Introduction to Radiographic Pathology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Radiographic Pathology

Description:

* * * * * * * * * Pathology Pathogenesis Disease Signs vs. Symptoms Diagnosis ... Heat Redness of skin Swelling Pain Loss of function Elevated body ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:723
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 46
Provided by: MinaCo
Learn more at: http://www.elcamino.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Radiographic Pathology


1
Introduction to Radiographic Pathology
  • Spring 2012

2
Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Disease
  • Signs vs. Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Syndrome
  • Acute vs. Chronic disease
  • Sequelae
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology

3
Causes of Disease
  • Normal agents
  • Bacteria, viruses, trauma, and heat
  • Poor infection control
  • Nosocomial
  • Adverse reactions to medical treatment
  • Iatrogenic
  • No known cause
  • Idiopathic

4
Technique Adjustments
  • Additive
  • Sclerotic
  • Subtractive
  • Lytic
  • Destructive

5
Disease Tracking
  • Monitoring
  • Trends
  • Epidemics
  • Intervention
  • CDPH
  • NCHS
  • CDC

6
Life Expectancy
7
Health Care Costs and Changes
  • Delivery Methods
  • Ambulatory care
  • Inpatient services
  • Health care costs
  • Increasing costs
  • Sources of funding
  • Medicare
  • Medicaid
  • Private insurance
  • Cash

8
Disease Classifications
  • Hereditary
  • Congenital
  • Inflammatory
  • Metabolic
  • Degenerative
  • Traumatic
  • Neoplastic

9
What is the difference between Congenital and
Hereditary?
10
Congenital
  • In utero
  • Maternal infections, radiation, trauma or drugs
  • Usually cannot be recognized before birth

11
Hereditary
  • Genetically transmitted from either parent to
    child
  • Genetic testing can detect these before birth
  • Intervention
  • Terminate pregnancy
  • Make decisions
  • 46 chromosomes
  • 44 automsomal
  • 2 are X and Y
  • XY
  • XX

12
Hereditary Terms
  • Homozygous
  • Heterozygous
  • Dominant Genes
  • Recessive Genes
  • Codominant Genes
  • Mutations
  • Autosomal Dominant
  • Autosomal Recessive
  • Sex linked disorders

13
  • Homozygous- genes are same for a trait
  • Blue and blue
  • Heterozygous- genes differ from each parent
  • Blue (recessive) and Brown (dominant)
  • Dominant Genes-always produce effect
  • Recessive Genes- traits manifest only if person
    is homozygous
  • Codominant Genes- both traits are expressed
  • AB blood types

14
  • Autosomal Dominant -
  • Autosomal Recessive
  • Transmitted from one generation to next.
  • Affects males and females
  • Either can transmit
  • Affected father Unaffected Mother
  • ½ children will have disease
  • Not all will demonstrate the trait
  • Some may demonstrate differently
  • EX
  • Polydactyly
  • Marfans syndrome
  • Disorders when a person in homozygous
  • Parents may not show disease but siblings may
  • EX
  • cystic fibrosis
  • Tay-sachs
  • Sickle cell anemia

15
Sex Linked Disorders
  • Most transmitted through heterozygous female
  • To sons
  • 1-2 chance of receiving mutant gene
  • Affected fathers transmit to ALL daughters
  • EX
  • Color blindness
  • Hemophilia
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Mutations- alterations in DNA that become
    permanent hereditary change if they affect
    gonadal cells
  • Generally as a result of a defective X chromosome
  • Y chromosomes are small and carry few genes
  • Virtually all are recessive

16
Inflammatory Diseases
  • What is inflammatory disease?
  • Bodys reaction to a injurious agent
  • Primary causes
  • Invasion by microorganisms
  • Infective diseases
  • Poisoning by biologic substances
  • Toxic diseases
  • Overreaction of bodys own defenses
  • Toxic diseases

17
4 Stages of Inflammation
  • 1) Alterations of blood flow and vascular
    permeaability
  • Dilation of arterioles, capillaries and venules
  • Produces increased blood flow around injury site
  • Causes heat, redness and pain
  • 2) Migration of WBC to injured tissue
  • Leukocytosis occurs
  • Mainly leuckocytes such as neutrophils and
    macrophages

18
4 Stages of Inflammation
  • 3) Phagocytosis
  • WBC engulf and digest infecting organisms
  • 4) Repair of injury
  • Regeneration of normal cells
  • Granuation tissue

19
Inflammation
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Damage caused by an injurious agent may not
    result in necrosis
  • Longer duration of inflammation periods
  • Acute inflammation
  • Heat
  • Redness of skin
  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Loss of function
  • Elevated body temperature

20
Redness
21
Heat And Fever
22
Swelling
23
Pain
24
Loss of Function
25
Localized Edema
  • Inflammatory Process
  • Lymph obstruction

26
Generalized Edema
  • Usually occurs form CHF, cirrhosis and many renal
    diseases
  • Gravity causes it to be more prominent in lower
    body
  • Sedentary persons
  • Lower back
  • Lungs
  • Sacral area

27
Traumatic
  • Disease that may result from mechanical forces
    such as crushing or twisting of a body part or
    from the effects of ionizing radiation on the
    body
  • Fracture
  • Wound
  • Bruise/contusion

28
Neoplastic
  • Defined as new abnormal tissue growth
  • Come from latin word neoplasia meaning new
    growth
  • Abnormal proliferation that are not governed by
    laws of normal cells
  • Cell act as parasites competing with normal cells
    for their metabolic needs
  • Onocology- study of neoplasms
  • Derived from greek word oncos which means tumor

29
All tumors have 2 basic components
  1. The organ tissue is made up of proliferating
    neoplastic cells
  2. The supporting tissue is made up of connective
    tissue, blood vessels and possibly lymphatic
    cells.

30
Grading (Differentiation)
  • Used to assess biologic behavior and choice of
    treatment
  • Differentiated tumors
  • Tend to grow slow
  • Resemble cells of origin
  • Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated
  • Rapid growth
  • Exhibits atypical characteristics and does not
    resemble cells of origin

31
TNM System
  • Staging of cancer
  • TNM system emerged in 1950s and endorsed by AJCC
  • TTumor
  • NNode (lymph node involvement)
  • MMetastases
  • Addition of numbers indicates the extent of
    malignancy and progressive increase in size or
    involvement of tumor

32
Tumor Word Roots
33
Benign Neoplasms
  • Closely resemble their cells of origin in
    structure and function
  • Remain localized
  • Can be surgically removed
  • Can still have severe consequences
  • EX
  • Pituitay tumore can cause pressure and
    destruction of gland
  • Pancreas- excessive insulin can be fatal
  • Brain and spinal cord- impair or alter CNS
    function
  • Trachea / esophagus- occlude air supply or
    swallowing

34
Benign Tumors
  • Consist of differentiated cells
  • Add suffix OMA to root word
  • Examples
  • Fibromas
  • Chondromas
  • Adenoma
  • Lipomas
  • Myomas
  • Angiomas

35
Malignant Neoplasms
  • Invade and destroy adjacent structures
  • Metastasize
  • Poorly or undifferentiated so it may be
    impossible to determine origin
  • Cancer comes from the latin word crab, because it
    has fingerlike projections that resemble crablike
    claws

36
Malignant Neoplasms
  • Carcinomas- epithelial origin
  • Affects epithelial cells, skin and mucus
    membranes
  • Comes from greek word karkinos which means crab
  • Adenocarcinoma- malignancies from glandular
    tissue
  • breast, liver, pancreas, and cells lining the GI
    tract

37
Malignant Neoplasms Cont.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma- tumors of connective
    tissue
  • Resemble stratified squamous epithelia
  • Lungs, head and neck regions
  • Sarcomas- connective tissue
  • Highly malignant and spread rapidly
  • Bone, muscle, and cartilage
  • Less common than carcinomas

38
Metastatic Methods 4
  • 1) Seeding- travels to distant sites and organs
  • 2) Lymphatic-Spreads through lymphatic system
  • Especially lung and breast
  • major metastatic route of carcinomas
  • 3) Invasion
  • Spreads to other areas in close proximity

39
Metastatic Methods cont.
  • 4) Hematogenous- spreads through circulatory
    system
  • Tumor cells invade and penetrate blood vessels
  • Travel as emboli until they get stuck
  • Invade wall in the vessel they are stuck
  • Infiltrate to surrounding tissue
  • Examples
  • Abdominal carcinomas metastasize to liver
  • Because of flow of the portal vein blood to that
    organ
  • Midline organs spread to vertebrae
  • Neoplasms in organs that drain into inferior
    superior vena cava, such as kidneys spread to lung

40
Carcinogens
  • Chemicals that alter DNA
  • Air and water pollution
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Asbestos
  • Sun, bombs, and radiation
  • Viruses that alter genetic material

41
Treatment Options
  • Surgical removal
  • Well localized tumors with no metastases
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Fast growing
  • Poorly or undifferentiated tumors
  • Chemotherapy
  • Cytotoxic substances used to kill neoplastic
    cells
  • Kills good cells to causing significant
    complications

42
Degenerative
  • DegenerativeDisease caused by a deterioration of
    the body
  • May occur following traumatic injury, regardless
    of age
  • May occur as a hereditary illness
  • Process of aging
  • Factors affecting the rate of aging
  • Hereditary
  • Diet
  • Enviromental factors
  • Sedentary lifestyle

43
Degenerative Diseases
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis

44
Metabolic Disease
  • Disease caused by the disturbance of the normal
    physiologic function of the body
  • Metabolism is the sum of all physical chemical
    processes in the body
  • To function
  • Maintain homeostasis

45
Metabolic Disease
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Hypersecretion
  • Insufficient secretion
  • Fluid and Electrolyte imbalances
  • Dehydration
  • Insufficient water
  • Loss of too much water
  • Can occur from
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Diuretics
  • Athletic (very hard training)

About PowerShow.com