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RULES%20FOR%20APA%20WRITING

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RULES FOR APA WRITING Used with permission from: John R. Slate, Ph.D. GUIDELINES FOR WRITING IN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 4TH EDITION STYLE TYPING ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RULES%20FOR%20APA%20WRITING


1
RULES FOR APA WRITING
  • Used with permission from
  • John R. Slate, Ph.D.

2
  • GUIDELINES FOR WRITING IN
  • AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
  • 4TH EDITION STYLE

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TYPING INSTRUCTIONS
  • All margins are 1 inch, no more-no less. Your
    page header is printed at the 1 inch margin line,
    not above it p. 240.
  • If using WORD, you will need to set FIVE margins
    left margin, right margin, top margin, bottom
    margin, and header margin
  • If using WordPerfect, only need to set FOUR
    margins left, right, top, bottom

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  • All writing is DOUBLE-SPACED, NOT single, or
    triple, simply DOUBLE-SPACED p. 239. You will
    have NO exceptions to this rule.

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  • Number all pages BEGINNING with title page. p.
    240

9
  • Information about what is included on the title
    page can be found on pages 248-250.

10
  • Manuscript is LEFT-justified (results in right
    side being uneven). p. 240
  • No hyphenation unless word is written as such
    (e.g., at-risk, t-test).pp. 70-74

11
  • Space ONCE, after ALL punctuation. After internal
    periods in abbreviations, no space occurs (e.g.,
    a.m., U.S.). p. 244

12
  • Avoid leaving a single line at the bottom of a
    page (i.e., first line of a paragraph begins at
    the bottom of a page and then carries over to the
    next page--called a widow).
  • Avoid leaving a single line at the top of a page
    (i.e., last line of a paragraph is carried over
    to the next page--called an orphan).
  • In WORD or in WordPerfect, go into format page
    keep text together and set the widow/orphan
    protection.

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  • 11. Headings are Level One (centered, first
    letters capitalized) Level Three (flush left
    margin, underlined, first letters capitalized)
    Level Four (indented five spaces, underlined, and
    followed by a period). Information regarding
    headings and their levels can be found on pages
    242-243.

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  • 12. Words/phrases are not artificially emphasized
    using bold, single or double quote marks,
    underlining, or by any other means. The only
    words that have quote marks around them are
    quotations and you must cite the specific pages
    from which the quote was taken.

17
  • 13. Use an Arial or New Times Roman 10 or 12
    point font size. Use the same font size and font
    type throughout your paper.
  • Be careful when typing your page header that it
    is the same font and same font size as your text.
    You must set it with most word processing
    programs.

18
CITATIONS
  • Do NOT have studies cited in your reference
    section UNLESS they are cited in the text of your
    paper.
  • Just because you read an article does NOT mean it
    belongs in your reference section.
  • Every study cited in the text of your paper MUST
    be referenced on your reference page.

19
  • ALWAYS provide a citation for anyone else's work
    you use in paraphrased or quoted form to write
    paper. p. 168

20
  • ALWAYS provide a page number(s) for any
    quotations you use, as well as the authors.
  • is used within parentheses.
  • And is used in text of paper.

21
  • When citing a study with more than two authors,
    after the first citation in which all names
    listed, cite the first author's last name and
    then et al., year (e.g., Slate et al., 1995) pp.
    169-170

22
REFERENCES
  • See pages 174-188 in APA 4th edition manual.
  • The references are begun on a new page.

23
Referencing Electronic Materials
  • website at
  • http//www.beadsland.com/weapas/AV

24
GENERAL INFORMATION
  • Write the literature review in PAST TENSE.
  • PAST TENSE writing does not have to be passive or
    boring, but should be ACTIVE. pp. 32-33

25
  • Write the research proposal, with the exception
    of the literature review, in FUTURE TENSE
  • Writing is FORMAL and TECHNICAL
  • FEELING words are not used
  • Do NOT write the way in which you carry on a
    conversation

26
  • Paragraphs must be more than two sentences. NO
    one or two sentence paragraphs.
  • Avoid long paragraphs greater than seven
    sentences. Paragraphs should range in size from
    three to seven sentences.
  • Count 3 to 7 sentences per paragraph. Only
    exceptions are Definitions of Term section and
    Hypotheses section.

27
  • Contractions are NOT used. Dont have any in
    your paper.
  • The word data is a plural term data ARE, the
    word datum is singular.

28
  • Make sure that nouns and verbs are in agreement
    if one is singular, so should be the other if
    one is plural, so should be the other. pp.
    34-35
  • Make sure your nouns and pronouns are in
    agreement as well. That is, if you use student
    in the beginning of your paper, then the pronoun
    used later should NOT be their ...

29
  • Avoid using, There is or There are, as this
    writing is very passive. When you find a sentence
    that begins this way, delete the there is/are and
    add a verb after the first noun present in the
    sentence.
  • Do NOT write, This is, as This always refers
    to something. Along the same lines, do not write,
    those are, because those always refers to those
    what.

30
  • It's means it is and is NOT a possessive pronoun.
    As contractions are NOT used in APA style, you
    may NOT use it's.
  • 11.Its is a possessive pronoun and may be used,
    when and where appropriate.
  • 12.Avoid using IT as it, many times, is unclear
    to what the IT refers. Always be clear to the
    reader about what you are discussing.

31
  • 13.Do NOT use the word DONE unless you are or
    have cooked something. Done does NOT mean
    completed or finished in technical writing.
  • 14.Connect your sentences together with
    integrating phrases or words. Avoid jumpy
    writing pp. 24-28. One way to integrate
    sentences together is to use a few of the key
    words from the previous sentence in writing a new
    sentence.

32
  • 15.Alternate sentence beginnings so that your
    sentences do NOT begin the same way all the time.
    Avoid using THE to begin your sentences.

33
  • 16. Connect your paragraphs together with
    integrating phrases or words. Avoid jumps
    between paragraphs pp. 24-28. One way to
    integrate paragraphs together is to use some of
    the words from the previous paragraph in
    beginning the next paragraph or through use of
    such phrases as In contrast to the findings
    above...Similar to Smiths findings...

34
  • 17.Alternate paragraph beginnings so that your
    paragraphs do NOT begin the same way all the
    time. Avoid using The to begin paragraphs.
  • 18.While and since can be used ONLY in terms of
    time. Since does NOT mean because in technical
    writing. Words such as though, although, and
    whereas are acceptable alternatives to while.
    pp. 42-43

35
  • 19.Do NOT begin a sentence with an abbreviation.
    p. 89 If you have to spell the term out again,
    then do so.
  • 20.Avoid using colloquial expressions (e.g.,
    write up for report or set up for develop) p.
    28.
  • 21.Avoid using pronouns as pronouns confuse
    readers unless the referent is obvious. pp.
    36-38

36
  • 22.Avoid bias in your writing. See pages 46-60.
  • 23.When referring to gender of participants, use
    boy and girl when referring to people of high
    school age and younger men and women for persons
    18 years of age and older. p. 53

37
  • 24.Avoid using superlatives such as very or
    great.
  • 25.Please use the spell check function of your
    word processing program prior to submitting your
    paper. NO excuse for having misspelled words.
    p. 255 Please proof or have a colleague proof
    your paper for errors that a spell check cannot
    catch (e.g., you when you mean your).

38
  • 26. Avoid having inanimate objects engaging in
    animate activities. That is, do not write
    "Research shows" or "Techniques indicated" or
    "Results proved." When you have an inanimate
    object engaging in an animate activity (e.g.,
    techniques which improved), you need to rearrange
    the wording as follows techniques in which
    students' vocal responses were improved. Only
    people can do things in your paper.

39
  • 27. Do not use words such as "proven" or
    "proved." Instead use demonstrated.
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