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Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry Detergent

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Title: Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry Detergent


1
Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry
Detergent





Dan Boek Erika Indivino Katie Marso Karey
Smollar April 18th, 2002


 

 

 

 
 
                   
 

                   





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2
History
  • Clothes first cleaned by mechanical means
  • Production of soaps
  • First produced in the 15th century
  • Combine fats and sodium hydroxide
  • Renewable, biodegradable resources
  • Negative affects of hard water

3
History
  • Synthetic detergents
  • First produced in 1916 in Germany
  • Introduction of margarine
  • Large bodies of water covered in foam
  • Production took off in the U.S. after WWII
  • Mainly used for dishwashing and fine fabrics

4
History
  • 1946, first all-purpose laundry detergent
  • Included surfactants and builders
  • Combinations became more complex
  • Sodium triphosphate (STP)
  • Very effective builder
  • Use restricted in 1960s because it caused
    eutrification in rivers
  • New additives are continually being introduced

5
History
  • Liquid laundry detergent
  • 1970s, became popular in the U.S.
  • More convenient for consumers
  • Easier to handle
  • Do not contain bleaching agents
  • Remove stains better at lower temperatures
  • Sales have soared above powders in last decade
  • Have reached 50/50 market split in the U.S.

6
Design Considerations
  • Excellent soil removal
  • Low sensitivity to hard water
  • Builders prevent calcium and magnesium deposits
  • Good dispersion properties
  • Liquid detergents spread easily
  • Soil antiredeposition capability
  • Surfactants keep soils in suspension

7
Design Considerations
  • High solubility in water
  • Liquid detergents dissolve faster than powders
  • Foaming
  • Psychological affect, foam means detergent is
    working
  • Odor
  • Perfumes and fragrances
  • Color

8
Design Considerations
  • Toxicity
  • Exposure through skin, ingestion, inhalation
  • Environmental affect
  • Use of phosphates
  • Convenience
  • Easier to pour, direct application on stains
  • Cost

9
Types of Fabrics
  • Fabrics require specialized soil removal
  • Textile versus synthetic fabrics
  • Different calcium content
  • Wettability due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic
    nature
  • Complexing agents react differently with each
    type of soil

10
Types of Fabrics
  • Sodiumtriphosphate
  • Effectiveness dependent on hydrophilic/hydrophobic
    nature of the fiber
  • Efficient removal of soils from synthetic or
    cotton garments, which are hydrophilic
  • Minimal affect on hydrophobic textile fibers
  • Different fabric and soil types are dealt with by
    using a mixture of compounds in detergents

11
History
  • Tablets
  • Directed to elderly and students
  • New and expensive
  • Hold 25 of market in some European countries
  • Pouches
  • Introduced in April 2001
  • Liquid detergent in polyvinyl alcohol skin
  • Dissolves in seconds, leave behind no residue

12
Main Components
13
Anionic Surfactants
  • Tetrapropylenbenzene (TPS)
  • -used in earlier stage production of detergents
    to first replace soap
  • -branching increases the wetting ability but
    limits effective detergency

14
  • Linear Alkylsulfonate (LAS)
  • -demonstates good detergency ability and is not
    very sensitive to water hardness

Sodium linear alkylsulfonate (LAS)  
15
  • Secondary Alkanesulfonates (SAS)
  • -highly soluable surfactant demonstrating fast
    wetting properties and chemical stability of
    alkali and acids

Secondary Alkanesulfonates (SAS).  
16
Olefinsulfonates (AOS)
  • produced using alkaline hydrolysis process
  • shows less sensitivity to water only under
    certain conditions such as chain length and type
    of chemical bonding

    
   
17
Nonioinic Surfactants
  • An essential ingredient found in smaller
    quantities which are used for stabilizing the
    micelle formations and prevent redeposition

18
Advantages of Builders
  • Enhances effects of surfactants
  • Used to reduce water hardness, Mg2 and Ca2
  • Enables the production of cheaper detergent while
    retaining the cleaning properties

19
Types of Builders
  • Trisodium phosphate is the most common type of
    builder
  • Zeolites Molecular formula Na2OAl2O34.5H2O.
  • -water insoluble builder
  • -10 micrometer diameter
  • -reduces soil redeposition by replacing calcium
    and magnesium ions with sodium

Figure 3 Trisodium Citrate (NaCit)
20
Enzymes
  • Help with the removal dried in stain from milk,
    cocoa, blood, egg yolks and grass
  • Enzymes commonly used are proteolytic, amylolytic
    and lipolytic
  • Enzymes cause hydrolysis of peptide, glucosidic,
    or ester linkages

21
Stabilizers
  • Prevent redeposition of negatively charged
    particles back on the neutral fabric surfaces
  • Sodium carbomethyl cellulose (SCMC)
  • Molecular weight is between 20,000 and 500,000
  • -Attaches itself to the fibers adding to the
    negative

22
Other Additives
  • Optical Brighteners
  • -Used to brighten fabric appearance by converting
    ultra violet light into longer wavelengths of
    visible blue light
  • Fragrances
  • Alcohols
  • Water

23
Contact Angle
soil-water interface
Soil
?
Water
fabric-water interface
fabric-soil interface
Fabric
24
Young Equation
  • After surfactants are added ?FW ?SW 0
  • Interfacial tension between soil and fabric
    remains constant, so ?FS gt ?FW
  • Tgt90 degrees
  • Contact area between soil and fabric 0


25
Roll-Up
  • As Tgt90 degrees, the roll-up mechanism takes place

26
Without Surfacant
  • Without surfactant, surface tensions remain
    constant, T lt 90 degrees
  • The soil is partially removed by mechanical
    agitation

27
Packing Parameter
  • Packing parameter
  • pv/aolc
  • aosurface area of headgroups
  • V volume of hydrocarbon chains
  • lo maximum length of chains

28
Packing Geometry
29
Multilamellar Structure
  • Headgroup area diminishes in the presence of salt
    ions, NaCit
  • ½ gt p gt 1 so structure is bi-layer
  • Continuous lamellar crystalline structure

30
Multilamellar Vesicles
  • Bilayers form multalamellar vesicles to minimize
    hydrocarbon chain and solvent interactions
  • Unilamellar vesicle

31
Multilamellar Vesicles
32
Flocculation
  • Water is a poor solvent with salt ions present
  • Chain length decreases due to poor solvency
  • Van der Waals forces
  • Flocculation and phase separation result

33
Decoupling Polymer
  • Decoupling polymer
  • Hydrophylic backbone and hydrophobic side chains
  • Side chains dissolve in oil
  • Backbone dissolves in water
  • Steric repulsion causes the lamellar droplets to
    repel, hindering flocculation

34
Steric Repulsion
Poor solvent without decoupling polymers
Poor solvent with decoupling polymers
35
Particulate Soil
  • METHODS OF REMOVAL
  • Mechanical Energy is the primary type of removal
    and used to enhance anti-redeposition
  • Potential Energy barriers is greatest near the
    surface, DLVO Theory
  • Using Anioinc surfactant to create electrical
    Charge on the surfactant and fiber causing
    repulsion

Diagram, PE vs. distance
36
Potential Energy vs. pH Diagram
  • Potential of various fibers as a function of pH
    a) Wool b) Nylon c) Silk d) Cotton e) Viscose

37
Calcium Containing Soil
  • Found on textile fabric surfaces
  • Effective detergency is dependent on type of
    washing solvent used
  • Increases water hardness which decreases the
    solubility
  • Slight solubility can cause calcium deposit
    break-up

38
Types of Fabrics
  • Cotton, Synthetic, textile
  • Different hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature
  • Effective detergency is dependent of
    wettability of the cloth and the type of
    complexing agent used
  • Cleaning mixed soils on blending fabrics cause
    complementing effects

39
Manufacturing
  • Liquid detergents are produced either in a batch
    reactor or a continuous blending process.
  • Surfactants
  • STPP/Zeolite
  • Sodium Sulphate
  • Sodium Perborate
  • Sodium Carbonate
  • Sodium Silicate
  • Minors

Mixing and Homogenizing
Liquid Detergent
40
Packaging
  • 3 Main Purposes
  • Maintain quality of detergent
  • Supply detergent information
  • Make handling easy

41
Packaging
  • Company Considerations
  • Compatibility
  • Cost
  • Safety
  • Waste
  • Convenience

42
Packaging
  • Typical bottles are recyclable plastic
  • Gradually, companies are adding a percentage of
    recycled plastic to their bottles.
  • Generally 25 recycled material
  • Concentrated detergents
  • Refillable bottles
  • Refill bottles 65-90 smaller than original
    container

43
Environmental Concerns
  • Adjust to environmentally-friendly washing
    machines
  • Reduced
  • Water
  • Energy
  • Temperature
  • Water consumption
  • Minimize amount required for detergent to
    function
  • Adapt formula to wash in poor conditions

44
Liquid Detergent Sales Continue to Grow
45
Market Sales
  • Liquid detergent sales top powders in 1998
  • 3 billion sold in liquid
  • 1.8 billion sold in powder
  • Liquids more popular due to convenience and
    better performance

46
Market Breakdown
47
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