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Confined Space Entry A Training Program for Entrants and Attendants

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Title: Confined Space Entry A Training Program for Entrants and Attendants


1
Confined Space Entry A Training Program for
Entrants and Attendants
2
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Establish Confined Spaces Role in Todays
    Industry.
  • Discuss OSHAS requirements for Confined Spaces.
  • Discuss Principle Hazards involved with CS Entry.
  • Discuss Basic Skills in Hazard Recognition
    Control.
  • Discuss Confined Space Assessment Techniques.
  • Discuss Confined Space Fall Protection Systems.
  • Discuss Hazards Associated with Fall Protection.
  • Discuss Rescue and Retrieval Requirements.

3
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE
  • 1.6 Million Workers Enter Confined Spaces
    Annually.
  • The Standard is Expected to Reduce Accidents by
    85.
  • Untrained Rescuers Account for 60 of Annual
    Deaths.
  • Most workers who survive lose time from their
    job.
  • This training helps improve
  • Safety
  • Morale
  • Productivity
  • Employee well-being

4
Three Sections
  • The Law
  • Hazards
  • Controls

5
The Law Regulatory Overview of 49 CFR 1910.146,
Permit Required Confined Space Standard
6
49 CFR 1910.146
  • Contains requirements for practices and
    procedures to protect employees in general
    industry from the hazards of entry into permit
    required confined spaces (PRCS).
  • Does not apply to agriculture, construction, or
    shipyard employment.

7
Definitions
8
Confined Space
  • Is large enough and so configured that an
    employee can bodily enter and perform assigned
    work and
  • Has limited or restricted means for entry or
    exit and
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

9
Is the space large enough and so configured that
an employee can bodily enter and perform
assigned work?
No
Yes
Does the space have limited or restricted means
for entry or exit?
No
Yes
Is the space designed for continuous employee
occupancy?
Space is not Confined Regulation does not apply
Yes
No
Space is Confined Begin classification process
10
Permit Required Confined Space
  • Contains or has a potential to contain a
    hazardous atmosphere
  • Contains a material that has the potential for
    engulfing an entrant
  • Has an internal configuration such that an
    entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by
    inwardly converging walls or by a floor which
    sloped and tapers to a smaller cross-section or
  • Contains any other recognized serious safety or
    health hazard.

11
Hazardous Atmosphere
  • An atmosphere that may expose employees to the
    risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of
    ability to self-rescue, injury or acute illness
    from one or more of the following causes

12
Hazardous Atmosphere, cont.
  • Flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10 of
    its lower flammable limit (LFL)
  • Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that
    meets or exceeds its LFL
  • Oxygen concentration below 19.5 or above 23.5

13
Hazardous Atmosphere, cont.
  • Concentration of any substance published in
    Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental
    Control, or Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous
    Substances, in excess of its dose or PEL
  • Any other atmospheric condition that is IDLH.

14
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)
  • Poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or
  • Would cause irreversible adverse health effects
    or
  • Would interfere within individuals ability to
    escape unaided from a permit space.

15
Engulfment
  • The surrounding and effective capture of a
    person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable)
    solid substance that can be aspirated to cause
    death by filling or plugging the respiratory
    system, or that can exert enough force on the
    body to cause death by strangulation,
    constriction, or crushing.

16
Entry
  • The action by which a person passes through an
    opening into a permit-required confined space,
    and includes ensuing work activities in that
    space
  • Considered to have occurred as soon as any part
    of the entrants body breaks the plane of an
    opening into the space.

17
Entry Permit
  • The written or printed document provided by the
    employer to allow and control entry into a permit
    space.

18
Prohibited Condition
  • Any condition in a permit space that is not
    allowed by the permit during the period when
    entry is authorized.

19
Non-Permit Confined Space
  • A confined space that does not contain or, with
    respect to atmospheric hazards, have the
    potential to contain any hazard capable of
    causing death or serious physical harm.

20
General Requirements
  • Great Western Painting

21
General Requirements
  • Employer decides if workplace contains a PRCS.
  • If workplace contains permit spaces, employer
    must inform employees of their existence and
    location and that they are dangerous

22
General Requirements
  • If employer decides employees will not enter
    permit spaces employer must positively ensure
    they do not.
  • If employer decides employees will enter permit
    spaces, employer shall develop and implement a
    written entry program.

23
General Requirements
  • Employer may use alternate entry procedures
    provided certain conditions and requirements are
    met.
  • When there are changes in use or configuration of
    a non-permit confined space that might increase
    the hazards to entrants, employer shall, if
    necessary, reclassify as a permit space.

24
General Requirements
  • A permit space may be reclassified as a
    non-permit space
  • If there are no actual or potential atmospheric
    hazards and if all hazards within the permit
    space are eliminated without entry.
  • If entry is required to eliminate hazards, it
    shall be according to regulations.

25
Continued
  • If hazards arise in reclassified permit space,
    employees shall exit.
  • Employer shall certify in writing that all
    hazards in permit space have been eliminated and
    make this document available to each entrant.

26
General Requirements
  • When a host employer arranges for contractor to
    perform permit space entry work, host employer
    shall
  • Inform contractor of permit space entry program
  • Apprise contractor of hazards, precautions and
    procedures implemented for protection
  • Coordinate entry operations with contractor

27
General Requirements
  • Contractors shall inform the host employer of the
    permit program to be followed and coordinate
    multiple entry operations.

28
Alternate Entry Procedures
  • If alternate entry procedures are used
  • No formal written program
  • No permit system or permits
  • No attendant or supervisor
  • No rescue provisions
  • Training is required

29
Alternate Entry Procedures Conditions
  • Employer demonstrates that the only hazard posed
    by PRCS is actual or potential hazardous
    atmosphere.
  • Employer demonstrates that continuous forced air
    ventilation alone is sufficient to maintain safe
    permit space.
  • Employer develops monitoring and inspection data
    that supports the above demonstrations.

30
Alternate Entry Procedures Requirements
  • Any conditions making it unsafe to remove an
    entrance cover shall be eliminated before
    removing cover.
  • When entrance covers are removed, opening shall
    be promptly and effectively guarded.

31
Alternate Entry Procedures Requirements
  • Before entry, internal atmosphere shall be tested
    with a calibrated direct-reading instrument, for
    the following
  • Oxygen content
  • Flammable gases and vapors
  • Potential toxic air contaminants

32
Alternate Entry Procedures Requirements
  • There may be no hazardous atmosphere within the
    space whenever any employee is inside the space.
  • Continuous forced air ventilation shall be used
    as follows

33
continued
  • Entry is not permitted until hazardous atmosphere
    is eliminated
  • Ventilation shall be directed to immediate areas
    where employees are or will be present and
    continue until all employees have left the space
  • Air supply shall be from a clean source and may
    not increase the hazards in the space.

34
Alternate Entry Procedures Requirements
  • Atmosphere within the space shall be periodically
    tested as necessary.
  • If a hazardous atmosphere is detected during
    entry
  • Each employee shall leave the space immediately
  • The space shall be evaluated to determine cause
    and
  • Measures are taken to protect employees before
    subsequent entries.

35
Alternate Entry Procedures Requirements
  • Employer shall certify in writing that space is
    safe for entry and that all of the above
    requirements have been met.
  • Certification to be available to each employee
    before entry.

36
Permit Program
37
Permit Program
  • Prevent unauthorized entry.
  • Identify and evaluate hazards before entry.
  • Establish safe practices, such as isolation,
    purging inerting, ventilation, barricades,
    lockout/tagout, etc.

38
Permit Program
  • Provide and maintain equipment necessary for safe
    entry, including testing and monitoring,
    ventilation, communications, personal protection,
    lighting, barriers, ingress and egress, and
    rescue.
  • Test permit space and document results.

39
Permit Program
  • Maintain acceptable conditions in permit space.
  • Provide at least one attendant outside space.
  • Identify duties of each employee and provide
    training.

40
Permit Program
Cont.
  • Implement proper procedures for rescue.
  • Establish written system for preparation,
    issuance use and cancellation of permits.
  • Coordinated entry operations during multiple
    employer entries.
  • Review entire entry program at least annually.

41
Permit System
  • Great Western Painting

42
Permit System
  • The employer, through the permit system, shall
  • Complete and document all steps necessary for
    entry
  • Require initials or signature of person(s)
    completing the steps
  • Post permit at entry portal
  • Ensure permit is signed by entry supervisor.

43
Permit System
  • Duration of permit may not exceed time required
    to complete assigned task.
  • Permit must be cancelled if a prohibited
    condition arises, or the work has been completed.
  • Each cancelled entry permit must be retained for
    one year to facilitate program review.

44
Entry Permit
  • Great Western Painting

45
Entry Permit
  • Identifies
  • Permit space(s) to be entered
  • Purpose of entry
  • Date and authorized duration for permit
  • Authorized entrant(s)
  • Attendant(s)
  • Entry supervisor by printed name and signature

46
Entry Permit
  • Hazardous of the permit space
  • Measures required to control hazards of the space
  • Acceptable entry conditions
  • Test results with signature or initials of
    tester(s)
  • Rescue services, and the means to summon them

47
Entry Permit
  • Communication procedures and equipment
  • All special equipment and procedures, including
    PPE and rescue equipment
  • Any other information need to ensure safe entry
  • Any additional permits needed (such as hot work)

48
(No Transcript)
49
Employee Training
  • Great Western Painting

50
Employee Training
  • Employer shall provide and certify completion of
    training so that all affected employees acquire
    the understanding, knowledge, and skill necessary
    for the safe performance of assigned duties

51
Employee Training
Cont.
  • Before employee is assigned duties under the
    regulation
  • Before there is a change in assigned duties
  • Whenever employer has reason to believe either
    that there are deviations from permit space entry
    procedures or inadequacies in the employees
    knowledge or use of these procedures.

52
Employee Duties
  • Great Western Painting

53
Duties of Authorized Entrants
  • Employer shall ensure that all authorized
    entrants
  • Know the hazards that may be faced during entry
    (mode, signs, symptoms, and consequences of
    exposure)
  • Properly use all required equipment
  • Communicate with attendant as necessary to enable
    attendant to monitor status and alert entrants of
    need to evacuate.

54
Duties of Authorized Entrants
  • Alert attendant whenever any warning sign or
    symptom of exposure to a dangerous situation or a
    prohibited condition is detected.
  • Exit from permit space as quickly as possible
    whenever
  • Order to evacuate is given by attendant or entry
    supervisor

55
Call Robert 208-371-7757 Great Western Painting
  • Entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of
    exposure to a dangerous situation
  • Entrant detects a prohibited condition or
  • Evacuation alarm is activated.

56
Duties of Attendants
  • Employer shall ensure that each attendant
  • Knows that hazards that may be faced during
    entry
  • Know the possible behavioral effects of hazards
  • Continuously maintain accurate count of entrants

57
Duties of Attendants
  • Remains outside permit space during entry
    operations until relieved by another attendant
  • Communicates with entrants as necessary to
    monitor status and alert of need to evacuate
    space
  • Monitors activities inside and outside space to
    determine if safe for entrants to remain in space
    and orders evacuation when necessary

58
Duties of Attendants
  • Takes the following actions when unauthorized
    persons approach or enter a permit space while
    entry is underway
  • Warns them to stay away
  • Advised them to exit immediately if they have
    entered and
  • Informs authorized entrants and entry supervisor
    if unauthorized persons enter space.

59
Duties of Attendants
  • Summons rescue and emergency services when
    emergency exit from permit space is necessary
  • Performs non-entry rescues per employers
    procedure and
  • Performs no duties that might interfere with
    their primary duty to monitor and protect
    authorized entrants.

60
Duties of Entry Supervisors
  • Employer shall ensure that each supervisor
  • Knows the hazards that may be faced during entry
  • Verifies that acceptable conditions for entry
    exist
  • Terminates entry when operations are completed or
    a prohibited condition arises

61
Duties of Entry Supervisors
  • Verifies that rescue services are available
  • Removes unauthorized persons who enter or attempt
    to enter permit space during operations
  • Determines, whenever possible and at appropriate
    intervals, that acceptable entry conditions are
    maintained.

62
Rescue Services
  • Call Robert 208-371-7757/ Great Western Painting

63
Rescue Services
  • Employer may elect to use on site or off-site
    team.

64
Rescue Services
  • If an on-site team is selected
  • Must be properly trained in entry procedures,
    rescue procedures and PPE requirements
  • Permit space rescues must be practiced at least
    annually from similarly configured spaces
  • Must be trained in basic first-aid and CPR, and
    have at least one member currently certified.

65
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
  • THE RESCUE TEAM
  • Must meet basic requirements
  • - Good endurance
  • - Possess enthusiasm
  • - Must be a capable leader
  • - Must have a positive attitude
  • - Good physical fitness and health
  • - Must be capable of following orders
  • - Must have same training as entrants
  • - Must regularly participate in practical
    exercises

66
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
Continued
  • RESCUE TYPES
  • Horizontal
  • Vertical

HORIZONTAL RESCUES VERTICAL
RESCUES
67
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
Continued
  • RESCUE SYSTEMS
  • Non-entry Rescue
  • Entry Rescue

ENTRY RESCUES NON-ENTRY
RESCUES
68
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
Continued
  • NON-ENTRY RESCUE
  • Safest for rescuer.
  • Requires extensive entrant training.
  • Tripod (or equivalent most common).
  • NFPA approved rope may be used (151 tensile
    strength).
  • ENTRY RESCUE
  • Used when obstacles prevent non-entry rescue.
  • Requires extensive rescue team training.
  • Various entry methods can be used.

69
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
Continued
  • VICTIM CARE (No apparent injuries)
  • Assess physical condition.
  • Look for signs of shock.
  • Keep head stable and airways open.
  • Dont Injure the victim during extrication.
  • Wristlets may be used if no trauma is created.

70
CONFINED SPACE RESCUE
Continued
  • VICTIM CARE (Injuries)
  • Assess physical condition.
  • Look for signs of shock.
  • Keep head stable and airways open.
  • Immobilize the spine.
  • Plastic Skeds are very useful.
  • Never move or care for an injured victim unless
    you
  • have been trained to administer first aid.
  • If the situation is life or death use your
    best
  • judgment.

71
Rescue Services
  • If an off-site team is selected
  • Inform rescue services of hazards they may
    confront
  • Provide rescue service with access to all permit
    spaces so they can develop appropriate rescue
    plans and practice rescue operations.

72
Rescue Services
  • Host employer is required to ensure that
    arranged-for rescue services can effectively
    respond in a timely manner to a rescue summons
    and Evaluate their efficiency.

73
Rescue Services
  • If injured entrant is exposed to a substance with
    a required MSDS or similar document, it shall be
    made available to medical facility treating
    entrant.

74
Non-Entry Rescue
  • Retrieval systems or method shall be used
    whenever entry is made, unless the retrieval
    equipment could increase overall risk of entry or
    would not be of value.

75
Non-Entry Rescue
  • Each entrant shall use a chest or full body
    harness, with retrieval line attached at the
    center of their back near shoulder level, or
    above their head.

76
Non-Entry Rescue
  • Wristlets may be used in lieu of the chest or
    full body harness is employer can show use of
    chest or body harness is infeasible or creates a
    greater hazard and that use of wristlets is
    safest and most effective alternative.

77
Non-Entry Rescue
  • Other end of retrieval line shall be attached to
    a mechanical device or fixed point outside permit
    space for immediate use.
  • Mechanical devices shall be used to retrieve
    personnel from vertical type permit spaces more
    than 5 feet deep.

78
Permit Required Confined Spaces
  • Movie Death Trap - Permit Required Confined
    Spaces

79
Controls
  • Call Robert 208-371-7757/
  • Great Western Painting

80
Atmospheric Monitoring General Testing Protocol
81
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
  • OSHAS RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Remember
  • Follow your permit instructions
  • Instruments should be adequately sensitive
  • Instruments should be calibrated and documented
  • Users should be technically qualified
  • Testing must be done prior to each entry

ASPHYXIATION IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
IN CONFINED SPACES
82
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
  • INSTRUMENT FUNCTION TESTS
  • Do not replace calibration
  • Blow into 02 sensors to test 02 deficiency
  • A solvent marker will test for combustibles
  • Using a butane lighter is not recommended
  • Function tests must be done prior to each entry

ASPHYXIATION IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
IN CONFINED SPACES
83
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (OSHA)
  • PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS (PELs)
  • FOUND IN 29 CFR 1910.1000 (THE Z TABLES)
  • ESTABLISHES OSHAs EXPOSURE LEVELS
  • LEGALLY ENFORCEABLE

RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMITS (NIOSH)
  • RECOMMENDED EXPOSURE LIMITS (RELs)
  • USED TO DEVELOP NEW OSHA STANDARDS
  • FOUND IN NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
    OCCUPATIONAL
  • HEALTH STANDARDS

84
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
APPROXIMATE VALUES
85
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE HEALTH
An IDLH level represents a maximum concentration
from which one could escape within 30 minutes
without experiencing any irreversible adverse
health effects. In practice, when the
concentration of a toxic substance in a given
area is known, IDLH levels may be used for
determining whether self-contained breathing
apparatus is needed when entering the area. If
the concentration exceeds the IDLH level,
positive- demand, self-contained breathing
apparatus should be used.
86
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
HAZARD LIMIT CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)
(PPM) 35 PPM HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) (PPM) 10
PPM OXYGEN (O2) 19.5 - 23.5 LOWER
EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL) 10 gt
ASPHYXIATION IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH IN
CONFINED SPACES
87
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
TMX412 MULTI-GAS MONITOR
HAZARDS DETECTED OXYGEN (O2) CARBON
MONOXIDE (CO) HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) LOWER
EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL)
TYPICAL GAS MONITOR
88
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
UPPER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (UFL)
The richer point at which a mixture of
flammable vapor and air will no longer support
combustion
LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL)
The leaner point at which a mixture of
flammable vapor and air will no longer support
combustion
COMBINED, THE ABOVE EQUAL THE FLAMMABLE RANGE
89
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
PERCENTAGE OF ATMOSPHERE
ACETONE
FLAMMABLE RANGE OF ACETONE 2.5 - 13
FLAMMABLE LIMITS
90
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
TOXICS
CARBON MONOXIDE - TLV 35 PPM (ACGIH)
- PEL 50 PPM (OSHA)
- IDLH
1200 PPM
HYDROGEN SULFIDE - TLV 10 PPM (ACGIH)
- PEL 10 PPM
(OSHA) -
IDLH 100 PPM
91
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
CONSIDERATIONS - BATTERY CHECK -
CALIBRATION - OXIDIZERS - ACIDS - DATA
INTERPRETATION
92
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
ACCESSORIES - BATTERY - PUMP -
SAMPLING TUBE - SAMPLING TUBE FILTER
93
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
94
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
95
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
  • SAMPLING STRATEGIES
  • Evaluation Testing - Evaluation of hazards
  • present
    in the permit space.
  • Verification Testing - Verification that
    acceptable
  • entry
    conditions for entry
  • into
    that space exist.

96
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
  • SAMPLING STRATEGIES
  • Duration of Testing - Measurement of values for
  • each
    atmospheric parameter
  • should
    be made for at least
  • the
    minimum response time
  • of the
    instrument specified
  • by the
    manufacturer.

97
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
STRATIFIED ATMOSPHERES
lt1
Vapor Density Air 1 lt1 Lighter than Air gt1
Heavier than Air
AIR1
gt1
98
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
STRATIFIED ATMOSPHERES
  • Sample every 3 to 4 ft
  • Dont trust your senses
  • Dont get rushed
  • Know the meter response time
  • Keep the sampling tube out of
  • the product
  • Periodically retest
  • Raise tube only as fast as the
  • meter response time

TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM
99
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
  • Retest after you enter
  • Retest in your breathing zone
  • Try and find the bad air!
  • Dont degrade your own air!
  • Think! Think! Think!

PERIODIC RETESTING
100
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
  • Know your emergency response procedures!
  • Immediately notify entrants of unsafe
    conditions!
  • If there is any doubt - EVACUATE THE SPACE!
  • Know the time it takes to evacuate!
  • Dont try to remedy before ordering evacuation!
  • EVACUATE THEN CONTROL THE HAZARD!

UNACCEPTABLE TEST RESULTS
101
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Continued
CONSULT THE OWNERS MANUAL FOR SPECIFICS REGARDING
THE INSTRUMENT YOU ARE USING DO NOT ASSUME
ANYTHING!
102
Atmospheric Monitoring
  • Movie Confined Space Atmospheric Testing

103
Ventilation
104
Ventilation
  • Control Atmospheric Contaminants
  • Prevent Fire and Explosion Hazards
  • Control Heat and Humidity

105
Ventilation
  • Natural Ventilation
  • Mechanical Ventilation

106
Natural Ventilation
  • Employs wind and thermal convection to dilute
    atmospheric hazards
  • Dependant on configuration of confined space and
    predictability of wind currents
  • Unreliable as a primary control method
  • When natural ventilation is insufficient,
    mechanical ventilation is necessary

107
Mechanical Ventilation
  • General Ventilation
  • Local Exhaust Ventilation
  • Method is dependant on the type and origin of the
    hazard

108
General Ventilation
  • Utilizes mechanical means to supply
    uncontaminated air to a permit space
  • Places the permit space in a positive pressure
    atmospheric condition
  • Seldom effective in controlling fume and dust
    generating processes

109
CONFINED SPACE VENTILATION
Continued
  • GENERAL VENTILATION
  • Exhaust Ventilation

OUTSIDE
SPACE
110
CONFINED SPACE VENTILATION
Continued
  • GENERAL VENTILATION
  • Supply Ventilation

SPACE
OUTSIDE
111
Localized Exhaust Ventilation
  • Captures contaminants at their point of
    generation
  • Contaminated air is discharged outside the
    confined space
  • Effective for welding, cutting, burning and
    brazing operations
  • Should maintain an exhaust airflow velocity of at
    least 100 linear feet per minute in the capture
    zone

112
Efficient Ventilation
  • Depends on many factors
  • fan or blower capacity
  • configuration and size of space
  • number and size of openings
  • airborne contaminant, its properties, and point
    of generation
  • position of blower and length of ductwork

113
Ventilation Problems
  • Recirculation
  • Short-circuiting

114
Recirculation
115
CONFINED SPACE VENTILATION
Continued
BETTER PLACEMENT
116
Short Circuiting
117
Ventilation Techniques
  • Movie Confined Space Ventilation

118
Cleaning and Purging
119
Cleaning and Purging
  • Residues of hazardous chemicals must be cleaned
  • Pre-entry cleaning and purging are necessary to
    decrease chance of atmospheric hazards

120
Cleaning and Purging
  • Ensure that material feed lines are completely
    and effectively isolated
  • Drain or pump out contents - remove as much as
    possible
  • Test for hazardous atmosphere
  • If atmospheric hazards are present, the space
    must be purged and ventilated

121
Cleaning and Purging
  • The purging agent used will depend on the
    following
  • The product in the space and any possible
    reaction with the purging agent
  • The work to be performed in the space
  • The suspected hazards

122
Cleaning and Purging
  • It may be necessary to purge with inerting gas,
    i.e.. CO2, N, Ar, etc.
  • May be possible to utilize natural ventilation
  • Water may be used to remove flammable and toxic
    residues
  • Beware of of using steam on flammables with low
    vapor pressure

123
Cleaning and Purging
  • When solvents are needed, make sure they are
    compatible
  • After cleaning and purging, test the atmosphere
  • If hazardous atmosphere exists, clean and purge
    again
  • Continue to ventilate and frequently test the
    atmosphere
  • Attempt to clean as much as possible from the
    outside

124
Lockout/Tagout
125
Lockout/Tagout Program
  • OSHA requires lockout/tagout program
  • Identify and implement specific procedures in
    writing
  • Use locks where equipment can be locked out
  • Ensure new equipment can accommodate locks

126
Lockout/Tagout Program
  • Institute procedures for release of
    lockout/tagout
  • Obtain standardized locks and tags
  • Require that lockout/tagout device is removed by
    employee that applied it
  • Train employees in specific energy control
    procedures

127
Lockout/Tagout
  • Energy within confined space poses significant
    hazards
  • Equipment must be deenergized and locked out/
    tagged out
  • OSHA requires energy sources to be locked out
  • If energy source cannot be locked out, it must be
    tagged out

128
Lockout/Tagout
  • OSHA differentiates between employees who are
    authorized to perform lockout/tagout
  • Affected employees
  • Authorized employees

129
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step One - Preparation for Shutdown
  • Assure that affected employees are informed
  • Identify all isolation points
  • Determine if stored energy is present
  • Select appropriate PPE
  • Determine what tools and equipment is needed
  • Obtain locks and hardware

130
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step Two - Equipment Shutdown
  • Initial stopping of the flow of energy
  • May be simple or complex

131
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step Three - Equipment Isolation
  • Once equipment has been shut down, it must be
    isolated
  • Can be achieved by opening a disconnect switch,
    breaking a line, etc.

132
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step Four - Apply Control
  • Attach locks and or tags to energy isolation
    devices

133
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step Five - Dissipate Stored Energy
  • Kinetic
  • Electrical
  • Potential

134
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
  • Step Six - Verify Effectiveness
  • Before work begins, test operating controls

135
Isolation
136
Isolation
  • Prior to allowing personnel to enter space
    sources of energy present must be evaluated
  • The space must be isolated by disconnecting,
    releasing, or restraining all energy sources

137
Isolation Procedures
  • Blanking and blinding
  • Double-block and bleed
  • Line breaking or misalignment

138
Blanking and Blinding
  • Absolute closure of a pipe
  • Fastening of a solid plate that covers bore hole
  • Plate should be made of same materials as the
    line
  • Must be able to withstand maximum pressure
    exerted by the line

139
Blanking and Blinding
  • Involves installing a blank between flanges with
    leak-proof gasket
  • Should be marked to identify purpose

140
Double Block and Bleed
  • Three point system to prevent leakage into the
    confined space
  • Two closed valves and an open drain or vent valve
    located between
  • Lockout or tagout of valves adds additional
    protection

141
Line Breaking
  • Intentional and physical disconnection of a pipe,
    line, or duct
  • Added protection id obtained by misaligning or
    removing a section
  • Any disconnected line should be monitored for
    hazardous atmosphere to determine if leaking

142
Control of Combustible or Explosive Dust
143
Control of Combustible or Explosive Dust
  • Interior surfaces must be kept clean as possible
  • Sources of ignition must be removed from the
    space
  • Static electricity must be prevented
  • Ventilation is necessary

144
Personal Protective Equipment
145
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Permit Spaces pose many types of hazards to
    entrants
  • Various types of equipment may be necessary to
    protect entrants
  • Proper planning and evaluation is necessary

146
Head Protection
  • Head injuries are caused by falling or flying
    objects, or bumping the head against fixed
    objects
  • Head protection must do two things
  • Resist penetration
  • Absorb the shock of a blow

147
Head Protection
  • Three classes of head protection
  • Class A - general service, limited voltage
    protection
  • Class B - utility service, high voltage
    protection
  • Class C - special service, no voltage protection

148
Eye and Face Protection
  • Eye and face protection must be suitable for work
    to be performed
  • Protection must meet the following minimum
    requirements
  • Provide adequate protection for particular
    hazards they are designed for

149
Eye and Face Protection
  • Be reasonably comfortable
  • Fit snugly without interfering with movement or
    vision
  • Be durable
  • Be capable of being disinfected
  • Be easily cleaned
  • Be clean and in good repair

150
Eye and Face Protection
  • If employees are at risk of contact with
    corrosive chemicals, an eyewash with at least
    fifteen minutes flushing capacity is required
  • Must be in accordance with ANSI Z87.1-1989

151
Hearing Protection
  • Exposure to high noise levels can cause hearing
    loss
  • Can also create physical and psychological stress
  • Extent of damage depends on intensity and duration

152
Hearing Protection
  • Short term exposure can cause temporary loss
  • Gradual and prolonged exposure can cause
    permanent loss
  • There is no cure for permanent noise induced
    hearing loss
  • Prevention is the key

153
Hearing Protection
  • Employees exposed to levels exceeding 85 decibels
  • OSHA requires them to be included in hearing
    conservation program
  • Employees must be trained in correct use,
    maintenance, and limitations of protection used.

154
Torso Protection
  • Many chemical and physical hazards
  • Pre-entry evaluation must include determination
    of proper protective clothing
  • Includes clothing for particulate and chemical
    protection, chemical splash suits, insulated
    workwear, flame resistant clothing, etc.

155
Arm and Hand Protection
  • Wide variety of hazards to the arms and hands of
    employees
  • Gloves, hand pads, sleeves and wristlets should
    be considered

156
Foot and Leg Protection
  • Protection for feet and legs from falling or
    rolling objects, sharp objects, molten metal, hot
    surfaces, wet and slippery surfaces is required.

157
Respiratory Protection
  • OSHA standards require employers to establish
    respiratory protection program when respirators
    are necessary
  • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134

158
Respiratory Protection
  • Respiratory protection devices fall into three
    classes
  • Air-purifying
  • Atmosphere or air supplying
  • Combination air-purifying and air-supplying

159
Air-Purifying Devices
  • Clean contaminated atmosphere
  • Chemicals can remove gases and vapors
  • Filters can remove particulate matter
  • Devices are limited

160
Air-Purifying Devices
  • Contaminant level must be within specified
    concentration limitations of the device
  • Do not protect from oxygen deficient atmospheres

161
Air-Purifying Devices
  • Various types include
  • Mechanical-filter respirators
  • Chemical-cartridge respirators
  • Combination respirators
  • Gas masks
  • Powered air-purifying respirators

162
Air-Supplying Devices
  • Provide respirable atmosphere to wearer
  • Air supply is independent of ambient air
  • Fall into three groups
  • Supplied-air respirators (SAR)
  • Self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
  • Combination SCBA and SAR

163
Supplied-Air Respirators
  • Deliver breathing air through a supply hose
  • Air supply must be free of contaminants and from
    clean source
  • Three classes of airline respirators
  • Continuous flow
  • Demand flow
  • Pressure-demand flow

164
SCBA
  • Wearer is completely independent of the
    surrounding atmosphere
  • Provides complete respiratory protection against
    toxic gases and oxygen deficiency
  • Two basic types
  • Closed-circuit
  • Open-circuit

165
Combination SCBA and SAR
  • Airline respirators with auxiliary self contained
    air supply
  • Provides back-up supply in the event the main
    supply fails

166
Combination Air-Purifying and Air-Supplying
Devices
  • Provides protection in the event the air supply
    fails
  • Recommended for asbestos work

167
Precautionary Equipment
168
Precautionary Equipment
  • Once an entrance cover is removed, it must be
    protected
  • Railings, temporary covers, fences, or barriers
  • Protect employees from falling into confined space

169
Communication Systems
170
Communication Systems
  • Attendants must monitor the activities of
    authorized entrants
  • Reliable method must be in place

171
Communication Systems
  • Types of communications include
  • Battery operated voice activated
  • Continuous electronic monitoring equipment
  • Hand operated communications
  • Continuous voice contact
  • Visual observation

172
Retrieval Equipment
173
Retrieval Equipment
  • The standard requires employers to provide,
    maintain and ensure the use of protective
    equipment

174
Retrieval Equipment
  • Proper retrieval equipment generally includes
  • Chest or full-body harness
  • Life-line
  • Mechanical winches
  • Tripods
  • Wristlets

175
Retrieval Equipment
  • The appropriate retrieval equipment will depend
    on the following considerations
  • Size and configuration of the space
  • The size and location of the opening
  • Any obstacles within the space
  • Whether or not rescue would be horizontal or
    verticle
  • The potential hazards within the space

176
Heat Stress
177
Heat Stress
  • Confined space operations may present potential
    heat stress problems
  • Factors that contribute include
  • high temperatures
  • radiant heat sources
  • high humidity
  • direct physical contact with hot objects
  • strenuous physical activity

178
Heat Stress
  • Personal characteristics that predispose an
    individual to heat stress
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Degree of physical fitness
  • Metabolism
  • Use of alcohol and drugs
  • Various existing medical conditions

179
Heat Stress
  • Heat disorders include
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat exhaustion
  • Heat stroke

180
Heat Stress
  • Most heat related problems can be prevented
  • The following basic precautions can reduce heat
    stress problems
  • Acclimatization
  • Engineering controls
  • Work practices
  • Work and rest
  • Employee education

181
Hot Work
182
Hot Work
  • Hot work includes operations which provide a
    source of ignition
  • Welding and cutting
  • Burning
  • Riveting
  • Grinding and spark/arc producing tools
  • Static discharges
  • non-explosion proof lighting

183
Hot Work
  • These operations pose unique hazards within
    confined spaces
  • Fire and explosion hazards in the presence of
    flammables
  • The generation of toxic atmospheres
  • The generation of physical hazards, such as
    noise, vibration, heat stress, etc.

184
Hot Work
  • A combination of engineering controls, work
    practice controls and personal protective
    equipment are required to reduce the hazards
    associated with hot work

185
Hot Work
  • The control of hot work hazards must be
    coordinated by using a hot work program which
    includes
  • A written hot work permit
  • Evaluation of the existing hazards
  • Evaluation of potential hazards created from hot
    work operations

186
Hot Work
  • General precautions to keep in mind include
  • Use of localized exhaust ventilation
  • Selection of appropriate tools
  • Use of necessary protective equipment
  • Surface coating and residues must be evaluated to
    avoid creating hazards

187
Hot Work
  • Pipes, tubes, coils must be purged, flushed, or
    cleaned
  • Hot work in non-permit space will change the
    status of that space
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