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Threat and Error Management

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Threat and Error Management Aircraft handling; aileron usage when stalling, un-coordinated rudder usage etc. Procedural; a clear intention is necessary to make an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Threat and Error Management


1
Threat and Error Management
2
What is TEM?
  • Defensive flying

3
ICAO and FAA
  • In 2000, LOSA baseline results showed that error
    management had been incorporated into everyday
    operations.
  • Improved checklist usage and a 70 reduction in
    non-stabilised approaches.
  • ICAO made LOSA the central focus of flight safety
    and human factors programmes.
  • TEM and LOSA recognised Worldwide.

4
TEM Philosophy
  • Three basic concepts
  • Anticipation
  • Recognition
  • Recovery
  • Recover first, analyse the cause later.

5
Threats
  • May be internal or external.
  • They are not caused by the crew.
  • They increase the operational complexity of a
    flight.
  • Require crew attention and management if safety
    margins are to be maintained.

6
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7
What is a latent Threat?
  • A threat that is not directly obvious to
    flight crew.
  • Equipment design.

8
Threat Management - GPS
  • Threats errors
  • Poor standardisation of GPS receivers
  • Poor integration with AP
  • Mis-interpretation of HSI
  • Management
  • Obtain training practice (VMC) with make
    model
  • Use HDG mode when changing any detail
  • In non-integ. cockpit, double-check mode

9
Errors
  • Error is a crew action or inaction that leads to
    a deviation from crew or organisational
    intentions or expectations.
  • Put simply threats come at the crew, while
    errors come from the crew.
  • An Error that is detected and effectively managed
    has no adverse impact on the flight.
  • An error that is not detected cannot be managed.

10
Flight Crew Errors
  • Can be divided into three types
  • Aircraft Handling
  • Procedural
  • Communication Errors.

11
Consequence of Error
  • The very same error can have completely different
    consequences, depending on the factors involved.
  • Error setting the flaps correctly for landing
    is forgotten.
  • Aircraft type and performance
  • Actual landing weight
  • Runway length and obstructions ahead

12
Undesired Aircraft State (UAS)
  • A UAS is defined as a position, speed, attitude
    or configuration of an aircraft that
  • Results from flight crew error, actions or
    inaction
  • Clearly reduces safety margins
  • UAS can be managed effectively or mismanaged,
    leading to an additional error, UAS, an incident
    or accident.

13
  • A Decision MUST be made

14
Identify the Threats?
15
TEM Application
  • T Terrain
  • W Weather
  • O Operational
  • P Plan

16
TWO-P
  • Terrain old
  • Terrain new
  • Weather good
  • Weather bad
  • Operational in
  • Operational out

17
TWO-P
  • Assessing threats does not make them go away.
  • A threat briefing must contain effective
    strategies.
  • There must be a plan.

18
Levels of Situational Awareness
Notice
  • Level One Perceive
  • Level Two Comprehension
  • Level Three Projection
  • Understand

Think
Ahead
NUTA
19
The NUTA/TEM Links
20
Countermeasures
  • Anticipation builds vigilance.
  • Recognition leads to recovery.
  • Recover first, analyse causes later.
  • Planning.
  • Execution.
  • Review or modify.

21
What is an Unexpected Threat?
22
Just because you deal with a situation everyday
does not mean that it is not a threat.
23
Discussion Time
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