each
    other, and to develop a sense of honor and
    strength. They are also taught to become
    attentive to all things around them for the
    ultimate concern of the group as a whole. The
    subject of religion is about integration of faith
    into life through what the Church considers
    universal values. All teachers talk with the boys
    about various situations in order to integrate
    Dominican values and the supreme importance of
    charisma (spirit) and study.

Who are the Dominicans and what do they believe
  • The Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose follow
    the teachings and philosophy of Saint Dominic
    (1170-1221). According to Sister Caroline
    Monahan, the Dominicans have always dealt with
    the world as it is. Their underlying emphasis is
    upon education. The Sisters at St. Catherines
    follow the Constitution of the Dominican Order
    approved in the year 1217.

St. Dominic, by El Greco
Saint Dominic and the Dominicans
  • The official name of the Dominicans is The Order
    of Preachers. They were a product of the struggle
    against the Albigensians, a heretical sect in
    Southern France. A Spanish priest named Dominic
    organized a group of followers who aimed to live
    saintly lives, by example, in order to persuade
    the Albigensians, or Cathari, to return to the
    Roman Catholic Church. They also engaged in
    preaching and intense education. The heretics
    respected him, but most did not follow him.

The Albigensians (Cathar/Cathari)
  • Albigensians were a group of heretics in
    Southern France. Pope Innocent III originally
    had sent preachers like Saint Dominic to bring
    them back to the Catholic faith. When that
    failed, he called for a crusade, and they were

Albigensian (Cathar) Cross
One of the Last Remaining Strongholds of the
Albigensians (Cathari)
The Dominican Order
  • The Dominican Order evolved out of the small
    group of volunteers who joined Dominic in his
    work to convert the Albigensians. Gradually,
    Dominic came to see the possibility of a far
    greater mission for his followers to preach and
    win converts to the faith throughout the world.
    Their order attracted men of imagination and
    unusual religious dedication who were confronted
    with the stimulating goal of working toward the
    moral regeneration of society by working in the
    world, rather than withdrawing from society. This
    religious order was geared toward working in the
    new European of towns and cities of the High
    Middle Ages, places of new vitality, ideas,
    problems, and social and religious opportunities.
    They successfully fulfilled a need by preaching
    the faith and establishing educational

The Dominicans
  • Their life, strictly regulated and austere,
    included such rigors as regular midnight
    services, total abstinence from meat, frequent
    fasts, and prolonged periods of mandatory
    silence. The entire order was strictly bound by
    the rule of poverty, which Dominic had learned
    from his contemporary, Saint Francis. It was to
    exist through charitable gifts.
  • The Dominican order expanded during the course of
    the thirteenth century. Dominican friars carried
    their evangelical activities across Europe, into
    the Holy Land, Central Asia, Tartary (the Mongol
    Empire), Tibet, and China.
  • Dominican friars, including such notable scholars
    as St. Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas Aquinas,
    joined the faculties of universities, and became
    proponents of Aristotelian philosophy. Dominic
    himself insisted that his followers acquire broad
    educations before undertaking their mission of
    preaching, and that each Dominican priory include
    a school of theology.

Catholic Institutions as Historical Links
  • Visitors to the Roman Catholic institutions in
    Anaheim, are witnesses to historical continuity
    and direct links to foundations of Western
    civilization. The Catholic Church applied what it
    calls Roman Universalism as one of the three
    pillars preserving Western Civilization. The
    church propelled itself forward after the Roman
    Empire ended. Besides its function of providing
    for spiritual needs through compassion, charity,
    and hope, the church was an earthly power, a
    corporation, attracting men of the highest
    caliber, intelligence, and imagination. The
    dynamic actions of new religious orders, such as
    the Dominicans and Franciscans, established
    educational institutions and transformed
    learning. According to Sir Kenneth Clark, this
    began in the year 1100 at the start of the High
    Middle Ages, when European civilization
    experienced great progress in organization,
    cooperation, art, philosophy, technology, and
    boundless energy. Clark has argued that Western
    civilization is really a creation of the Catholic
    Church. The church gave Western civilization its
    restless curiosity, constructive thought,
    intellectual energy, scientific inquiry, ability
    to move and to change. It connected humankind
    both with Greece through educational
    institutions, and with God through expressions of