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Gregorian Chant and its Notations

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Title: Gregorian Chant and its Notations


1
Gregorian Chant and its Notations
  • Locating the Chant
  • Reading the Chant
  • Transcripting the Chant

2
Locating the Chant
  • The Calendar
  • Temporale
  • Sanctorale
  • The Liturgy
  • Office
  • Mass

3
The Calendar
  • The Temporale
  • The Sanctorale

4
The Liturgy The Office
  • Divine Office
  • Matins, about 3 a.m.
  • Lauds, at daybreak
  • Prime, at 6 a.m.
  • Terce, at 9 a.m.
  • Sext, at noon
  • None, at 3 p.m.
  • Vespers, at twilight
  • Compline, before bedtime
  • Ora et labora
  • The sanctification of the time

5
The Liturgy The Mass
  • Ordinary chants (9th c.)
  • 2. Kyrie
  • 3. Gloria
  • 9. Credo
  • 3. Sanctus/ Benedictus
  • 6. Agnus Dei
  • 9. Ite missa est/ benedicamus
  • Proper chants (7th-8th c.)
  • 1. Introitus
  • 6. Graduale
  • 7. Alleluia
  • 1. Offertorium
  • 7. Communio
  • Prayers and readings (4th c.)
  • I. liturgy of the Word
  • 4. Collect
  • 5. Epistle
  • 8. Gospel
  • II. liturgy of the Eucharist
  • 2. Preface
  • 4. Eucharistic prayer
  • 5. Pater noster
  • 8. Post-communion

6
The Liturgy The Mass
  • Ordinary chants
  • Kyrie
  • Gloria
  • Credo
  • Sanctus-Benedictus
  • Agnus Dei
  • Proper chants
  • Introitus
  • Graduale
  • Alleluia
  • Offertorium
  • Communio

7
(No Transcript)
8
Reading the Chant
  • The Books
  • Graduale (Mass Chant)
  • Antiphonale (Office Chant)
  • Modern Tools
  • AMS
  • CAO
  • Modern Books

9
The Books Modern Tools
  • The Mass
  • Graduale
  • Antiphonale Missarum Sextuplex
  • René-Jean Hesbert's incipit edition of 6 early
    sources of mass chants (1935)
  • Cantus-Planus (1990s)
  • The Office
  • Antiphonale
  • Corpus Antiphonalium Officii
  • Hesbert's full text edition of 12 early sources
    of office chants (1963-75)
  • CANTUS (1980s)
  • CAO-ECE (1988)

10
Modern Books
  • Paléographie musicale (Solesmes 1889-)
    Facsimile series
  • Graduale Romanum (Solesmes 1908)
  • Graduale Triplex (1979)
  • Beiträge zur Gregorianik since 21 (1996)
  • Antiphonale Monasticum (Solesmes 1934)
  • Psalterium monasticum (1981)
  • Liber hymnarius cum invitatoriis aliquibus
    responsoriis (1982)
  • Liber usualis (Solesmes 1896-)

11
St. Peter in Solesmes A Benedictine abbey, it
was the centre of the revival of Gregorian chant
in the 19th and 20th centuries. A priory existed
at Solesmes from 1010 to 1791 in 1833 Dom
Prosper Gueranger (180575) revived Benedictine
life there (cf. Peter Wagner, BGr)
12
Private Collection (MS du Mont-Renaud). Gradual
and antiphoner from northern France. Text
probably written in mid-10th century, neumes
added late 10th or early 11th century (PalMus 16
1955).
13
Graduale Triplex (1979)
14
Transcription
  • Neumes Notation
  • in campo aperto
  • adiastematic
  • non metrical

St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 359. Cantatorium
from St Gallen dated very early 10th century
(before 920). Neumatic notation with
significative letters. Cantatorium contains only
the soloists chants graduals, alleluias and
tracts (PalMus 2nd ser., 2 1924).
15
  • The Notation
  • adiastematic
  • diastematic
  • gothic
  • roman/modern since 13th C.
  • The Words
  • Carmina scripturarum (1907)
  • On-line Bibles

16
Excursus Chant Repertories
The legend of Pope Gregory the Great depicted in
the Hartker Antiphoner St Gallen,
Stiftsbibliothek, 39091 (Hartker Antiphoner).
Antiphoner and tonary copied by Hartker, monk of
St Gallen dated 9801011. Neumes with
significative letters.
17
Centres of Scholar cantorum and Scriptorium
18
  • Western Chant Repertories
  • Mozarabic (Old Spanish)
  • Gallican
  • Gregorian (Frankish-Roman)
  • West-Frankish
  • East-Frankish
  • Old Roman (Urban-Roman)
  • Ambrosian (Milanese)
  • Beneventan
  • Ravenna
  • Aquileia
  • Eastern Chant Repertories
  • Byzantine
  • Syrian
  • Coptic (Ancient Egyptian)
  • Georgian
  • Armenian
  • Ethiopian
  • Russian/Slavonic

19
Basic Literature
  • Crocker, Richard L. An Introduction to Gregorian
    Chant. New Haven, CT Yale University Press,
    2000.
  • Crocker, Richard L., and David Hiley. The Early
    Middle Ages to 1300. Oxford Oxford University
    Press, 1990.
  • Harper, John. The Forms and Orders of Western
    Liturgy from the 10th to the 18th Century.
    Oxford Clarendon, 1991.
  • Hiley, David. Western Plainchant A Handbook.
    Oxford Clarendon, 1993.
  • Hughes, Andrew. Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and
    Office A Guide to Their Organization and
    Terminology. Toronto University of Toronto
    Press, 1982.
  • Treitler, Leo. With Voice and Pen Coming to
    Know Medieval Song and How It Was Made. New York
    Oxford University Press, 2003
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