8%20Stages%20of%20Strategy%20Acquisition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

8%20Stages%20of%20Strategy%20Acquisition

Description:

8 Stages of Strategy Acquisition Stage 1: Pretest & Make Commitment Stage 2: Describe Stage 3: Model Stage 4: Verbal Practice Stage 5: Controlled Practice with Feedback – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:166
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 110
Provided by: MaryEll62
Learn more at: http://www.pkwy.k12.mo.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 8%20Stages%20of%20Strategy%20Acquisition


1
8 Stages of Strategy Acquisition
  • Stage 1 Pretest Make Commitment
  • Stage 2 Describe
  • Stage 3 Model
  • Stage 4 Verbal Practice
  • Stage 5 Controlled Practice with Feedback
  • Stage 6 Advanced Practice with Feedback
  • Stage 7 Posttest and Make Commitment to
    Generalize
  • Stage 8 Generalization

2
What is a Strategy?
  • An individuals approach to a task is called a
    strategy

It includes how a person thinks and acts when
planning, executing, and evaluating performance
on a task and its outcomes.
3
Instructors Manual Contents
  • Introduction p. 1
  • Instructional Methods p. 13
  • Appendix A Evaluation Guidelines p. 137
  • Appendix B Instructional Materials p. 151
  • Appendix C Enrichment Activities p. 183

4
Student Folder Contents
  • Pretest and Commitment-resource packet
  • Cue Cards 1-14 p 94-107
  • Take notes
  • Slotted notes
  • Assignment Sheet- resource packet
  • Progress sheets p108-111
  • Verbal Practice Sheet resource packet

5
Stage 1 Pretest and Make Commitments
  • Purpose
  • Obtain measures of current functioning
  • Make the student aware of inefficient/ineffective
    habits
  • Obtain students commitment to learn
  • Make a commitment to help the student learn
  • Materials
  • Topic list, evaluation guidelines
  • 20-30 minutes

IM pp.13-16
6
Topic List
  • My Favorite Meal
  • Summer Activities
  • The Best Things About School
  • Life as a Teenager
  • The Best Place to Live
  • My Favorite Sport
  • The Best Job in the World
  • My New Year's Resolutions

IM pp.152
7
STAGE 2 Describe
Acquisition Stages
  • Purpose
  • Rationales / benefits
  • Characteristics of situations for use
  • Example situations
  • Results to expect
  • Simple sentences
  • Formulas
  • Describe the steps of the strategy
  • Goal setting
  • Materials
  • Cue Cards
  • Example Sets
  • Pretest Practice Samples
  • 4 x 6 Cards
  • Student Folders
  • Progress Charts
  • 2-3 hours

IM pp.17-37
8
Critical Teaching Behaviors
  • Every Lesson/Every Day
  • Advance Organize
  • Body
  • Post Organizer

9
Elicit Benefits from Students
  • In School
  • In Employment
  • In General
  • Summarize

10
Situation Characteristics for Use
  • Book reports
  • Essay questions
  • Chapter questions
  • Job applications
  • Letter writing
  • On the job writing tasks
  • Email

11
Share expected results
  • Writing samples
  • P. 146

12
Simple Sentence
Cue Card 1
  • A sentence
  • that has one
  • independent clause

IM pp.153
13
Independent Clause
Cue Card 1
  • A group of words that
  • makes a complete statement
  • has a subject and a verb

IM pp.153
14
The Subject of a Sentence
Cue Card 2
  • The subject is the
  • person
  • place
  • thing
  • quality
  • or idea
  • that the sentence is about.

Nouns
IM pp.154
15
Brainstorm and Post
  • Quality (trait, describes)
  • Bravery
  • Happiness
  • Honesty
  • Responsibility
  • Beauty
  • Illness
  • Loneliness
  • Idea
  • Freedom
  • War
  • Peace love
  • Nothing
  • Something

16
Example Subjects
Cue Card 2
  • John went for a walk. (Person)
  • Towns are quiet after snowfalls. (Place)
  • Eggs rolled off the counter. (Things)
  • Silence is golden. (Quality)
  • Peace is at hand. (Idea)

IM pp.154
17
Verbs
Cue Card 3
  • A verb is a word that shows the
  • state of being
  • or
  • action
  • of the subject of the sentence.

IM pp.155
18
Linking Verbs
is
am are
was were
be been
seem become
19
Verbs
Cue Card 3
  • Examples
  • Sally sneezed. (Physical action)
  • John thinks. (Mental action)
  • Jesse is my friend. (State of being)

IM pp.155
20
Verb Song
  • If its a verb, you can do it
  • You can ________.
  • If its a verb, you can do it
  • You can _________.
  • If its a verb you can do it.
  • There is really nothing to it.
  • If its a verb, you can do it
  • You can __________.

21
VerbSubject Identification Procedure
Cue Card 4
  • Step 1 Look for the action or state-of-being
    word to find the verb.
  • Example Kevin reported the theft.
  • Step 2 Ask yourself "Who or what (verb)? to
    find the subject
  • Example Paula is an astronaut.

IM pp.156
22
Example Set I
  • 1. Jane went to the pool.
  • 2. Paul is a very nice guy.
  • 3. Cakes lined the store window.
  • 4. I love chocolate ice cream.
  • 5. Bikes are very expensive.
  • 6. Dad is strict.
  • 7. Bananas taste good.
  • 8. Kathy has a son named Jimmy.
  • 9. Raccoons raid our garbage can every night.
  • 10. Flowers are in bloom everywhere.

IM pp.168
23
Example Set II
  • 1. The old gray mare limped down the lane.
  • 2. The silver-winged plane soared.
  • 3. Johnnys baby sister cried for hours.
  • 4. The first three girls giggled.
  • 5. Fourteen good pilots died in the war.
  • 6. The chairman of the meeting left early.
  • 7. The chrome-plated motorcycles glistened in the
    sun.
  • 8. The pioneers in our family fled from England.
  • 9. The dogs buried bones rotted in the
  • ground.
  • 10. Carols best china plate broke into a hundred
    pieces.

IM pp.168
24
Helping Verbs
Cue Card 5
may might must shall should
can could do does did
has have had
will would
IM pp.157
25
Helping Verb Rap
26
Example Set III
  • 1. The bus must have gone by now.
  • 2. My best friend could not work tonight.
  • 3. The light green grapes have been eaten.
  • 4. The committee of environmentalists is working
    to solve the smog problem.
  • 5. Stevens aunt is not following her new diet.
  • 6. The old rickety wagon should not have been
    filled to the top
  • 7. The merry pied piper would have played a happy
    tune.
  • 8. A stray sunbeam could have pierced the clouds.
  • 9. The paint on the old gray house was peeling.
  • 10. The peace treaty might have been signed today.

IM pp.168
27
Verb first
  • Example
  • Down the street moved the bulls.

28
Introduce Infinitives
  • Infinitive any verb that has the word to in
  • front of it
  • Examples
  • Chad hoped to go sledding.
  • I want to play at your house.
  • Jane likes to sing country songs.

29
Infinitives vs. prepositions
  • Infinitives Prepositions
  • to play to the movie
  • to jump to the store
  • to smell to my friends house
  • Prepositions show a place or time.
  • Sue wants to go to the park.

30
Compound Subjects
  • Two or more people
  • Rhonda and Randy played kickball at recess.

31
Example Set IV
  • 1. Bill and Sue want to go to the movies.
  • 2. Jason and his friends work together.
  • 3. Are the car and truck parked outside?
  • 4. The park and sidewalk are covered with snow.
  • 5. Hiding and seeking are fun activities.
  • 6. The old man and his black cat have lived long
    lives.
  • 7. The station and its surrounding parking lot
    become dangerous after 900 p.m.
  • 8. Arnie, Karen, and Ty went to buy a new van.
  • 9. Peace and war are direct opposites.
  • 10. Did Marty and Kathy travel 500 miles just to
    speak at the conference?

IM pp.168
32
Compound Verbs
  • Two or more verbs
  • Sally is laughing and running from Jeff.

33
Example Set V
  • 1. Sally swam and played all afternoon.
  • 2. The dogs had barked all night and slept all
    day.
  • 3. Michelle came home yesterday and did not work
    all day today.
  • 4. The basketball team rode on a bus and flew in
    a plane to attend the game.
  • 5. The park is dark and spooky at night and can
    be delightful on sunny days.
  • 6. Did Jane call her father and tell him the
    news?
  • 7. I miss my sister and want to see her again
    soon.
  • 8. Children should not be allowed to watch T.V.
    and should be encouraged to play.
  • 9. Will you sit by the sea and paint the ships?
  • 10. The books were stacked on the floor and were
    ruined by the flood.

IM pp.169
34
  • Compound Subjects and Compound Verbs
  • Two or more people doing two or
  • more things.

35
Example Set VI
  • 1. The ponies and calves scampered and played in
    the field.
  • 2. Kathy and her father do not like to play
    tennis and hate to jog.
  • 3. The Army and the Navy had a football game and
    filled the stadium.
  • 4. The two boys and their fathers were sick and
    did not attend the Father-Son Banquet.
  • 5. Parties and dances are usually fun and can be
    thrilling.
  • 6. Cards and dice were used at the party and had
    been scattered everywhere.
  • 7. Radio towers and tall buildings must have
    lights and must be visible at night.
  • 8. Candles and flowers can brighten the table and
    can make guests feel special.
  • 9. Tape and string are needed to secure packages
    and can be used for other things.
  • 10. The graduates and their parents posed for
    pictures and celebrated with a party.

IM pp.169
36
Steps for Sentence Writing
Cue Card 6
  • Step 1 Pick a Formula
  • Step 2 Explore Words to Fit the Formula
  • Step 3 Note the Words
  • Step 4 Search and Check

IM pp.158
37
Steps for Sentence Writing
  • Step 4 Search and Check
  • Search
  • Look for the action or state-of-being word(s) to
    find the verb(s).
  • Ask the "Who or What Question" to find the
    subject(s).
  • Check
  • Capital letters
  • End punctuation
  • Makes sense

38
Search Check Step
For those students who have completed
Fundamentals in Sentence Writing
  • Mark out imposters
  • Ask Is there a verb?"
  • Root out the subject
  • (ask, Who or What _____?")
  • Key in on the
  • beginning
  • ending
  • meaning

38
University of Kansas Center for Research on
Learning 2006
39
(No Transcript)
40
IM pp.175
41
IM pp.180
42
STAGE 3 Model
Acquisition Stages
  • Purpose
  • Demonstrate writing simple sentences using the
    Sentence Writing Strategy while thinking aloud
  • Students watch the process and steps of PENS
  • Enlist students participation
  • Materials
  • Overhead and transparency
  • Cue Cards 1-6
  • Your own formula card
  • 15-20 minutes

IM pp.38-40
43
Four Instructional Phases of Modeling
  • Phase I Advance Organizer
  • Review Previous Learning
  • Personalize the Strategy
  • Define the Content
  • State Expectations
  • Phase II Presentation
  • Think Aloud
  • Self-Instruct
  • Problem-Solve
  • Self-Monitor
  • Perform Task
  • Phase III Student Enlistment
  • Prompt Involvement
  • Check Understanding
  • Correct and Expand Responses
  • Engineer Success
  • Phase IV Post Organizer
  • Review the Model
  • Personalize the Strategy
  • Give Direction
  • State Expectations
  • Cue Progress Checks

44
The Heart of Strategy Instruction
45
STAGE 4 Verbal Practice Elaboration
Acquisition Stages
  • Purpose
  • Assist students to verbally rehearse the steps of
    the strategy and what each step means
  • Require students to memorize the strategy
  • Intent of the strategy
  • Process involved
  • Step design
  • Importance of each step to the overall process
  • Automatic level
  • Quizzes
  • Oral - 100 IM p. 170
  • Written - 90 SB pp. 5-7

IM pp.41-46
46
Rapid Fire
47
  • Give oral quiz
  • Give written quiz (student book 5-7)

48
IM pp.170
49
IM pp.175
50
IM pp.180
51
STAGE 5 Controlled Practice Feedback
Acquisition Stages
  • Ensure that students master the skills in writing
    four types of simple sentences.
  • Supervise practice in easy materials
  • Guide students to correct performance
  • Gradually increase the difficulty
  • Materials Needed
  • Student lessons SB pp. 8-17
  • Evaluation guidelines IM p.137
  • Folders

IM pp.47-53
52
(No Transcript)
53
Lesson Sequence for Controlled Practice
  • Example Student Progress
  • Lesson correct
  • 1A 90
  • 2A 70
  • 2B 80
  • 2C 95
  • 3A 85
  • 3B 90

54
Elaborated Feedback
  • Score the product
  • Identify pattern of errors
  • Provide/elicit positive feedback
  • Provide/elicit corrective feedback
  • Review rule
  • Model
  • Student practices
  • Student sets goal
  • Provide closure

55
Controlled Practice Feedback Carousel Walk
  • 1. Write an SV sentence
  • 2. Search Check
  • 3. Change the SV to an SVV
  • 4. Search Check
  • 5. Rewrite SVV with more powerful words
  • 6. Search Check
  • 7. Share

56
IM pp.175
57
IM pp.180
58
Stage 6 Advanced Practice/ Posttest and Feedback
  • Supervise practice on writing sentences about a
    topic
  • Provide positive and corrective feedback to
    individuals
  • Guide prompt students to mastery
  • Require mastery
  • Relate student use of the strategy to success in
    meeting task and setting demands.

59
(No Transcript)
60
Time to make a decision!!
61
  • Stage 7 Make Commitments for Generalization
  • STAGE 8 Generalization

62
Instructional Sequence for the Sentence Writing
Strategy
Pretest for all Sentence Types
Go to Another Strategy
Yes
Mastery
No
3rd grade
Part I
Simple Sentences
No
Mastery
Yes
Compound Sentences (Review Simple Compound)
4th grade
Part II
No
Mastery
Yes
KU Paragraph Writing
Continue to Part III
63
Complicated Sentence Structures
  • Compound - 2
  • Complex - 2
  • Compound-Complex - 6
  • Stages of Acquisition
  • Describe 20-30 min.
  • Model 5-20 min.
  • Elaboration Verbal Rehearsal 25 min. practice
    10-15 min. for quiz
  • Controlled Practice with Feedback 5-25 days (90)
  • Advanced Practice with Feedback 5-25 days
  • 100 complete sentences
  • 50 complicated sentences
  • 66 complicated with correct punctuation
  • At least one of type you are teaching

64
Stage 2 Describe
  • Compound Sentences
  • Advance Organizer
  • Review
  • Rationales
  • Set Goals

IM pp.57-64
65
Compound Sentence
Cue Card 7
  • A compound sentence has two or more independent
    clauses.
  • Examples
  • The students finished class, and they went to
    lunch.
  • Kevin did not want to hurt Kathy's feelings so he
    said nothing about her mistake.
  • I want to see my sister soon, for she has been in
    Switzerland for two years.

IM pp. 57
66
Comparing Compound Sentences to Simple Sentences
with Compound Subjects and Compound Verbs
Cue Card 8
  • Simple Sentence
  • The men and women met at the station and went to
    dinner.
  • Compound Sentence
  • The men met at the station, and the women went
    to dinner.

IM pp. 160
67
Comparing Compound Sentences to Simple Sentences
with Compound Subjects and Compound Verbs
Cue Card 8
  • Simple Sentence
  • The ducks and geese squawked and fluttered their
    wings.
  • Compound Sentence
  • The ducks squawked, and the geese fluttered
    their wings.

IM pp. 160
68
Comparing Compound Sentences to Simple Sentences
with Compound Subjects and Compound Verbs
Cue Card 8
  • Simple Sentence
  • Harry and Joe ate ice cream and drank pop.
  • Compound Sentence
  • Harry ate ice cream, and Joe drank pop.

IM pp. 160
69
Coordinating Conjunction
Cue Card 9
  • A word that is used with a comma to join two
    independent clauses.
  • , for , but
  • , and , or
  • , nor , yet
  • , so

IM pp. 161
70
meanings
  • , for because
  • , and equal
  • , nor negative, neither
  • , but contrast
  • , or choice
  • , yet contrast
  • , so result

71
FAN BOYS
  • Fan Boys, Fan Boys
  • Seven in a row.
  • for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

72
Coordinating Conjunction
Cue Card 9
  • Examples
  • Baseball is my favorite sport to watch, but
    football is my favorite sport to play.
  • The children ran all the way to school, yet they
    were late any way.
  • You will have to finish the project, or your
    group will get a failing grade.
  • Hanni was not at the game, nor was she at the
    party.
  • We did not see Mike at the movie, nor did we see
    him at the restaurant.

IM pp. 161
73
Semicolons
Cue Card 10
  • Semicolons () can also be used to join the two
    independent clauses of a compound sentence.
  • Examples
  • Susan loves to swim her brother likes to dive.
  • Jason was highly respected he was always such a
    responsible person.
  • The meeting was over it was already midnight.

IM pp. 162
74
(No Transcript)
75
IM pp.180
76
Stage 3 Model - Compound
  • I,cI
  • II

77
Stage 4 Verbal Practice
78
Rapid Fire
79
  • Take oral and written quiz (student book)

80
IM pp.180
81
Stage 5 Controlled Practice with
Feedback-Compound
82
  • Stage 6 Advanced Practice with Feedback

83
IM pp.180
84
(No Transcript)
85
Time to make a decision!!
86
Instructional Sequence for the Sentence Writing
Strategy
Pretest for all Sentence Types
Go to Another Strategy
Yes
Mastery
No
3rd grade
Part I
Simple Sentences
No
Mastery
Yes
Compound Sentences (Review Simple Compound)
4th grade
Part II
No
Mastery
Yes
KU Paragraph Writing
Continue to Part III
87
Instructional Sequence for the Sentence Writing
Strategy
5th grade
Complex Sentences (Review Simple, Compound,
Complex)
Part III
No
Mastery
Yes
Compound-Complex Sentences (Final Review)
Part IV
No
Mastery
Yes
Go to Another Strategy
88
Complex
89
Complex Sentence
Cue Card 11
  • A complex sentence
  • has one independent clause
  • and one or more
  • dependent clauses.

IM pp.77-82
90
Dependent Clause
Cue Card 11
  • A dependent clause is a group of words
  • with a subject and verb that cannot stand alone.
  • Examples
  • I like Sally because she is funny.
  • Kathy will be late for dinner since the meeting
    is still in progress.
  • The game will end when one team scores.

IM p. 163
91
Dependent Clause - Dec. 25
92
Independent Clause - Dec. 26
93
Subordinating Conjunctions
Cue Card 12
  • Subordinating conjunctions are words that show
    the relationship of the dependent clause to the
    independent clause.

IM p. 164
94
Subordinating Conjunctions
Cue Card 12
  • Some words that can be used as subordinating
    conjunctions are
  • after even if since
  • although even though so that
  • as if than
  • as if in order that though
  • as long as just as unless
  • as soon as like until
  • as though once when
  • because provided whenever
  • before rather than while

IM p. 164
95
Sequencing Complex Sentences
Cue Card 13
  • Dependent Clause First (comma needed)
  • When I get to Phoenix, you will be sleeping.
  • After the players practiced, they went out for a
    pizza.
  • Until the storm is over, we will not know about
    the damage.

IM p. 165
96
Sequencing Complex Sentences
Cue Card 13
  • Independent Clause First (comma not needed)
  • You will be sleeping when I get to Phoenix.
  • The players went out for a pizza after they
    practiced.
  • We will not know about the damage until the storm
    is over.

IM p. 165
97
(No Transcript)
98
Model - Complex
  • ID
  • D,I

99
(No Transcript)
100
  • Give oral and written quiz

101
(No Transcript)
102
Stage 7 Make Commitments for Generalization
  • Student folders
  • Pretest/post test

103
STAGE 8 Generalization Phase 1 Orientation
  • Insure that students are aware of situations in
    which the strategy should be used
  • Discuss adaptations of the strategy
  • Insure that students are aware of cues for using
    the strategy
  • Materials
  • Assignment sheets
  • Sentence checklist IM p. 181
  • Current management chart

IM pp. 119-121
104
6 Maintenance Probes
6 Assignments
4 Reports
105
STAGE 8 Generalization Phase 2 Activation
  • Program the students use of the strategy in a
    variety of settings
  • Monitor implementation
  • Enlist assistance of others
  • Request feedback from others
  • Reinforce progress and success
  • Prompt students
  • Prompt other teachers
  • Provide feedback on strategy applications
  • Materials
  • Report Strategy Use Form
  • Sentence Score Sheets IM p. 174
  • Sentence checklist IM p. 181
  • Generalization Progress chart IM p. 179

IM pp. 122-127
106
Generalization
  • Your Name Date
  • Strategy you used
  • Place where you used the strategy
  • Assignment or task on which you used the strategy

Report of Strategy Use Form
107
STAGE 8 Generalization Phase 3 Adaptation
  • Identify cognitive processes
  • Identify how strategy can be modified
  • Repeat application with modified strategy
  • Materials
  • Management chart IM p. 176

IM pp. 128-133
108
Discuss Cognitive Features (4 main mental
functions)
  • Using formulas P
  • Planning E
  • Writing N
  • Checking S

109
STAGE 8 Generalization Phase 4 Maintenance
  • Monitor students use of the strategy over time
    and across settings
  • Discuss rationales for long-term use
  • Identify barriers
  • Set goals related to self-monitoring
  • Identify self-reinforcers or self-rewards
  • Conduct periodic checks and reviews of strategy
    usage
  • Provide feedback on strategy generalization
  • Materials
  • Sentence Score Sheets
  • Sentence checklist
  • Current management chart
  • Current Generalization Progress chart

IM pp. 134-136
About PowerShow.com