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Title: Institute of Medicine (IOM) Reports


1
Institute of Medicine (IOM) Reports
This summary was prepared by the 2009 JEMF
Project Team
2
IOM Reports
  • The Institute of Medicine of the National
    Academies has sponsored comprehensive reports on
    health disparities, the health of unique and
    vulnerable populations, workforce issues, health
    care quality, genetics and genomics and health,
    research in health care, and other topics.
  • IOM Reports cite the evidence base and set the
    national standards in health and health care.

3
IOM Reports
  • Search by topic or keywords on the Institute of
    Medicine home page http//www.iom.edu/Reports.as
    px
  • We reviewed IOM reports from the past 10 years
    and color coded them by topic.
  • See the next slide for the color coding key and
    IOM reports listed in this document.

4
Topics
Slides
5
Health Disparities
  • In its work around select populations, the IOM
    examines significant health concerns that may
    affect groups of individuals categorized by
    common occupation, environment, health conditions
    or characteristics, or a shared exposure to a
    unique health risk. Of particular note are the
    IOMs efforts around racial and ethnic
    disparities in health and health care.

From IOM topic Select Populations and Health
Disparities http//www.iom.edu/Global/Topics/Sele
ct-Populations-Health-Disparities.aspx
6
Focusing on Childrens Health Community
Approaches to Addressing Health Disparities.
Workshop Summary
  • Released September 2, 2009
  • Socioeconomic conditions are known to have
    profound and long-term effects on health at all
    stages of life, from pregnancy through childhood
    and adulthood. Sensitive and critical periods of
    development, such as the prenatal period and
    early childhood, present significant
    opportunities to influence lifelong health. Yet
    simply intervening in the health care system is
    insufficient to influence health outcomes early
    in life. On January 24, 2008, the Institute of
    Medicines Roundtable on Health Disparities and
    Board on Children, Youth, and Families co-hosted
    a public workshop to discuss the important
    foundations of adult health that are laid
    prenatally and in early childhood.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/FocusChildrensHeal
    th.aspx

7
Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data
Standardization for Health Care Quality
Improvement
  • Released August 31, 2009
  • The quality of health care in the United States
    is not optimal, and the pace of improvement is
    slow. In addition, disparities persist for
    specific population groups. A fundamental step in
    identifying which populations are most at risk is
    to collect data on race, ethnicity, and
    English-language proficiency. The Institute of
    Medicine (IOM) formed the Subcommittee on
    Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data
    for Healthcare Quality Improvement to examine
    approaches to standardization. In this 2009
    report, the subcommittee recommends collection of
    more granular ethnicity and language need
    according to national standards in addition to
    OMB race and Hispanic ethnicity categories.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/RaceEthnicityData.
    aspx

8
Toward Health Equity and Patient-Centeredness
Integrating Health Literacy, Disparities
Reduction, and Quality Improvement. Workshop
Summary
  • Released February 23, 2009
  • During a time of economic uncertainty, the
    national discussion of health reform
    understandably focuses on insurance coverage and
    cost. To receive the greatest value for health
    care, it is important to focus on issues of
    quality and disparity, and the ability of
    individuals to make appropriate decisions based
    on basic health knowledge and services, or health
    literacy. Three IOM bodies (the Forum on the
    Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and
    Implementation, the Roundtable on Health
    Disparities, and the Roundtable on Health
    Literacy) jointly convened a workshop to discuss
    these concerns.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Toward-Health-Equi
    ty-and-Patient-Centeredness-Integrating-Health-Lit
    eracy-Disparities-Reduction-and-Quality-Improvemen
    t-Workshop-Summary.aspx

9
Challenges and Successes in Reducing Health
Disparities. Workshop Summary
  • Released June 17, 2008
  • In early 2007, the Institute of Medicine convened
    the Roundtable on Health Disparities to increase
    the visibility of racial and ethnic health
    disparities as a national problem, to further the
    development of programs and strategies to reduce
    disparities, to foster the emergence of
    leadership on this issue, and to track promising
    activities and developments in health care that
    could lead to dramatically reducing or
    eliminating disparities.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/Challenges-and-Suc
    cesses-in-Reducing-Health-Disparities-Workshop-Sum
    mary.aspx

10
Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of
the National Institutes of Health Unfinished
Business
  • Released March 6, 2006
  • The health of racial and ethnic minorities, poor
    people, and other disadvantaged groups in the
    United States is worse than the health of the
    overall population. National concerns for these
    differences, termed health disparities, and the
    associated excess mortality and morbidity have
    been expressed as a high priority in national
    health status reviews, including Healthy People
    2000 and 2010. The National Institutes of Health
    (NIH) ranks this issue third among its top five
    priorities.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/Examining-the-Heal
    th-Disparities-Research-Plan-of-the-National-Insti
    tutes-of-Health-Unfinished-Business.aspx

11
Estimating the Contributions of Lifestyle-Related
Factors to Preventable Death A Workshop Summary
  • Released June 1, 2005
  • The Institute of Medicine of the National
    Academies held a workshop, December 13-14, 2004,
    to estimate the contributions of
    lifestyle-related factors to preventable death.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Estimating-the-Con
    tributions-of-Lifestyle-Related-Factors-to-Prevent
    able-Death-A-Workshop-Summary.aspx

12
Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities
Report
  • Released September 27, 2002
  • Research has extensively documented the
    pervasiveness of racial and ethnic disparities in
    health care. In 1999, as part of a national
    effort to eliminate health care disparities,
    Congress required the Agency for Healthcare
    Research and Quality (AHRQ) to produce an annual
    report to be called the National Healthcare
    Disparities Report (NHDR). In this report, titled
    Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities
    Report, an IOM committee was asked to provide
    guidance to AHRQ to help fulfill the potential of
    the NHDR.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Guidance-for-the-N
    ational-Healthcare-Disparities-Report.aspx

13
Speaking of Health Assessing Health
Communication Strategies for Diverse Populations
  • Released July 6, 2002
  • Communication interventions intended to affect
    health behavior are an increasingly important
    strategy for improving the health of the American
    people. However, effective communication is
    highly dependent upon the social and cultural
    milieu that shapes the individuals, families, and
    communities that are the intended recipients.
    Because we live in an increasingly diverse
    nation, it is important to understand more fully
    how these different messages should be
    constructed and delivered. This report, Speaking
    of Health Assessing Health Communication
    Strategies for Diverse Populations, addresses the
    challenge of improving health communications in a
    racially and culturally diverse society.
    http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Speaking-of-Health
    -Assessing-Health-Communication-Strategies-for-Div
    erse-Populations.aspx

14
Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and Ethnic
Disparities in Health Care
  • Released March 20, 2002
  • Congress, in 1999, requested an IOM study to
    assess the extent of disparities in the types and
    quality of health services received by U.S.
    racial and ethnic minorities and non-minorities
    explore factors that may contribute to inequities
    in care and recommend policies and practices to
    eliminate these inequities. The report from that
    study, Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and
    Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, found that a
    consistent body of research demonstrates
    significant variation in the rates of medical
    procedures by race, even when insurance status,
    income, age, and severity of conditions are
    comparable.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Unequal-Treatment-
    Confronting-Racial-and-Ethnic-Disparities-in-Healt
    h-Care.aspx

15
Health Literacy
  • Health literacy is defined in Healthy People 2010
    as "The degree to which individuals have the
    capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic
    health information and services needed to make
    appropriate health decisions.
  • Healthy People 2010 http//www.healthypeople.gov/
    Document/pdf/uih/2010uih.pdf

From IOM topic Select Populations and Health
Disparities http//www.iom.edu/Global/Topics/Sel
ect-Populations-Health-Disparities.aspx
16
Measures of Health Literacy. Workshop Summary
  • Released December 8, 2009
  • Understanding and using basic health information
    and being able to navigate the complexities of
    the health care system are critical to good
    health. Health literacy can be difficult to
    assess, however, as it is not only a measure of
    individuals understanding of health information
    at various points in time but also a measure of
    how well various health care systems have been
    organized. The Roundtable on Health Literacy held
    a workshop on February 26, 2009, to examine what
    is known about measures of health literacy.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Measures-of-Health
    -Literacy.aspx

17
Health Literacy, eHealth, and Communication
Putting the Consumer First. Workshop Summary
  • Released March 24, 2009
  • There is great enthusiasm over the use of
    emerging interactive health information
    technologiesoften referred to as eHealthand the
    potential these technologies have to improve the
    quality, capacity, and efficiency of the health
    care system. However, many doctors, advocacy
    groups, policy makers and consumers are concerned
    that electronic health systems might help
    individuals and communities with greater
    resources while leaving behind those with limited
    access to technology. In order to address this
    problem, the Institute of Medicines Roundtable
    on Health Literacy held a workshop.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Health-Literacy-eH
    ealth-and-Communication-Putting-the-Consumer-First
    -Workshop-Summary.aspx

18
Health Literacy A Prescription to End Confusion
  • Released April 8, 2004
  • Nearly half of all American adults--90 million
    people--have difficulty understanding and using
    health information, and there is a higher rate of
    hospitalization and use of emergency services
    among patients with limited health literacy, says
    a report from the Institute of Medicine titled
    Health Literacy A Prescription to End Confusion.
    Limited health literacy may lead to billions of
    dollars in avoidable health care costs. A
    concerted effort by the public health and health
    care systems, the education system, the media,
    and health care consumers is needed to improve
    the nation's health literacy, the report says.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Health-Literacy-A-
    Prescription-to-End-Confusion.aspx

19
Mental Health
  • Individuals who have substance abuse or mental
    health problems can face particular health
    challenges. For example, they frequently
    experience difficulties in accessing, receiving,
    and benefiting from care. The IOM examines such
    concerns in its activities related to
    neuroscience and mental and behavioral health.

From the IOM website under topic Substance Abuse
and Mental Health http//www.iom.edu/Global/Topi
cs/Substance-Abuse-Mental-Health.aspx
20
Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children
Opportunities to Improve Identification,
Treatment, and Prevention
  • Released June 9, 2009
  • Depression is a widespread condition affecting
    approximately 7.5 million parents in the U.S.
    each year and may be putting at least 15 million
    children at risk for adverse health outcomes.
    Based on evidentiary studies, major depression in
    either parent can interfere with parenting
    quality and increase the risk of children
    developing mental, behavioral and social
    problems. This report highlights disparities in
    the prevalence, identification, treatment, and
    prevention of parental depression among different
    sociodemographic populations. It also outlines
    strategies for effective intervention and
    identifies the need for a more interdisciplinary
    approach that takes biological, psychological,
    behavioral, interpersonal, and social contexts
    into consideration.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Depression-in-Pare
    nts-Parenting-and-Children-Opportunities-to-Improv
    e-Identification-Treatment-and-Prevention.aspx

21
Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral
Disorders Among Young People Progress and
Possibilities
  • Released March 12, 2009
  • Mental health and substance use disorders among
    children, youth, and young adults are major
    threats to the health and well-being of younger
    populations which often carryover into adulthood.
    The costs of treatment for mental health and
    addictive disorders, which create an enormous
    burden on the affected individuals, their
    families, and society, have stimulated increasing
    interest in prevention practices that can impede
    the onset or reduce the severity of the
    disorders. This report updates a 1994 Institute
    of Medicine book, Reducing Risks for Mental
    Disorders, focusing on the research base and
    program experience with younger populations that
    have emerged since that time.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Preventing-Mental-
    Emotional-and-Behavioral-Disorders-Among-Young-Peo
    ple-Progress-and-Possibilities.asp

22
Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental
and Substance-Use Conditions Quality Chasm
Series
  • Released November 1, 2005
  • This report, Improving the Quality of Health Care
    for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions Quality
    Chasm Series, examines the differences in health
    care for mental and substance-use conditions,
    finds that the Quality Chasm framework is
    applicable to health care for mental and
    substance-use conditions, and describes a
    multifaceted and comprehensive strategy to apply
    the Quality Chasm framework.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Improving-the-Qual
    ity-of-Health-Care-for-Mental-and-Substance-Use-Co
    nditions-Quality-Chasm-Series.aspx

23
The Unequal Burden of Cancer An Assessment of
NIH Research and Programs for Ethnic Minorities
and the Medically Underserved
  • Released January 1, 1999
  • We know more about cancer prevention, detection,
    and treatment than ever before--yet not all
    segments of the U.S. population have benefited to
    the fullest extent possible from these advances.
    Some ethnic minorities experience more cancer
    than the majority population, and poor people--no
    matter what their ethnicity--often lack access to
    adequate cancer care. This report provides an
    authoritative view of cancer as it is experienced
    by ethnic minorities and the medically
    underserved.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1999/The-Unequal-Burden
    -of-Cancer-An-Assessment-of-NIH-Research-and-Progr
    ams-for-Ethnic-Minorities-and-the-Medically-Unders
    erved.aspx

24
Vulnerable Populations
  • The term "vulnerable populations," refers to
    social groups with increased relative risk (i.e.
    exposure to risk factors) or susceptibility to
    health-related problems. This vulnerability is
    evidenced in higher comparative mortality rates,
    lower life expectancy, reduced access to care,
    and diminished quality of life. Vulnerable
    populations are often discriminated against,
    marginalized and disenfranchised from mainstream
    society, contributing to their lower social
    status and lack of power in personal, social, and
    political relationships.
  • Center for Vulnerable Populations Research,
    http//www.nursing.ucla.edu/orgs/cvpr/who-are-vuln
    erable.html

From the Center for Vulnerable Populations
Research http//www.nursing.ucla.edu/orgs/cvpr/wh
o-are-vulnerable.html
25
Adolescent Health Services Missing Opportunities
  • Released December 9, 2008
  • Adolescence is a time when youth establish health
    habits, both good and bad, that often last a
    lifetime. Yet the U.S. health care system today
    is not designed to help young people develop
    healthy routines, behaviors, and relationships to
    prepare them for adulthood. Adolescent Health
    Services examines the health status of
    adolescents and reviews the separate and
    uncoordinated programs and services that
    currently exist in multiple public and private
    health care settings.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/Adolescent-Health-
    Services-Missing-Opportunities.aspx

26
The National Children's Study Research Plan A
Review
  • Released September 12, 2008
  • The National Children's Study (NCS) is planned to
    be the largest long-term study of environmental
    and genetic effects on children's health ever
    conducted in the United States. It proposes to
    examine the effects of environmental influences
    on the health and development of approximately
    100,000 children across the United States,
    following them from before birth until age 21. By
    archiving all of the data collected, the NCS is
    intended to provide a valuable resource for
    analyses conducted many years into the future.
    This book evaluates the research plan for the
    NCS, by assessing the scientific rigor of the
    study and the extent to which it is being carried
    out with methods, measures, and collection of
    data and specimens to maximize the scientific
    yield of the study.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/The-National-Child
    rens-Study-Research-Plan-A-Review.aspx

27
Challenges in Adolescent Health Care. Workshop
Report
  • Released October 26, 2007
  • This report summarizes two workshops convened by
    the Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services
    and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and
    Healthy Development, which is conducting a
    two-year study of adolescent health services in
    the United States with funding from the Atlantic
    Philanthropies. This workshop report, which is
    the first in a series of products associated with
    this study, takes stock of the current knowledge
    base on adolescent health services, settings and
    systems and offers perspectives from researchers,
    health professionals who work with youth, and
    youth themselves in describing the current
    status, strengths, and shortcomings of current
    delivery systems.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2007/Challenges-in-Adol
    escent-Health-Care-Workshop-Report.aspx

28
A Study of Interactions Emerging Issues in the
Study of Adolescence A Workshop Summary
  • Released March 22, 2006
  • Summarizing the major themes discussed at a
    September 2005 workshop, this report provides an
    initial overview of key findings from different
    fields of research on adolescence and highlights
    fundamental processes that shape adolescent
    health and development.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/A-Study-of-Interac
    tions-Emerging-Issues-in-the-Study-of-Adolescence-
    A-Workshop-Summary.aspx

29
Workshop on Disability in America A New Look -
Summary and Background Papers
  • Released March 1, 2006
  • This report from the Institute of Medicine
    summarizes a workshop convened in August 2005 for
    the first phase of a project that will take a new
    look at disability in America and update the 1991
    IOM report by that name. The final report, which
    will include recommendations, is now available
    and is titled The Future of Disability in
    America.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/Workshop-on-Disabi
    lity-in-America-A-New-Look---Summary-and-Backgroun
    d-Papers.aspx

30
The Future of Disability in America
  • Released April 23, 2007
  • To better understand disability in the United
    States, the Centers for Disease Control, the
    Department of Education, and the National
    Institutes of Health (NIH) asked the Institute of
    Medicine (IOM) to assess the current situation
    and provide recommendations for improvement,
    which culminated in the report The Future of
    Disability in America.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2007/The-Future-of-Disa
    bility-in-America.aspx

31
Ethical Considerations for Research Involving
Prisoners
  • Released July 12, 2006
  • Because prisoners face restrictions on liberty
    and autonomy, limited privacy, and often
    inadequate health care, they require specific
    protections when involved in research,
    particularly in todays correctional settings.
    Given these issues, the Department of Health and
    Human Services Office for Human Research
    Protections commissioned the Institute of
    Medicine to review the ethical considerations
    regarding research involving prisoners. Ethical
    Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners
    emphasizes five broad actions to provide
    prisoners involved in research with critically
    important protections.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/Ethical-Considerat
    ions-for-Research-Involving-Prisoners.aspx

32
Cancer in Elderly People Workshop Proceedings
  • Released March 22, 2007
  • The IOM's National Cancer Policy Forum sponsored
    a public workshop addressing several issues
    related to cancer and aging including cancer
    rehabilitation, increased prevalence of cancer
    survivors, end of life care, the role of nurses,
    and Medicare costs in geriatric oncology.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2007/Cancer-in-Elderly-
    People-Workshop-Proceedings.aspx

33
Quality Through Collaboration The Future of
Rural Health
  • Released November 1, 2004
  • Rural America is a vital component of American
    society. Representing nearly 20 percent of the
    population, rural communities, like urban
    landscapes, are rich in cultural diversity.
    However, the smaller, poorer, and more isolated a
    rural community is, the more difficult it is to
    ensure the availability of high-quality health
    services. The Institute of Medicine report,
    Quality Through Collaboration The Future of
    Rural Health examines the quality of health care
    in rural America.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Quality-Through-Co
    llaboration-The-Future-of-Rural-Health.aspx

34
Children's Health, the Nation's Wealth Assessing
and Improving Child Health
  • Released June 24, 2004
  • Children's health has clearly improved over the
    past several decades. Yet major questions still
    remain about how to assess the status of
    children's health, what factors should be
    monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools
    that should be used. Children's Health, The
    Nation's Wealth provides a detailed examination
    of the information about children's health that
    is needed to help policy makers and program
    providers at the federal, state, and local
    levels.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Childrens-Health-t
    he-Nations-Wealth-Assessing-and-Improving-Child-He
    alth.aspx

35
Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research Involving
Children
  • Released March 24, 2004
  • To address concerns about the adequacy of the
    current system for protecting child participants
    in research given a public commitment to
    expanding pediatric clinical research, the
    Institute of Medicine convened the Committee on
    Clinical Research Involving Children.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Ethical-Conduct-of
    -Clinical-Research-Involving-Children.aspx

36
Lesbian Health Current Assessment and Directions
for the Future
  • Released April 7, 2003
  • Women's health, as a field of study, is a
    developing discipline. Health theories in general
    have been based on studies of men. However, in
    recent years, more attention has shifted to
    women's health, realizing the disparities between
    men and women in relation to their health. During
    the last two decades, a similar shift has
    occurred for a group of women--lesbian women--to
    further identify and specify their health needs.
    Lesbian Health Current Assessment and Directions
    for the Future takes a frank look at the
    political pressures, community attitudes, and
    professional concerns uniquely affecting the
    study of lesbian health issues.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Lesbian-Health-Cur
    rent-Assessment-and-Directions-for-the-Future.aspx

37
Adolescent Risk and Vulnerability Concepts and
Measurements
  • Released October 18, 2001
  • Adolescent Risk and Vulnerability is a summary of
    a workshop held in 2001 by the Board on Children,
    Youth, and Families. The workshop's goal was to
    put into perspective the total burden of
    vulnerability that adolescents have, taking
    advantage of the growing societal concern for
    adolescents, the need to set priorities for
    adolescents' needs, and the opportunity to apply
    decision-making perspectives to this critical
    area.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Adolescent-Risk-an
    d-Vulnerability-Concepts-and-Measurements.aspx

38
Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human
Health Does Sex Matter?
  • Released April 24, 2001
  • The Institute of Medicine formed a committee to
    evaluate and consider the current understanding
    of sex differences and determinants at the
    biological level and to identify current and
    potential barriers to the conduct of research in
    this area.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Exploring-the-Biol
    ogical-Contributions-to-Human-Health-Does-Sex-Matt
    er.aspx

39
Children of Immigrants Health, Adjustment, and
Public Assistance
  • Released January 1, 1999
  • Children of Immigrants represents some of the
    very best and most extensive research efforts to
    date on the circumstances, health, and
    development of children in immigrant families and
    the delivery of health and social services to
    these children and their families.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1999/Children-of-Immigr
    ants-Health-Adjustment-and-Public-Assistance.aspx

40
Gender Differences in Susceptibility to
Environmental Factors A Priority Assessment
  • Released January 1, 1998
  • In 1996 the Office for Research on Women's Health
    at the National Institutes of Health asked the
    Institute of Medicine to conduct a workshop study
    to review some of the current federal research
    programs devoted to women's health and to clarify
    the state of knowledge regarding gender-related
    differences in susceptibility. This book contains
    a general outline of research needs, a summary of
    the workshop proceedings (as well as summaries of
    the speakers' presentations), and an analysis of
    the participating federal agencies' research
    portfolios.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1998/Gender-Differences
    -in-Susceptibility-to-Environmental-Factors-A-Prio
    rity-Assessment.aspx

41
From Generation to Generation The Health and
Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families
  • Released January 1, 1998
  • From Generation to Generation explores what we
    know about the development of white, black,
    Hispanic, and Asian children and youth from
    numerous countries of origin. Describing the
    status of immigrant children and youth as
    "severely understudied," the committee both draws
    on and supplements existing research to
    characterize the current status and outlook of
    immigrant children.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1998/From-Generation-to
    -Generation-The-Health-and-Well-Being-of-Children-
    in-Immigrant-Families.aspx

42
Health Insurance
  • For many, lack of health care is a persistent
    barrier to good health. The IOM examines the twin
    issues of health insurance coverage and access as
    well as taking a broad view of health care
    services. The IOM considers subjects such as the
    organization, financing, effectiveness,
    workforce, and delivery of health care.

From the IOM topic Health Services, Coverage, and
Access http//www.iom.edu/Global/Topics/Health-Ser
vices-Coverage-Access.aspx
43
America's Uninsured Crisis Consequences for
Health and Health Care
  • Released February 23, 2009
  • For decades, the health insurance crisis has
    grown without any decisive action by policy
    makers to stop it. Now is the time for action,
    say the reports authors, recommending that the
    President work with Congress and other public and
    private sector leaders on an urgent basis to
    achieve health insurance coverage for everyone
    and, in order to make that coverage sustainable,
    to reduce the costs of health care and the rate
    of increase in health care spending.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Americas-Uninsured
    -Crisis-Consequences-for-Health-and-Health-Care.as
    px

44
Coverage Matters Insurance and Health Care
  • Released October 11, 2001
  • This is the first of six reports on the problems
    of uninsurance in the United States and addresses
    the extent to which Americans are without
    coverage, identifies social, economic, and policy
    factors that contribute to the situation, and
    reports the relative probability of being
    uninsured for various groups.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Coverage-Matters-I
    nsurance-and-Health-Care.aspx

45
Care Without Coverage Too Little, Too Late
  • Released May 21, 2002
  • Care Without Coverage Too Little, Too Late, the
    second report in a series of six from the
    Institiute of Medicine's Committee on the
    Consequences of Uninsurance, examines the real
    consequences for adults who lack health
    insurance.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Care-Without-Cover
    age-Too-Little-Too-Late.aspx

46
Health Insurance is a Family Matter
  • Released September 18, 2002
  • Health Insurance Is a Family Matter is the third
    of a series of six reports on the problems of
    uninsurance in the United States and addresses
    the impact on the family of not having health
    insurance. The report examines the consequences
    for family health, financial stability, and
    general well-being. In the report, the Committee
    concludes that the financial, physical, and
    emotional well-being of all members of a family
    may be adversely affected if any family member
    lacks coverage.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Health-Insurance-i
    s-a-Family-Matter.aspx

47
A Shared Destiny Community Effects of
Uninsurance
  • Released April 2, 2003
  • A Shared Destiny Community Effects of
    Uninsurance is the fourth of a series of six
    reports on the problems of uninsurance in the
    United States. The report examines how the
    quality, quantity, and scope of health services
    within the community can be affected adversely by
    having a large or growing uninsured population.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/A-Shared-Destiny-C
    ommunity-Effects-of-Uninsurance.aspx

48
Hidden Costs, Value Lost Uninsurance in America
  • Released June 18, 2003
  • Hidden Costs, Value Lost Uninsurance in America,
    the fifth of a series of six reports on the
    consequences of uninsurance in the United States,
    illustrates some of the economic and social
    losses to the country of maintaining so many
    people without health insurance. The report
    explores the potential economic and societal
    benefits that could be realized if everyone had
    health insurance on a continuous basis, as people
    over age 65 currently do with Medicare.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Hidden-Costs-Value
    -Lost-Uninsurance-in-America.aspx

49
Insuring America's Health Principles and
Recommendations
  • Released January 13, 2004
  • This report is the culmination of a series that
    offers the most comprehensive examination to date
    of the consequences of lack of health insurance
    on individuals, their families, communities and
    the whole society. The principles to guide health
    finance reform that are recommended in this sixth
    and final report of the series are based on the
    evidence reviewed in the Committee's previous
    five reports and on new analyses of past and
    present federal, state, and local efforts to
    reduce uninsurance.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Insuring-Americas-
    Health-Principles-and-Recommendations.aspx

50
General Public Health
  • Since its founding, the IOM has advanced the best
    ways to ensure the publics health. Studies range
    from core principles and needs in the field of
    public health to specific issues such as vaccine
    safety and smoking cessation. Our scope includes
    population-based public health measures and the
    public health infrastructure.

From IOM topic Public Health http//www.iom.edu/
Global/Topics/Public-Health.aspx
51
State of the USA Health Indicators. Letter Report
  • Released December 9, 2008
  • In 2008, the nonprofit State of the USA, Inc.
    (SUSA) asked the Institute of Medicines
    Committee on the State of the USA Health
    Indicators to provide guidance on 20 key
    indicators to be used on the organizations
    website that would be valuable in assessing
    health. Taken together, the selected indicators
    reflect the overall health of the nation and the
    efficiency and efficacy of U.S. health systems.
    The complete list of 20 can be found in the
    report brief and report.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/State-of-the-USA-H
    ealth-Indicators-Letter-Report.aspx

52
Knowing What Works in Health Care A Roadmap for
the Nation
  • Released January 24, 2008
  • Solutions to some of the nations most pressing
    health policy problems hinge on the ability to
    identify which diagnostic, treatment, and
    prevention services work best for various
    patients and circumstances. A new Institute of
    Medicine report, Knowing What Works in Health
    Care A Roadmap for the Nation, provides a
    blueprint for a national program to assess the
    effectiveness of clinical services and to provide
    credible, unbiased information about what really
    works in health care.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/Knowing-What-Works
    -in-Health-Care-A-Roadmap-for-the-Nation.aspx

53
1st Annual Crossing the Quality Chasm Summit A
Focus on Communities
  • Released September 14, 2004
  • On January 6 and 7, 2004, the Institute of
    Medicine (IOM) hosted the 1st Annual Crossing the
    Quality Chasm Summit, convening a diverse group
    of national and community health care leaders to
    pool their knowledge and resources with regard to
    strategies for improving patient care for five
    common chronic illnesses asthma, depression,
    diabetes, heart failure, and pain control in
    advanced cancer.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/1st-Annual-Crossin
    g-the-Quality-Chasm-Summit-A-Focus-on-Communities.
    aspx

54
Measuring What Matters Allocation, Planning, and
Quality Assessment for the Ryan White CARE Act
  • Released November 7, 2003
  • In response to a congressional mandate, an IOM
    committee was formed to reevaluate whether CARE
    allocation strategies are an equitable and
    efficient way of distributing resources to
    jurisdictions with the greatest needs and to
    assess whether quality of care can be refined and
    expanded.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Measuring-What-Mat
    ters-Allocation-Planning-and-Quality-Assessment-fo
    r-the-Ryan-White-CARE-Act.aspx

55
Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People
2010 Final Report
  • Released April 7, 2003
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Leading-Health-Ind
    icators-for-Healthy-People-2010-Final-Report.aspx

56
Priority Areas for National Action Transforming
Health Care Quality
  • Released January 7, 2003
  • In this report, the committee recommends a set of
    20 priority areas that the U.S. Department of
    Health and Human Services (DHHS) and other groups
    in the public and private sectors should focus on
    to improve the quality of health care delivered
    to all Americans. The priority areas selected
    represent the entire spectrum of health care from
    preventive care to end of life care. They also
    touch on all age groups, health care settings and
    health care providers. Collective action in these
    areas could help transform the entire health care
    system.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Priority-Areas-for
    -National-Action-Transforming-Health-Care-Quality.
    aspx

57
Health and Behavior The Interplay of Biological,
Behavioral, and Societal Influences
  • Released May 21, 2001
  • Health and Behavior reviews our improved
    understanding of the complex interplay among
    biological, psychological, and social influences
    and explores findings suggested by recent
    research-including interventions at multiple
    levels that we can employ to improve human
    health.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Health-and-Behavio
    r-The-Interplay-of-Biological-Behavioral-and-Socie
    tal-Influences.aspx

58
Measuring the Quality of Health Care
  • Released February 1, 1998
  • This report first describes quality of care based
    on the IOM's 1990 definition and then outlines
    the burden of harm from poor quality. It then
    describes major approaches to and recent advances
    in quality measurement. Finally, it describes
    some of the challenges facing this field.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1998/Measuring-the-Qual
    ity-of-Health-Care.aspx

59
Research
  • Underlying health and health care is an important
    science base. The IOM work in biomedical and
    health research pertains to both the discovery
    and application of new knowledge.

From IOM topic Biomedical and Health
Research http//www.iom.edu/Global/Topics/Biomedi
cal-Health-Research.aspx
60
Integrity in Scientific Research Creating an
Environment That Promotes Responsible Conduct
  • Released July 15, 2002
  • This report focuses on the research environment
    and attempts to define and describe those
    elements that allow and encourage unique
    individuals, regardless of their role in the
    research organization or their backgrounds on
    entry, to act with integrity.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Integrity-in-Scien
    tific-Research-Creating-an-Environment-That-Promot
    es-Responsible-Conduct.aspx

61
Preserving Public Trust Accreditation and Human
Research Participant Protection Programs
  • Released April 17, 2001
  • Preserving Public Trust Accreditation and Human
    Research Participant Protection Programs,
    responds, at the request of DHHS, to the
    increasing concern over patient safety and
    shutdowns of research operations in the United
    States.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Preserving-Public-
    Trust-Accreditation-and-Human-Research-Participant
    -Protection-Programs.aspx

62
Toward Environmental Justice Research,
Education, and Health Policy Needs
  • Released March 1, 1999
  • Is environmental degradation worse in poor and
    minority communities? Do these communities suffer
    more adverse health effects as a result? The
    committee addresses these questions and explores
    how current fragmentation in health policy could
    be replaced with greater coordination among
    federal, state, and local parties.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/1999/Toward-Environment
    al-Justice-Research-Education-and-Health-Policy-Ne
    eds.aspx

63
Responsible Research A Systems Approach to
Protecting Research Participants
  • Released October 3, 2002
  • Broader federal oversight is needed to ensure
    that all people who take part in research
    studies, regardless of whether they are publicly
    or privately funded, have the same necessary
    protections for their health and well-being, says
    the report, Responsible Research A Systems
    Approach to Protecting Research Participants.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Responsible-Resear
    ch-A-Systems-Approach-to-Protecting-Research-Parti
    cipants.aspx

64
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
    refers to a group of diverse medical and health
    care systems, practices, and products that are
    not generally considered part of conventional
    medicine.

65
Use of Dietary Supplements by Military Personnel
  • Released June 9, 2008
  • The use of dietary supplements has become
    increasingly popular among members of the
    military. While some supplements may provide
    benefits to health, others could carry adverse
    effects that might compromise the readiness and
    performance of service members. The U.S.
    Department of Defense, the Samueli Institute, the
    National Institutes of Health (NIH), with
    additional support from the Food and Drug
    Administration (FDA), requested that the
    Institute of Medicine (IOM) review the use of
    dietary supplements by military personnel,
    recommending a framework to identify the need for
    management of dietary supplement use within the
    military, and developing an approach to report
    adverse health events.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/Use-of-Dietary-Sup
    plements-by-Military-Personnel.aspx

66
Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the
United States
  • Released January 12, 2005
  • At the request of the National Institutes of
    Health (NIH) and the Agency for Healthcare
    Research and Quality, the IOM produced the report
    titled Complementary and Alternative Medicine in
    the United States, which assesses what is known
    about Americans' reliance on those therapies and
    also assists the NIH in developing research
    methods and setting priorities for evaluating
    products and approaches within CAM.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Complementary-and-
    Alternative-Medicine-in-the-United-States.aspx

67
Dietary Supplements A Framework for Evaluating
Safety
  • Released April 1, 2004
  • Although vitamin and supplement manufacturers are
    restricted from claiming that using their
    products leads to therapeutic benefits, surveys
    show that many people take supplements for
    purposes such as treating colds or alleviating
    depression. According to other survey data, the
    majority of consumers believe these products to
    be either reasonably or completely safe. To
    bolster the FDA's ability to evaluate the safety
    of dietary supplements, the Institute of Medicine
    report Dietary Supplements A Framework for
    Evaluating Safety outlines a science-based
    process for assessing supplement ingredients,
    even when data about a substance's safety in
    humans is scarce.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/Dietary-Supplement
    s-A-Framework-for-Evaluating-Safety.aspx

68
Health Care Workforce
  • Chief among the resources of our health care
    system is the workforce that assumes the task.
    The IOM recognizes the importance of the health
    care workforce and examines such issues as the
    preparedness of certain sectors to meet patient
    demand and the protection of health care workers
    against threats like pandemics, among others.

From IOM topic Healthcare Workforce http//www.i
om.edu/Global/Topics/Health-Care-Workforce.aspx
69
In the Nation's Compelling Interest Ensuring
Diversity in the Health Care Workforce
  • Released February 5, 2004
  • The report examines institutional and
    policy-level strategies - defined as specific
    policies and programs of health professions
    schools, their associations and accreditation
    bodies, health care systems/organizations, and
    state and federal governments - to increase
    diversity among health professionals.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2004/In-the-Nations-Com
    pelling-Interest-Ensuring-Diversity-in-the-Health-
    Care-Workforce.aspx

70
Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Workshop
Summary
  • Released August 4, 2003
  • On May 22, 2003 in Washington, DC the Institute
    of Medicine held a workshop to explore the
    recently released report, Who Will Keep the
    Public Healthy? Educating Public Health
    Professionals for the 21st Century.
    Representatives of the public health practice and
    academic communities joined to review the report
    and to discuss how to proceed to implement the
    recommendations of this report. This summary is a
    report of that meeting. It includes suggestions
    from the six workgroups for next steps necessary
    to move forward in implementing the
    recommendations.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Who-Will-Keep-the-
    Public-Healthy-Workshop-Summary.aspx

71
Health Professions Education A Bridge to Quality
  • Released April 18, 2003
  • On June 17-18, 2002 over 150 leaders and experts
    from health professions education, regulation,
    policy, advocacy, quality, and industry attended
    the Health Professions Education Summit to
    discuss and help the committee develop strategies
    for restructuring clinical education to be
    consistent with the principles of the
    21st-century health system.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2003/Health-Professions
    -Education-A-Bridge-to-Quality.aspx

72
The Right Thing to Do, The Smart Thing to Do
Enhancing Diversity in Health Professions.
Summary of the Symposium on Diversity in Health
Professions in Honor of Herbert W. Nickens, M.D.
  • Released August 31, 2001
  • The Symposium on Diversity in the Health
    Professions in Honor of Herbert W. Nickens, M.D.
    was convened in March 2001 to provide a forum for
    health policymakers, health professions
    educators, education policymakers, researchers,
    and others to address three significant and
    contradictory challenges. The Right Thing to Do,
    The Smart Thing to Do Enhancing Diversity in
    Health Professions illustrates how the health
    care industry and health care professions are
    fighting to retain the publics confidence so
    that the U.S. health care system can continue to
    be the worlds best.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/The-Right-Thing-to
    -Do-The-Smart-Thing-to-Do-Enhancing-Diversity-in-H
    ealth-Professions-Summary-of-the-Symposium-on-Dive
    rsity-in-Health-Professions-in-Honor-of-Herbert-W-
    Nickens-MD.aspx

73
Genetics and Genomics
  • By studying the relationship between genes,
    environment, and behaviors, researchers and
    practitioners can learn why some people get sick,
    while others do not. Family health history
    information can also help to identify people who
    may have a higher risk for certain diseases.
    Better understanding of genetic and family
    history information can help researchers and
    practitioners identify, develop, and evaluate
    screening and other interventions that can
    improve health and prevent disease.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
    Genomics and Health http//www.cdc.gov/genomics/
    public/index.htm

From CDC website Genomics and Health http//www.
cdc.gov/genomics/public/index.htm
74
Policy Issues in the Development of Personalized
Medicine in Oncology. Workshop Summary
  • Released February 8, 2010
  • As cancer care becomes more personalized,
    patients will receive preventive or therapeutic
    interventions based on their susceptibilities or
    predicted responses. But before the use of
    personalized cancer care can reach its full
    potential, the health care system must resolve a
    number of policy issues. To explore these policy
    challenges, the National Cancer Policy Forum held
    this workshop in June 2009.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Policy-Issues-in-t
    he-Development-of-Personalized-Medicine-in-Oncolog
    y.aspx

75
Systems for Research and Evaluation for
Translating Genome-Based Discoveries for Health.
Workshop Summary
  • Released November 11, 2009
  • The correlation between genetic variations and
    variations in disease risk has been a subject of
    study for more than 100 years. Initially,
    research focused on single genes that give rise
    to rare genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis
    or Huntingtons disease. With new studies,
    however, numerous associations have been found
    between genes and more common diseases, for
    example breast cancer, type II diabetes, coronary
    artery disease, asthma, and bipolar disorder.
    This rapidly advancing field of genomics has
    stirred great interest in personalized health
    care. The hope is that using genomic information
    in care will lead to reduced health care costs
    and improved health results, as preventive
    measures and treatments are tailored to patients
    genetic susceptibilities. On February 12, 2009,
    the Institute of Medicines Roundtable on
    Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
    hosted a workshop to examine how to evaluate the
    clinical use of genomic information and the
    impact of genetic information in caring for
    patients.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Systems-Research-E
    valuation-Translating-Genome-Based-Discoveries-Hea
    lth.aspx

76
Innovations in Service Delivery in the Age of
Genomics. Workshop Summary
  • Released May 13, 2009
  • New discoveries in genomicsthat is, the study of
    the entire human genomeare changing how we
    diagnose and treat diseases. As the trend shifts
    from genetic testing largely being undertaken for
    rare genetic disorders to, increasingly,
    individuals being screened for common diseases,
    general practitioners, pediatricians,
    obstetricians, gynecologists, and other providers
    need to be knowledgeable about and comfortable
    using genetic information to improve their
    patients health. To address these changes, the
    Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research
    for Health held the public workshop Innovations
    in Service Delivery in the Age of Genomics on
    July 27, 2008.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2009/Innovations-in-Ser
    vice-Delivery-in-the-Age-of-Genomics-Workshop-Summ
    ary.aspx

77
Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Counseling.
Workshop Proceedings
  • Released August 20, 2007
  • The Institute of Medicines National Cancer
    Policy Forum held a workshop and released the
    proceedings entitled Cancer-Related Genetic
    Testing and Counseling. The workshop focused on
    the fact that genetic testing and counseling are
    becoming more complex and important for informing
    patients and families of the risks and benefits
    of certain courses of action, but at the same
    time organized expert programs are in short
    supply. The workshop covered the scientific and
    clinical aspects of genetic testing and
    counseling as well as workforce and reimbursement
    issues, among others.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2007/Cancer-Related-Ge
    netic-Testing-and-Counseling-Workshop-Proceedings.
    aspx

78
Nutrigenomics and Beyond Informing the Future
Workshop Summary
  • Released May 22, 2007
  • Nutrition science is uniquely poised to serve as
    the crossroads for many disciplines and, using
    genomics tools, can bridge this knowledge to
    better understand and address diet-related
    chronic diseases and molecular responses to
    dietary factors. To address these issues, the
    Institute of Medicine held a two-day workshop,
    and released Nutrigenomics and Beyond Informing
    the Future Workshop Summary, which explores the
    state of the science, examines its potential, and
    discusses how that potential might best be
    realized.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2007/Nutrigenomics-and-
    Beyond--Informing-the-Future-Workshop-Summary.aspx

79
Diffusion and Use of Genomic Innovations in
Health and Medicine. Workshop Summary
  • Released June 19, 2008
  • The Institute of Medicines Roundtable on
    Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health,
    established in 2007, held its first workshop to
    address the following questions (1) Are there
    different pathways by which new scientific
    findings move from the research setting into
    health care? (2) If so, what are the implications
    of those different pathways for genomics? (3)
    What can we learn from the translation of other
    new technologies as we seek to understand the
    translation of genome science into health care?
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2008/Diffusion-and-Use-
    of-Genomic-Innovations-in-Health-and-Medicine-Work
    shop-Summary.aspx

80
Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment
Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate
  • Released August 11, 2006
  • Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment
    examines a number of well-described
    gene-environment interactions, reviews the state
    of the science in researching such interactions,
    and recommends priorities not only on research
    itself but also on its workforce, resource, and
    infrastructural needs.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2006/Genes-Behavior-and
    -the-Social-Environment-Moving-Beyond-the-NatureNu
    rture-Debate.aspx

81
Implications of Genomics for Public Health.
Workshop Summary
  • Released March 28, 2005
  • This workshop summary, titled Implications of
    Genomics for Public Health, summarizes speaker
    presentations on major scientific and policy
    issues related to genomics and public health,
    major supports for and challenges to the
    translation of genetic research into population
    health benefits, and approaches for the
    integration of genomic information into
    strategies for promoting health and preventing
    disease.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2005/Implications-of-Ge
    nomics-for-Public-Health-Workshop-Summary.aspx

82
Cancer and the Environment Gene-Environment
Interactions. Workshop Summary
  • Released August 9, 2002
  • Both environmental and genetic factors are known
    to be involved in the development of cancer. On
    May 16-17, 2001, the Roundtable on Environmental
    Health Sciences, Research and Medicine convened a
    workshop on Cancer and the Environment
    Gene-Environment Interactions to address the link
    between environmental factors and the development
    of cancer in the light of recent advances in
    genomics and, more specifically, in
    toxicogenomics and gene-environment interactions.
  • http//www.iom.edu/Reports/2002/Cancer-and-the-Env
    ironment-Gene-Environment-Interactions-Workshop-Su
    mmary.aspx
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