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Leadership and Ethics

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There are 2 sentences in the book on Moral Relativism (pg 25) For me, Moral Relativism seems to serve as an introduction to Cultural Relativism. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership and Ethics


1
Leadership and Ethics
  • Introduction to Moral Reasoning
  • Lesson 2

Will you do whats right because its the right
thing to do?
2
Next Class Constitutional Ethics
Can we derive ethics from our laws? Reading
assignment Moral Foundations Chapter II,
pages 63 80 (especially 75 80. Case Study
Come Right (pg 35)
3
First Stop For Today Scan Pgs 9-11
  • The story is fictional, but based on the real
    speech given by this man

CO of 1st Battalion, The Royal Irish Regiment
4
Heres what he really said..
We go to liberate, not to conquer.We will not
fly our flags in their countryWe are entering
Iraq to free a people and the only flag which
will be flown in that ancient land is their
own.Show respect for them.There are some who
are alive at this moment who will not be alive
shortly.Those who do not wish to go on that
journey, we will not send.As for the others, I
expect you to rock their world.Wipe them out if
that is what they choose. But if you are
ferocious in battle remember to be magnanimous in
victory.Iraq is steeped in history. It is the
site of the Garden of Eden, of the Great Flood
and the birthplace of Abraham.Tread lightly
there.You will see things that no man could pay
to see-- and you will have to go a long way to
find a more decent, generous and upright people
than the Iraqis.You will be embarrassed by their
hospitality even though they have nothing.Don't
treat them as refugees for they are in their own
country. Their children will be poor, in years
to come they will know that the light of
liberation in their lives was brought by you.If
there are casualties of war then remember that
when they woke up and got dressed in the morning
they did not plan to die this day.Allow them
dignity in death.Bury them properly and mark
their graves.It is my foremost intention to
bring every single one of you out alive.But
there may be people among us who will not see the
end of this campaign.We will put them in their
sleeping bags and send them back. There will be
no time for sorrow.
5
The enemy should be in no doubt that we are his
nemesis and that we are bringing about his
rightful destruction.There are many regional
commanders who have stains on their souls and
they are stoking the fires of hell for Saddam.He
and his forces will be destroyed by this
coalition for what they have done.As they die
they will know their deeds have brought them to
this place. Show them no pity.It is a big step
to take another human life.It is not to be done
lightly.I know of men who have taken life
needlessly in other conflicts.I can assure you
they live with the mark of Cain upon them.If
someone surrenders to you then remember they have
that right in international law and ensure that
one day they go home to their family.The ones
who wish to fight, well, we aim to please.If you
harm the regiment or its history by
over-enthusiasm in killing or in cowardice, know
it is your family who will suffer.You will be
shunned unless your conduct is of the highest --
for your deeds will follow you down through
history.We will bring shame on neither our
uniform or our nation.(On Saddam's chemical and
biological weapons.)It is not a question of if,
it's a question of when.We know he has already
devolved the decision to lower commanders, and
that means he has already taken the decision
himself.If we survive the first strike we will
survive the attack.As for ourselves, let's bring
everyone home and leave Iraq a better place for
us having been there.Our business now is north.
6
Pause for Short Discussion
  • Why would a combat officer give such a message
    before a battle?
  • Why should his solders care about the dignity
    of the enemy?
  • Would a man such as this ever threaten/kill
    prisoners?

7
Post Script
  • From The Times todayBritain September 02,
    2003 Colonel with the Shakespeare touch is
    cleared
  • By Alan Hamilton, David Lister and Adam
    FrescoMinistry of Defence officials confirmed
    yesterday that, after an investigation by the
    Royal Military Police into allegations of war
    crimes, no criminal proceedings would be brought
    against Colonel Tim Collins, the former
    commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, The
    Royal Irish Regiment. This must be the first
    time in history a battlefield commander has faced
    such immediate public scrutiny. Iraq was, and
    remains, a dangerous place for the British Army.
    Colonel Collins brought his battle group home
    safely from the war. If this investigation is at
    an end, he can put it behind him, Mr Cherry
    said. Now promoted from lieutenant-colonel to
    full colonel, Colonel Collins, 43, has left The
    Royal Irish Regiment and is preparing to take up
    a new high-level posting. Throughout the
    three-month investigation he strenuously denied
    any wrongdoing. The Belfast-born,
    cigar-chomping father of five, who went to war in
    designer Ray-Ban sunglasses, achieved instant
    fame and worldwide admiration for an eloquent
    eve-of-battle address to his troops which
    combined the poetic passion of Shakespeares
    Henry V with the steely directness of General
    George Patton. But Major Re Biastre, 37, a
    reservist with the US Armys 402nd Civil Affairs
    Battalion, subsequently tried to tarnish Colonel
    Collinss image with a five-page statement
    alleging that the British officer had beaten,
    bullied and pistol-whipped Iraqi prisoners of war
    and civilians in contravention of the Geneva
    Convention. The most serious charge was that
    Colonel Collins had hit a headmaster, Ayoub
    Yousif Naser, over the head in the town of
    Rumaila near Basra, then lined him and his son
    against a wall, ordering a soldier to kill them.
    The alleged victim subsequently claimed in an
    interview with The Times that, instead of killing
    him, British soldiers had approached with
    bandages to tend his bleeding head.

8
Nest Stop - Ring Of Gyges
  • Who wrote this?
  • Some Trivia
  • When did he live?
  • What is his link to Alexander?
  • Was it hard to read?
  • Who are the characters?
  • What is the message?
  • Would it make a good movie?
  • http//movies.virginmedia.com/player/default.asp?u
    rl/film/fid7/trailers/trid8/wm/bb.asxfilmid7tr
    id8partnervirginsectrlpsec

9
Ring of Gyges (Cont)
  • When are members of our society invisible?
  • In addition to the above, when are we, in the
    military, invisible?
  • Independent Duty
  • Independent Command
  • Solo flight?
  • Function Check Flights (FCP)

10
CHAFF FLARE BREAK LEFT
  • Moral Relativism
  • Cultural Relativism
  • Relativism vs. Objectivism

11
Moral Relativism
  • What is it?
  • There are 2 sentences in the book on Moral
    Relativism (pg 25)
  • For me, Moral Relativism seems to serve as an
    introduction to Cultural Relativism.
  • Your Comments?

12
Cultural Relativism
  • What is it?
  • What examples does the book give?
  • Callatians
  • Eskimos
  • Apartheid was mentioned
  • Where have we seen it?

13
Cultural Relativism
  • Cultural relativism has some rather undesirable
    implications
  • It prohibits us from ever morally condemning
    another cultures values and practices.
  • It suggests that we need look no further than our
    own culture for moral guidance.

14
Cultural Relativism
  • - Dress Code while on liberty in a foreign port?
  • Women participate in a Muslim country?
  • Your ideas..?

- As I was putting this class together, it
occurred to me that I have seen CULTURAL
RELATIVISM in various commands that I have served
in. Example Liberty in Rota, Spain Example
Gambling in California Example Drunken UDP in
Okinawa Is there COMMAND RELATIVISM ?
15
Relativism vs. Objectivism
  • We know what RELATIVISM is..
  • Now define OBJECTIVISM
  • I understood the definition.
  • but I couldnt think of any good real-life
    examples
  • so give me a hand and then well move to the
    case studies.

16
Case Study 1 - Fiction
  • The Raiding Party
  • What happened
  • What is the morale dilemma?

17
Case Study 1 The Raiding Party
18
Case Study 2 - Fiction
  • Leave No One Behind
  • What happened
  • What is the dilemma?
  • What should you do?
  • What would a SEAL do?
  • Aviator?
  • Other

19
Case Study 3 - Reality
  • Operation Eagle Claw

20
Operation Eagle Claw The Iran Hostage Rescue
Mission
April, 1980 - 66 US Hostages in Tehran
                                                              
- The MC-130s and EC-130s arrived at Desert One
after midnight without mishap and waited for the
helicopters, over an hour past their scheduled
arrival time. Delta Force debarked from two of
the MC-130s which then, according to plan,
departed from the scene.- A Ranger team and
Delta troopers set up security around the site
and immediately had problems. A bus full of
Iranian civilians had to be stopped and detained
as it was passing through, and a fuel truck
(probably run by smugglers) was shot with a 66mm
rocket when it refused to stop. In the light of
the burning fuel, the raiders could see the
driver escape in a pickup truck which was
following the tanker.
21
Case Study 4 - Reality
  • Lone Survivor
  • - Listen to these 2 pages from the book

22
Case Study 5 Reality Taking Innocent Life ?
  • Killing Zarqawi
  • Congratulations youve been awarded and IA
    billet and are on the CENTCOM Targeting Board.
  • Youve got the midnight watch and word comes down
    that Zarqawi has been located.
  • Lets kill him NOW!

23
Taking Innocent Life ?
BAGHDAD, Iraq, June 8 Al Qaeda's leader in
Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, was killed in an
American airstrike on an isolated safe house
north of Baghdad at 615 p.m. local time on
Wednesday, top American and Iraqi officials said
today. Islamic militant Web sites linked to Al
Qaeda quickly confirmed the death, saying Mr.
Zarqawi had been rewarded with "martyrdom" for
his role in the war here.
Six people were killed in the strike Mr.
Zarqawi, his spiritual adviser and four other
people including a woman and a child, the
military said.
24
The Bottom Line
  • Our profession requires a distinguished ethical
    code.
  • It is not always written, nor easy to understand
    and execute.
  • It is specific, complex, and binding on all who
    wear the uniform.
  • Do All Professions Require an Ethical
    Code?
  • The Personal Questions
  • What are your values and morals?
  • What is your Moral Reference Point for making
    decisions?
  • How would you deal with your moral conscience
    after dropping the bomb...?

25
Someone Said
  • Pope Paul VI
  • (1897 1978)
  • As long as man remains the weak, changeable and
    even wicked being he often show himself to be,
    defensive armaments will, alas, be necessary.

26
Someone Else Said
  • One thing I must say to the credit of the
    old-fashioned badman. He seldom shot his victim
    in the back. He had a certain pride at arms, a
    code of craft.
  • Emmett Dalton
  • Sole Survivor of the Dalton Gang

27
Film clip A Few Good Men
28
From the Film Clip
  • A particularly meaningful line..
  • Sea Story
  • One time I had to fight for the weak (sort of
    and it wasnt much of a fight)
  • Have you?

29
This is the End
30
Case StudiesThe Raiding PartyLeave No One
behind.
31
Operation Eagle Claw The Iran Hostage Rescue
Mission
April, 1980 - 66 US Hostages in Tehran
                                                              
- The MC-130s and EC-130s arrived at Desert One
after midnight without mishap and waited for the
helicopters, over an hour past their scheduled
arrival time. Delta Force debarked from two of
the MC-130s which then, according to plan,
departed from the scene.- A Ranger team and
Delta troopers set up security around the site
and immediately had problems. A bus full of
Iranian civilians had to be stopped and detained
as it was passing through, and a fuel truck
(probably run by smugglers) was shot with a 66mm
rocket when it refused to stop. In the light of
the burning fuel, the raiders could see the
driver escape in a pickup truck which was
following the tanker.
32
Taking Innocent Life ?
  • Congratulations youve been awarded and IA
    billet and are on the CENTCOM Targeting Board.
  • Youve got the midnight watch.

BAGHDAD, Iraq, June 8 Al Qaeda's leader in
Iraq, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, was killed in an
American airstrike on an isolated safe house
north of Baghdad at 615 p.m. local time on
Wednesday, top American and Iraqi officials said
today. Islamic militant Web sites linked to Al
Qaeda quickly confirmed the death, saying Mr.
Zarqawi had been rewarded with "martyrdom" for
his role in the war here.
33
Six people were killed in the strike Mr.
Zarqawi, his spiritual adviser and four other
people including a woman and a child, the
military said.
34
Questions ?
35
Why is Ethics So Hard?
  • Not always a distinct choice between good and
    evil
  • Most difficult choice two rights
  • Morality Changes
  • Is this true?
  • Making An Ethical Decision
  • Limitations of time and knowledge PRESSURE
  • One of my favorite Patton Quotes.
  • NO DECISION IS DIFFICULT ONCE YOU HAVE ALL THE
    INFORMATION
  • Emotions Play A Role In Ethics
  • Give me an example..

36
If I only had more information..!
37
Tangible Solid More of What Reading Said
  • The Challenge of Cultural Relativism
  • Most Interesting of all the Reading
  • Eskimo Story, female circumcise story,
    polygamyother practices..?
  • Relativism and Objectivism Are There Universal
    Values?
  • There is no good thing or bad, but thinking
    makes it so.
  • Objectivism is.
  • Ethical Pluralism An Alternative to Objectivism
    and Relativism
  • There is an in-between
  • Tough read..
  • Moral Standards and Military Leadership
  • Lead By example
  • Case Studies for Later Discussion
  • No One Left Behind
  • The Raid

38
Tangible Solid What the Reading Said
  • Take Aways From Todays Reading
  • PAGE SIZE OF THESE BOOKS IS DECEPTIVE!
  • Introduction Ethics And the Military In America
  • My Favorite Line many Cadets or Midshipmen
    share moral attitudes in common with their age
    group
  • On The Eve of Battle
  • Give me a hand on this one.
  • The Ring of Gyges
  • This would make a good movie!
  • http//movies.virginmedia.com/player/default.asp?u
    rl/film/fid7/trailers/trid8/wm/bb.asxfilmid7tr
    id8partnervirginsectrlpsec
  • Why Ethics Is So Hard?
  • My favorite line What I am about to do is not
    so smart
  • The Relativity of Moral Beliefs and Situations
  • 3 Page Into favorite line When in Rome, Do As
    the Romans

39
Intangible SquishyInterpretation of the Reading
  • The Three Moral Measurements put fourth in the
    readings.
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.

40
More IntangibleEthics Questions
  • We know the right answer but how did we get
    there?
  • In ethics there are often no right answers (?)
  • There are wrong answers though!!
  • Example of a wrong ethical answer?

41
Questions, issues, considerations
  • As a person, what is the source of your
  • moral obligation?
  •   Your faith?
  •   Your beliefs (natural law)?
  •   Your sense of (moral) duty?
  • As a military officer, what is the (distinct)
    source
  • your moral obligation?
  • Your Oath?
  • Your honor and service to your country?
  • Your legal commitment?
  • Your moral commitment?
  • Your obedience to orders?   Loyalty?
  • What is our obligation to speak the truth?
  • What is our obligation when given
  • an immoral or illegal order?
  •  How do you deal with your moral conscience
  • if ordered to do something that may
    go
  • against your morals?
  • What is the right thing to do?
  • How do we decide?
  • What moral theories do we use?
  • What are the moral considerations?
  •  
  • Why do we do the right thing?
  • Consequences? Punishment? Rewards? Peer
    pressure?
  • Because it is our duty?
  • Just because its right?
  • Why is it (usually) harder to do the right
    thing?
  •  
  • What are our Rights in the Military?
  • From where do we get our rights?
  • Do we give up or suspend rights to be in the
    military?
  • What if we were drafted? How does that change
    this?
  • When do we forfeit our right to life?
  • How does loyalty effect your moral decisions?
  • Peer loyalty, loyalty to superiors and your mem
    and women 

42
 
Kantian
Buddhist
Muslim
Consequentiality
Sin
OUR MORAL THEORY
OUR RELIGION
Natural Law
Relativist
Christian
 
Kill Another Person
Work On Sabbath
Utilitarian
Kill Someone  
Judaism
Abortion Case
Collateral Injury of Civilians
Kill Someone
Shoot the Prisoner
Constitutional Oath
OUR MISSION
Follow orders
Hit the target
43
  • An adolescent boy scout, fighting on the side of
    the Buddhist rebels, stands in the street during
    the Da Nang Buddhist Insurrection, 1966. The
    Buddhist uprising against Prime Minister Nguyen
    Cao Ky's government was assisted by ARVN troops.
    Ky declared the city to be under communist
    control despite the presence of a US Marine
    battalion that was stationed there. 1000 South
    Vietnamese Marines were sent in to crush the
    uprising.

44
Film clip Rules of Engagement
45
Who Is This? What Does He Have To Say About
Morals?
46
From the film clip
  • Is this clip relevant or too distant?
  • If it is relevant, what is the take-away?

47
Letss See What a Modern Thinker Has To Say.
  • Who is this guy.?
  • Michael Ignatieff, M.P., Ph.D.
  • Born May 12, 1947 in Toronto
  • Is a public intellectual, historian and social
    philosopher. He has held academic positions at
    Cambridge, Oxford, and Harvard.
  • In 2005, he entered politics and is now Deputy
    Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada.\
  • What he says is.

48
Dr. Michael Ignatieff at USNA 1999
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